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Fourth Court House, Built in 1888. 







From the Early Days of Northwestern 
Virginia to the Present. 



HamtT Hatmond 


reprinted by 

Mcclain printing company 

parsons, west virginia 




Col. Henry Haymond was born at Clarksburg, Harrison 
County, Virginia, now West Virginia, on January 6, 1837, a 
son of Luther and Delia Ann (Moore) Haymond, both of 
whom belonged to families prominent in the settlement and 
early development of the West Fork Valley. He was educated 
at the Northwestern Virginia Academy and the Loudoun Ag- 
ricultural Institute. He studied law with and was in the office 
of Judge John S. Hoffman until 1861 when President Lincoln 
appointed him captain in the Eighteenth Regiment, U. S. In- 
fantry. During the Civil War he took part in the campaigns of 
the Army of the Cumberland and participated in the battles 
of Perryville, Stone River, Chickamauga, Hoover's Gap, Chat- 
tanooga, Missionary Ridge, Corinth, Buzzard's Roost, and 
various skirmishes and expeditions. He was wounded at Stone 
River on December 31, 1862, and was brevetted major and 

lieutenant colonel for bravery in the battles of Stone River 
and Chickamauga. He remained in the army until 1870 and 
served in several Indian expeditions on the plains of Wyo- 
ming, Dakota, and Nebraska. 

In the years following his retirement from military life, he 
held many important positions of trust and responsibility: 
member of the board of visitors to the United States Military 
Academy at West Point; member of the state legislature; pres- 
ident of the board of education; deputy collector of internal 
revenue; clerk of the circuit court of Harrison County; and 
recorder of the city of Clarksburg, In 1896 he was a Republi- 
can presidential elector, and was made chairman of the elec- 
toral college. 

Colonel Haymond was an active member of Custer Post 
No. 8 of the Grand Army of the Republic and served as its 
commander. He was also active in the West Virginia Society 
of the Sons of the Revolution, an organization in which he 
was charter member number seven. He was its first secretary, 
serving from 1894 to 1897, and in 1904 was honored by 
being elected its fifth president. From 1905 to 1908 he 
served as its historian, a position to which he was again 
elected in 1916 and which he held at the time of his death. 

From childhood he had a deep interest in the history of 
the West Fork Valley and the role played by his forebears, an 
interest that in time led him to become one of the area's 
most eminent historians. Through the years he wrote nu- 
merous historical articles for newspapers, and in 1910 pub- 
lished his excellent History of Harrison County. 

On December 12, 1867, he married Mary (1847-1938), 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. William H. Garrard, of Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania. To them was born one child, Delia, who mar- 
ried Benjamin Rathbone Blackford and resided in Parkers- 

Although he lived to an advanced age, Col. Henry Hay- 
mond remained in good health until a few days before his 
death. He died at his home, 529 West Main Street, Clarks- 
burg, at 5:29 in the afternoon of Saturday, July 31, 1920, 
and was buried in the l.O.O.F. Cemetery at Clarksburg. 


The period between 1900 and 1910 in Harrison County 
was similar to the 1970's for rapid change. Population grew 
from 27690 to 48381. Clarksburg started the decade a quiet 
rural town and ended the decade a booming industrial center. 
Older people living in such a time are motivated to save in the 
printed word a world that is sHpping away. Fortunately, 
Henry Haymond was the man who took up his pen circa 
1905 to preserve the early history of the county. 

Mr. Haymond with the realistic, logical, discriminating 
mind of the lawyer researched records in county courthouses 
and the archives of the states of Virginia and West Virginia. 
Other researchers could yet today collect the same material 
from legal records, but no one could flesh out the skeleton of 
historic fact as did Mr. Haymond. 

A member of a family of first settlers in the Monongahela 
Valley, he from early childhood had heard the traditions of 
the area. Alive when he wrote were historians Lucullus V. 
McWhorter, Virgil Lewis, Hu Maxwell— men with whom he 
conferred. He need travel only a few doors away to talk with 
his father. Col. Luther Haymond, who had lived the history 
of the county since the first decade of the 1800's. He had 
accessible the private papers of the Haymond family. 

Henry Haymond orients today's researchers. For example, 
when the court record says in describing the site of the sec- 
ond courthouse, "at the corner a brick house is built six poles 
from the intended Court House," a researcher can go to 
Henry Haymond who adds, "The brick house referred to was 
the famous Hewes Tavern which stood. ..." Henry Haymond 
at the age of twenty-four had watched the citizens wave 
good-byes to Clarksburg boys marching east on Pike Street to 
join Confederate troops in Grafton and knew the boys who 

caught a train to go to Wheeling to join Union forces, local 
scenes he— but no other historian— has described. His work is 
both a primary and a secondary source book. 

The general reader finds Mr. Raymond's lean, terse style 
pleasing. The first edition of Raymond was not indexed. This 
handicapped the reader. A reprinted issue of Raymond with a 
name index is welcomed. 

Dorothy Davis 

to those brave men and stout hearted women 
who crossed the almost impassable barrier of the 
Allegheny Mountains and cheerfully faced the 
dangers and deprivations of frontier life and the 
horrows of a savage warfare; hewed out homes 
for themselves in the great woods and made the 
wilderness blossom as the rose, this work is 
gratefully dedicated. 


In preparing a history of Harrison County, West Virginia, no literary 
merit is claimed as it is only a collection of events gathered from many 
sources, such as the records of the Courts, old letters and newspapers, 
books of a historical nature, and traditions that have been handed down 
from early times. 

When Harrison County was created by an act of the Virginia As- 
sembly in 1784, it extended over that vast territory reaching from the 
Maryland line to the Ohio River, with a front of sixty miles on that 
stream and including the upper waters of the Monongahela River, all of 
the Little Kanawha and portions of the waters of the Big Kanawha. 

To give an account of the efforts and trials of the early settlers, to 
establish homes for themselves, and organize a stable government in this 
vast wilderness, is an undertaking of patient research and great labor, 
and the writer is painfully conscious of his inability to perform it ad- 

It has been the object of the writer to preserve all he could obtain, as 
to the early settlement of the County, and the customs and manners of 
the settlers, their food, furniture, clothing, houses, diseases and amuse- 
ments before the records are destroyed and before the traditions pass 
from the minds of men. 

This has been deemed more important than recent events as they 
can be established by more and better records than those of an earlier 

The writer is indebted to the following works for valuable informa- 
tion in the preparation of this volume : V. A. Lewis ' Reports as State 
Historian, Withers Border Warfare, DeHass' Indian Wars, Doddridges' 
Notes, History of Randolph County by Hu Maxwell and of Upshur Coun- 
ty by W. B. Cutright, the history of Monongalia County by Wiley the 
rending of Virginia by Hall, and Thwaites Edition of the Border War- 

It is the writer's pleasure to acknowledge aid and assistance from 
Hon. Hu. Maxwell, Virgil A. Lewis, L. V. McWhorter, Hon. B. F. Shuttle- 
worth, John Bassel and Luther Haymond. 

If in this work the writer has succeeded in making the events sur- 
rounding the early history of his native County of interest to the reader 
he will feel that his labors have not been in vain. 

Henry Hatmond. 
Clarksburg, West Va., 1909. 




Early Discoveries 1 

Th« Aboriginees 3 

Settlement of Virginia 6 

The Frencli and Indian Wars 9 

Early Settlements West of the 

Mountains 16 

Indian Tribes 54 

Early Indian Troubles and Dun- 

more's War 55 

Indian War& 58 

Incidents Connected With Indian 

Wars 140 

The Revolution 146 

Formation of Counties 157 

Land Laws 162 

Cession of the North West Ter- 
ritory 163 

The Mason and Dixon Line 164 

The Great Woods 166 

Native Animals and Birds 168 

Life of the Settlers, Houses, Wed- 
dings, Amusements and Dis- 
eases 171 

Climate and Natural Phenomena. .184 

Courts 188 

United States Courts 192 

County Courts 193 

The Board of Supervisors 233 

Criminal Court 234 


Court Houses 235 

Jails 242 

Constitutions 244 

Conventions and Legislatures 248 

Roads 251 

Clarksburg 254 

Census of the County 274 

County Districts and Townships .. 278 

Churches 279 

Schools 286 

Newspapers 295 

Slavery 302 

The War of 1812 306 

The Mexican War 312 

Civil War 315 

The Spanish War 331 

New State 332 

Incorporated Towns 340 

Governors and Officials 349 

William Raymond's Letters 352 

Sketches of Pioneers 369 

Indian Cave 396 

Fourth of July Celebration 399 

Banks 403 

Whiskey Insurrection 406 

Elections 409 

Adjutant General's Report 413 

Miscellaneous 426 

Early Discoveries, 

There has always been in the human race an instinct which has drawn 
it westward. The cradle of mankind is said to have been in Asia, and since 
then men have moved steadily toward the setting sun to occupy the virgin 
lands which lay in that direction. From the mysterious bee hive of the 
Orient races moved on to Greece, Rome, the German Countries, to France, 
Spain and then to England, where for centuries the stormy Atlantic 
checked their onward march. 

After the discoveries made by Columbus the movement again began 
across the Ocean to Mexico, Florida, Virginia, Massachusetts, and South 
America, and after that the phrase "Go West young man" is but a mani- 
festation of the principle that for many centuries has controlled the minds 
of men. 

When Columbus from the deck of his little ship the Santa Maria on 
that October night, in the year 1492, saw a light in the hut of a savage on 
the island of San Salvador, one of the West India group, the entire con- 
tinent of North America had for countless centuries been wrapped in the 
gloom of a savage night. 

No monuments or inscriptions have been left to enlighten the world 
as to the history of the human race who occupied it. Nothing is known 
as to what was accomplished or what problems in the destiny of mankind 
had been worked out on its lonely shores. The curtain upon this broad 
tlieatre of human action has been rung down upon the scenes enacted 
upon its stage, and what there transpired must ever remain enfolded in 

The earthern mounds of the race known as Mound Builders and the 
shadowy traditions of the red men are all that are known of the races 
inhabiting the continent previous to the coming of the white man. 

In 1497 John and Sebastian Cabot sailing under a commission from 
King Henry the Seventh of England, reached the main land as far North 
as Labrador and sailed down the coast as far South as North Carolina, 
and took possession of the country so explored in the name of that Mon- 
arch, and this was the foundation of the English title, priority of actual 
landing and possession. 

For nearly a century after the voyage of the Cabots, England 
neglected to exercise any control over this newly found land, but stepped 
aside and permitted France and Spain to struggle for possession of the 

In 1512 Ponce DeLeon took possession of Florida, in 1521 Cortez in- 
vaded Mexico, both in the interest of Spain. 

In 1534 Jacques Cartier discovered the mouth of the St. Lawrence, 
sailed up that river and took possession of all the territory drained by 
that mighty stream in the name of France. 

In 1541 Fernando De Sota marched from Florida to the Mississippi 
River reaching it at a point just below where Memphis now stands, and 
claimed the country for Spain. 


In 1562 a colony of French Huguenots established themselves at St, 
Augustine in Florida, which was broken up and dispersed by the Span- 
iards in 1565. 

In 1669 La Salle, a French explorer starting from Canada passed 
down the Allegheny and descended the Ohio River as far as the falls, 
now Louisville. 

In 1673 Father Marquette, a French Missionary and Joliette an In- 
dian trader, discovered the Mississippi at the mouth of the Wisconsin. In 
1682 La Salle descended the Mississippi River to its mouth. 

From these explorations and discoveries France laid claim to that 
vast region watered by the Mississippi and St. Lawrence rivers, and ex- 
tending from the Allegheny to the Rocky Mountains and from the lakes 
to the Gulf of Mexico. 

Thus the continent of North America became a bone of contention 
between France and Spain without regard to the claims of England. 

England at last became aroused as to the importance of asserting her 
claims to the New World and during the latter part of the 16th Century 
she sent out expeditions to explore the land, which had been discovered 
by the Cabots. 

These voyagers, upon their return gave a glowing description of the 
new land, as to its climate, trees, fruits, flowers, birds of gorgeous plum- 
age, graceful animals, gentle inhabitants and productive soil, as seen from 
the green shores of the sea. 

The interior they said was a realm of majestic forests, blue moun- 
tains filled with gold and jewels and rivers flowing over golden sands, and 
somewhere far off in the direction of the South sea was the famous foun- 
tain of youth, in which the old had only to bathe, to grow young again. 

These reports excited great interest in Europe and conveyed the im- 
l)ression that a paradise had at last been found on earth. 

Elizabeth who was then Queen gave it the name of Virginia or the 
Virgin land. 

In 1585 under the auspices of Sir Walter Raleigh a colony was lo- 
cated on Roanoke Island in Albermarle Sound, but it was soon abandoned 
and the settlers returned to England. 

In 1587 a second one was founded in this same locality and when 
the Governor, White, returned from England where he had gone for sup- 
plies, no trace of the colonists numbering one hundred and seventeen souls 
could be found, and ever since their fate has remained a mystery. It was 
in this colony that the flrst English child was bom in America, Virginia 


An artificial Mound stands on an elevation overlooking the river about 
two miles from Clarksburg near the Milford road. 

It is supposed to be the work of that extinct race the mound builders. 

The land on which it stands belongs to the Goff family and is known 
as the "Mound Farm." 

The mounds built by this mysterious race were for defense, religious 
rites and burial purposes. 


The Aboriginees. 

The Indians of North America lived in the hunter state, and depended 
for subsistanee on hunting, fishing and the spontaneous fruits of the 
earth. Where climate permitted some tribes cultivated corn, long pota- 
toes, pumpkins and squashes. They did not know the use of metals, and 
all their weapons and tools were made of wood and stone. They also made 
a rude kind of earthern vessels and their clothing was the skins of wild 
beasts. They had no flocks, herds or domestic animals of any kind, the 
horse and the ox being natives of Europe and not found in America. 

Their government was a kind of patriarchal Confederacy. The small 
villages or families had a chief who ruled or controlled it, and their sev- 
eral bands composing a nation had a chief who presided over the whole. 

The Powhatan Confederacy in Tide Water, Virginia, South of the 
Potomac, was composed of thirty tribes or villages numbering a popula- 
tion of about 8000 being one to the square mile, and capable of putting 
2400 warriors in the field. 

The tribes on the head waters of the James, Potomac and Kappahon- 
nock North of the falls of these rivers were hostile to the Powhatans and 
were attached to the Mannahoacs. 

Jefferson says "Westward of all these tribes, beyond the mountains 
and extending to the great lakes were the Massawamees a most powerful 
confederacy, who harrassed unremittingly the Powhatans and Manna- 
hoacs. These were probably the ancestors of tribes known at present by 
the name of the Six Nations. 

At the time the Territory of West Virginia was first known to the 
whites all sources of information agree that there were no permanent 
towns within its boundaries, that it was a kind of a "No man's land." 

There were probably at all times small parties and families living in 
rude wigwams scattered along all the principal rivers of the State en- 
gaged in hunting, who had their permanent homes west of the Ohio. 

Their camping places were known by the first settlers as "Fort 
Fields," and to this day arrow heads, stone hatchets, bones and mussel 
shells, charcoal and pottery are still turned up by the plow. 

The burying places were often on high hills and the burial seems to 
have been made by covering the body with a heap of stones. 

Unless the old fields of Hardy County were planted by the Indians, 
it is supposed that no crops were raised in West Virginia. This is owing 
probably to the dense forest which at that time covered the Country and 
to the great labor necessary to clear off the timber, as the Indians were 
never known to engage in anything requiring regular and prolonged 
hard work. 


The flint out of which their weapons and tools were made is found in 
Ritchie, Randolph and Pocahontas Counties. 

While they constructed no roads they had regular routes of travel, 
which were beaten into well defined paths by the passing feet of many 
generations of pedestrians, which were as plain to the Indian as a turn- 
pike to the White Man. 

As they had no beasts of burden the labor of moving where all their 
effects had to be carried on their persons must have been considerable, 
but this work fell to the lot of the squaws. 

On some of the streams canoes were used when the depth of the water 

The Catawba War Path or Warriors Road as it was sometimes called, 
led from Western New York by way of Fayette County, Pa., crossing the 
Cheat at the mouth of Grassy Run, through the Tygart's valley to the 
Ilolston River. Over this route the Six Nations traveled in their wars 
against the Southern Indians. 

A branch of this trail bore South West from McFarland's on Cheat 
to the Monongahela, down Fish Creek to the Ohio River, thence through 
Southern Ohio to Kentucky. 

An Eastern trail was up Fish Creek from the Ohio down Indian and 
up White Day Creeks and on to the South Branch Valley. Other trails 
ran East from the Tygart's Valley to the South Branch, that known as 
the Seneca being the principal one. 

A trail ran up the Big Kanwaha and reached into North Carolina, 
and one ran up the Little Kanawha thence to the waters of the West Fork, 
up Hacker's Creek, through the Buckhannon country to the Tygart's 

The settlements that were made on and near these trails by the whites 
were subject to repeated raids from the Indians beyond the Ohio and suf- 
fered severely from them. 

The trails leading from the Ohio East were well known to the early 
settlers, and scouts were posted on them near the Ohio to give the alarm 
to the settlers of the approach of Avar parties. 

Whatever tribes said to have been the Hurons, occupied or claimed 
West Virginia, were conquered and driven out by the Six Nations, who 
had their seat of Government in Western New York, and the territory held 
by right of conquest. 

The six nations were composed of the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagoes, 
Cayugas, Senecas, and Tuscaroras, the Tuscaroras being admitted to the 
Confederacy in 1712, before that time they were known as the Five Na- 

The conquered and claimed territory reaching from Massachusetts to 
the Lakes and South to the Tenessee. 

At a treaty held by Sir William Johnson with them at Fort Stan- 
wix, now Rome, New York, in 1768, they relinquished title to the King 
of all territory lying East of a line commencing at the mouth of the Ten- 
nessee up the Ohio and Allegheny rivers to Kittanning Creek, thence N. E. 
to the Susquehanna and Delaware Rivers. 

The Shawnees, Delawares, Mingoes and other small tribes living on 


and West of the Ohio laid claim to some of this territory, and continued 
to dispute its possession with the whites until the treaty of Greenville by 
Wayne in 1795. 

The occupation of Fort Duquesne by the English followed by the 
treaty of Fort Stanwix extinguishing the Indian title to West Virginia, 
emigration set in and continued until the occupation of the State, not- 
withstanding the hostilities of the Ohio Indians and the War of the Revo- 

Whether the race known as Mound Builders, whose work is scattered 
over the State, were the ancestors of the Indians, or whether the latter 
destroyed them, must always remain in doubt. 

Whoever they w^ere and what part they played on the stage of human 
events will never be known. The record of their lives has been closed, 
never to be opened again. 

It is but little that can be said of the early Indian of West Virginia. 
As a child of the forest he Avorked out the problem of his simple life. 

He left no written record of the history of his race, no monument 
commemorating the deeds of his great men, no ruined palaces no works or 
buildings of a public nature. He simply lived out his miserable existence 
in the dreary forest to the end with no higher ambition in life than to tri- 
umph over his enemies, and leaving nothing to show to others that he had 
ever lived save a few stone weapons and the ashes of his fires. 

The coming of the white man was an evil day for the red one, and 
even in his untutored mind he saw the dawn of a new era which was for- 
eign to his nature, and which he could not understand and would not ac- 
cept and therein he read the doom of his race. 

The dark night of barbarism that for untold centuries had brooded 
over the green hills and along the fair rivers of West Virginia has been 
dispelled by the bright light of a new civilization, and the courage and en- 
ergy of the pioneer has made the once savage wilderness blossem as the 


Settlement of Virginia. 

The territory of Virginia granted by King James the First to Sir 
Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers and others afterwards incorporated as 
"The Treasurer and Company of Adventurers and Planters of the City 
of London for the first Colony in Virginia," by three separate charters, 
dated respectively April 10, 1606, May 23, 1609 and March 12, 1611, was 
very extensive. 

The first Charter authorized the Company to plant a colony in that 
part of America, commonly called Virginia, in some fit and convenient 
place between the thirty-fourth and forty-first degrees of North latitude, 
and granted for that purpose all the lands extending from the first seat 
of the plantation fifty miles towards the East and North East, along the 
sea coast as it lyeth, and running back into the interior one hundred miles, 
together with all of the islands within one hundred miles directly over 
against the said sea coast. 

The second charter granted to the company all of those lands lying 
in that part of America called Virginia, from the point of land called 
Cape or Point Comfort, all along the sea coast to the Northward two hun- 
dred miles, and from the said point of Cape Comfort all along the sea 
coast to the Southward two hundred miles, and all the space and circuit 
of land lying from the sea coast of the precinct aforesaid up into the land, 
through from sea to sea West and North West; and also all the islands 
lying within one hundred miles along the coast of both seas of the pre- 
cinct aforesaid. 

The third charter granted to the company all of the islands situated 
in the Ocean seas bordering upon the coast of our first colony in Virginia, 
and being within three hundred leagues of any of the parts heretofore 
granted to the said Company in the said former letters patent as aforesaid. 
By these several grants the London Company became possessed of a front 
on the Atlantic Ocean of four hundred miles, taking Old Point Comfort 
as a center, and extending across the Continent to the Pacific Ocean, with 
the same front on that coast, and all of the islands in both seas lying with- 
in three hundred leagues off of and opposite the boundary above 

The vast territory granted to the Company by these charters was re- 
duced before the war of the Eevolution by grants to other colonies, and by 
the treaty of 1763, between Great Britain and France, and by the cession 
of Virginia to the United States of the North West Territory in 1781 and 
the erection of Kentucky into a separate State in 1792. 

The government of the colony was to be entrusted to a local council 
composed of thirteen members and was to conform to the laws of Eng- 


land, and there was also to be a council of like number established in Eng- 
land appointed by the King, called the Council of Virginia, which was 
clothed with the superior management and direction of affairs in the 

By the terms of the charter not much latitude was given the local 
council, and their duty seems mainly to have been to carry out the instruc- 
tions of the King, which were to be the laws governing the colonists, and 
he persistently held to this right all his life to their great detriment. 

The details of the charter having been arranged the company set 
about securing colonists for the enterprise, and on the 19th. day of Decem- 
ber in the year 1606 three small vessels called the Discovery, Goodspeed, 
and Susan Constant, with one hundred and five souls on board, the whole 
commanded by Captain Christopher Newport set sail from London for 
the New World. The little fleet arrived safely in Chesapeake bay on the 
26th. of April 1607. After passing the Capes they found the mouth of a 
large river to which they gave the name of the James, after the King, but 
which the natives called the Powhatan. They sailed up this river about 
fifty miles from its mouth and on the 13th. day of May 1607 selected a 
site for a settlement to which they gave the name of Jamestown, thus 
founding the first permanent English settlement in America. 

The colonists who landed were composed of four carpenters, twelve 
laborers and fifty-four gentlemen, and were unfitted and illy prepared for 
the ardous labor of founding a nation in a wilderness filled with treacher- 
ous savages. 

The first years of the infant colony were years of dissensions, wars, 
famine, sickness and death. 

A dark cloud of misery, woe and human suffering hang as a pall over 
that distant period, and flitting as shadows through its sombre folds ap- 
pear the martial figure of the soldier ruler Captain John Smith, the able 
cruel and crafty King Powhatan, and the gracious gentle Indian maiden 
Pocahontas, around whose pathetic life clings a romance that has long 
been celebrated in song and story. 

In June 1619 the first popular Assembly ever held on the North 
American Continent was convened by Sir George Yeardly, then Governor, 
and met at Jamestown, which at that time and for many years after was 
called "James City." 

In 1624 the Crown suppressed the Virginia Company and assumed 
the powers granted to it, but the form of government remained unchanged 
in substance. 

The extension of the settlements of the country from Jamestown to- 
wards the West was extremely slow and followed the streams, and it was 
not until 1670 that an exploring party sent out by the governor crossed 
the Blue Ridge and explored the upper valley of the Shenandoah and the 

In 1716 a party led by Governor Alexander Spottswood, the Tubal 
Cain of Virginia, reached the summit of the Allegheny Mountains at a 
point supposed to be on or near the present territory of Pendleton 

In the year 1732 Joist Hite, with others to the number of sixteen 


families from Pennsylvania, moved to the Valley, and set up their homes 
near where Winchester now stands. 

Within the next few years settlers located in considerable numbers 
along the Potomac and its several branches up almost to the mountains, 
which for a long time presented a barrier to keep back the flow of popula- 
tion to the virgin lands beyond their frowning summits. 

After trails had been discovered by which the mountains could be 
passed the hostility of the Indian tribes and the claim of the French to 
the territory watered by the Mississippi prevented the occupation of the 
Western Country by the English for many years. 


The French and Indian War. 

In the year 1753 in the reign of King George the II. of England, and 
of Louis the XV. of France, matters had reached a crisis between the colo- 
nies of these two nations as to the possession of the valley of the Ohio. 

The French had occupied the St. Lawrence and established military 
stations on the waters of the Ohio and Mississippi and had outlined the 
bold policy of extending a chain of forts from the great lakes to New Or- 
leans connected by canoe navigation. The English settlements occupied 
the Atlantic coast and were pressing forward with a view of crossing the 
mountains and possessing themselves of the Country west of them. 

At this time Robert Dinwiddle was the Royal Governor of the colony 
of Virginia residing at Williamsburg the capitol, and the Marquis Du 
Quesne was the Governor General of Canada with Headquarters at 

Indian traders had for several years crossed the Allegheny mountains 
with their string of pack horses to the banks of the Ohio and its tribu- 
taries, and exchanging blankets, gaudy colored cloths, powder, lead and 
rum for valuable furs and skins with the several tribes of Indians who 
had their villages in the Ohio Valley. 

Complaints were made to Governor Robert Dinwiddie that English 
traders while plying their traffic west of the mountains were robbed of 
their goods and driven out of the country by the Indians instigated by 
the French. 

The officers of the Ohio Company also complained of the hostile con- 
duct of the French and their Indian allies as preventing it from settling 
and occupying the country in compliance with its charter. 

The Governor resolved to send a written message to the French com- 
mander on the Ohio that the English claimed the Ohio Valley and warn- 
ing him to withdraw his forces from the disputed territory or he would be 
expelled by troops. He confided this message to George Washington then 
twenty-two years of age and he set out on his mission on the 30th. day of 
October, 1753. 

After a toilsome journey impeded by swollen streams and storms, 
Washington reached Fort La Boeuf situated fifteen miles from Lake Erie 
on French Creek at the head of canoe navigation, a tributary of the Alle- 
gheny River, on the 11th. of December. 

The letter having been delivered to the Chevalier Legarden De St. 
Pierre the commandant, Washington started on his return on the 15th. of 
December with the reply to the Governor's letter, and reached Williams- 
burg, the capital, on January 16, 1754, and delivered the communication 
to the Governor having been about seventy-eight days on the trip. 

The reply of the French commander to Governor Dinwiddle's de- 
mand for his withdrawal from his position was to the effect that his letter 
would be forwarded to the Marquis Du Quesne, Governor General of 


Canada at Quebec for his consideration. This was deemed evasive and 
together with the information obtained by "Washington as to the inten- 
tions of the French convinced the Governor that they were preparing to 
descend the Ohio in the spring and take military possession of the 

Captain Trent was given authority to recruit a company of one hun- 
dred men and march with all speed to the forks of the Ohio, now Pitts- 
burgh, with instructions to build a fort of suitable strength to resist any 
ordinary attack. 

The Captain reached the forks on the 17th of February, 1754 and 
commenced the erection of a fortification. 

The Governor convened the General Assembly in February, 1754, to 
devise measures for the public safety. The event is chronicled as follows: 

Anno Regni Georgii II. 

Eegis, Angliae, Scotiae, Francea, et Hiberniae, 

Vicessinio Septimo. 

At a general Assembly begun and held at the college in the city of 
Williamsburg on Thursday the twenty-seventh day of February in the 
twenty-fifth year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord George II by the 
Grace of God of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King defender of the 
faith &c., and in the year of our Lord 1752 : And from thence continued 
by several prorogations to Thursday, the 14th day of February in the 
27th year of his Majesty's reign, and in the year of our Lord 1754, and 
then held at the capitol in the city of Williamsburg, being the third 
sesssion of this Assembly. 

The Assembly set forth its grievances as follows: "Whereas many 
of his Majesty's faithful subjects have been encouraged by the Acts 
of the General Assembly heretofore made to settle and inhabit on his 
lands in this colony in and near the waters of the river Mississippi, and 
it hath been represented to this general assembly, that the subjects of the 
French King and by their instigation, the Indians in alliance with them, 
have encroached on his Majesty's said lands, murdered some of his 
subjects, and taken others captive and spoiled them of thier goods and 
effects, and are endeavoring to seduce the Indians in friendship with 
us &c." 

The Assembly appropriated ten thousand pounds to be applied 
towards protecting and defending his Majesty's subjects, who are now 
settled or hereafter shall settle on the waters of the river Mississippi. 

The proper legislation having been secured the Governor authorized 
the enlistment of three hundred men for the expedition with the object 
of establishing a permanent military post at the confluence of the 
Allegheny and the Monongahela Rivers. 

This position is naturally the key to the Ohio Valley in a military 
point of view. If it was garrisoned by French troops it would be impos- 
sible for English settlers to occupy the Country. On the other hand if 
held by the English the French would be excluded. For this reason 
both parties strove to first gain the prize upon which so much depended. 


Both the French and English made every effort to conciliate the 
Indian tribes and secure them as allies in the coming conflict, but the 
French, those wily diplomats of the wilderness, were more successful 
than the English in ingratiating themselves with the Savages. 

Joshua Fry was appointed Colonel and George Washington Lieu- 
tenant Colonel of this force. Colonel Fry having died, the command 
devolved upon Washington. 

On the 20th of April, 1754, he reached Will's Creek now Cumber- 
land with one hundred and fifty men. 

On the 25th Captain Trent's company, under Ensign Ward, arrived 
and reported that on the 16th day of April while they were engaged 
in the construction of a fort at the forks Captain Contrecoeur, a French 
Officer, came down the Allegheny river with a thousand men, French 
and Indians, in canoes and demanded his surrender, which was com- 
plied with with the stipulation that he should retire with his men taking 
with them their property, working tools etc. 

The French Officer took possession of the forks and at once began 
the construction of a strong fort which was named DuQuesne. 

Washington, after many vexatious delays caused by the lack of 
supplies, want of transportation, the insubordination of his ill trained 
troops, on the 29th day of April, 1754, marched with a detachment of 
one hundred and sixty men. 

After toiling painfully through swamps and forests and over rugged 
mountains, the troops reached the Youghiogheny River, near where Con- 
nellsville now is, where they were detained some days for the purpose 
of constructing a bridge. 

On the 23rd day of May his scouts reported that a large number 
of French and Indians from Fort Duquesne were on the march to attack 
him. He fell back to an open glade called the Great Meadows about 
ten miles East of where Uniontown now is and just South of the old 
national road and began to construct a rude fortification to which he 
gave the name of Fort Necessity. 

He was here joined by a small party of friendly Indians under a 
chief known as the "Half King." 

The Indian scouts having reported that they had discovered a party 
of French and Indians encamped in a narrow valley not far distant, 
Washington set out with a detachment at night and surprised the enemy 
at day light of May 28th with the result of killing ten and capturing 
twenty-one. Washington's loss was one killed and three wounded. 

The French commander named Jumonville was killed. He was a 
soldier of renown and his death was much regretted by his countrymen. 

When the French commander at Fort Duquesne received a report 
of this affair he detached a large force against Washington, which arrived 
at his front on the 3rd day of July 1754. 

Being nearly destitute of supplies, surrounded by a superior force 
and fearful that his entire command would be massacred by the savage 
allies of the French, Washington was compelled to surrender and articles 
of capitulation were signed on the night of that day, the terms of surren- 
der being that the garrison should march out with all the honors of war 


retaining all public and private property except the artillery, which he 
did on the 4th. of July and commenced his march to Wills Creek now 
Fort Cumberland, seventy miles distant where he arrived safely after 
being harrassed and robbed by the Indians. Washington leaving his com- 
mand at Fort Cumberland hurried on to Williamsburg to present his 
report to the Governor. 

Notwithstanding the unfortunate result of the campaign the conduct 
of Washington and his officers was properly appreciated and they re- 
ceived a vote of thanks for their bravery and gallant defence of their 

The Indian chief "Half King" prudently withdrew his warriors 
from the Fort before the arrival of the French and retired to his agency 
on the Susquehannah and expressed himself thoroughly disgusted with 
the condition of things and with the white man's mode of warfare. 

He said the French were cowards, the English fools, Washington 
was a good man but wanted experience. He would not take the advice 
of the Indians and was always driving them to fight according to his 
ov^Ti notions, and for this reason he withdrew his people to a place of 

When the report of this campaign reached the home governments 
of England and France both nations prepared for war for the possession 
of that mighty empire watered by the Mississippi River. 

Braddock's Expedition. 

The British Ministry had devised a plan of campaign for 1755 against 
the French in America having for its object to eject them from Nova 
Scotia and to capture the Military posts at Crown Point on Lake Cham- 
plain, Niagara between Lakes Ontario and Erie, and Duquesne on the 
Ohio. The Virginia Assembly in May 1754 authorized the assembling 
of one hundred and fifty men. 

Major General Edward Braddock was detailed to command all the 
troops in the colonies and to direct the prosecution of the plan of cam- 
paign. He was to personally command the army that had for its object 
the reduction of Fort Duquesne. 

Braddock was a soldier of many years experience, a strict discipli- 
narian, familiar with military science, the details of the service and the 
routine of camp life as then understood in Europe. He had great 
confidence in his own troops and looked with contempt upon the awkward 
levies of the colonies that were to take part in the expedition. 

He had no experience in the difficulties and delays in campaigning 
in a wilderness, and was impressed with the idea that the savages could 
not with their mode of warfare make any impression upon, his regulars. 

General Braddock arrived in Chesapeake bay February 20th, 1755, 
and disembarked at Hampton and proceeded to Williamsburg to consult with 
Governor Dinwiddle. 

Shortly after a fleet of transports convoyed by two ships of war, 
the "Nightingale" and the "Seahorse" commanded by Commodore 
Keppel arrived and proceeded to Alexandria, where the troops disem- 


barked and were soon joined by the General. On board these transports 
were two regiments of British Regulars the 44th and 48th. commanded 
by Sir Peter Halkett and Colonel Thomas Dunbar. 

At the camp at Alexandria the General was joined by the colonial 
troops destined for the expedition, and George Washington was invited 
to accept a position as volunteer aide on the commanding General's 
staff, and his acceptance was announced in General Orders. 

The troubles of Braddock soon commenced, and he fretted, fumed 
and chafed the contractors at their failure to furnish supplies and trans- 
portation and in this he was ably assisted by his Quarter Master Sir 
John St. Clair, who swore roundly at the agents of the colonies, for their 
negligence and told them that they were delaying the expedition and 
that the French might soon be upon them and lay waste the settlements 
and intimated that they deserved such a fate for their incompetency. 

This energetic officer is still remembered in this country by a tribu- 
tary of the Potomac, Sir John's Run, being named after him. 

General Braddock set out from Alexandria April 20th and by the 
19th of May the forces were assembled at Fort Cumberland and on June 
lOtb he entered the "Great Woods" and commenced the advance on 
Fort Duquesne, which was so fatal to him and disastrous to the British 

The march was slow as roads had to be cut through the forests, 
streams bridged, wagons and artillery hauled up the hills by hand, that 
it was not until July 9th that the General with twelve hundred of his 
men, having left the baggage behind in command of Colonel Dunbar 
reached the ford of the Monongahela ten miles from the Fort and crossed 
over the same to the side of the river upon which the Fort was situated. 
The command while marching up from the river through a small valley 
was attacked by the French and Indians from behind rocks, trees and 
logs and met with a crushing defeat. 

Braddock displayed the greatest bravery and after having five horses 
killed under him received a mortal wound and was taken from the field 
in a tumbril. 

Upon the fall of Braddock the rout became general. Baggage stores 
and artillery were abandoned. The teamsters and artillerymen took 
horses from their teams and guns and fled panic stricken from the field. 
The officers were swept away by the fugitives in their wild flight to the 

Braddock died on the night of the 13th and his remains were buried 
in the road so the grave could not be discovered by the savages. 

The remnants of the army reached Fort Cumberland on the 17th of 
July and thus the campaign ended in "the most extraordinary victory 
ever obtained and the furthest flight ever made. ' ' 

The British loss was very heavy. Out of eighty-six officers twenty- 
six had been killed and thirty-six wounded, and the loss of the troops 
in killed and wounded was upward of seven hundred. It was the most 
disastrous defeat ever sustained by an army on the American frontier. 

The victorious force was composed of about 855 French and Indians 
sent out from the Fort by De Contrecoeur, the commander, to check the 


British at the ford. They were commanded by Captain De Beaujeau, who 
was killed early in the action. 

Braddock's army was not pursued on account of the smallness of 
the opposing force and the usual desire of the Indians to plunder and 
gather the spoils of the battle field. 

The site of the battle was for more than a hundred years known as 
Braddock's Field, but now is the seat of a flourishing community and 
known as Braddock. 

Washington was actively engaged throughout this disastrous day in 
carrying the orders of the General and encouraging the soldiers. 

He had two horses killed under him and bore himself through the 
turmoil of battle and defeat with distinguished gallantry. 

The other expeditions in this year against the French in Canada 
on the New York border failed of their purpose and thus the closing of 
the year 1755 beheld the French thoroughly in possession of the dis- 
puted territory. 

General Forbes Expedition. 

The disastrous defeat and route of Braddock's Army spread terror 
and consternation along the frontiers of Pennsylvania and Virginia and 
left them open to the forays of bands of savages who spared neither sex 
or age. 

Many inhabitants deserted their homes and retired East of the Blue 
Ridge which for a time became the line of the frontier. 

The General Assembly of Virginia appropriated forty thousand 
pounds for the public defence and directing the recruiting of a regiment 
of a thousand men. 

Washington was commissioned a Colonel and made commander in 
chief for all the forces raised for the defense of the colony. 

His head quarters were established at Fort Loudon at Winchester, 
and a chain of smaller forts were constructed along the Shenandoah and 
upper waters of the Potomac for the protection of the settlements. 

England had been indifferent as to the protection of her colonies and 
her policy indicated that they should protect themselves, consequently the 
war dragged its slow length along and no formal declaration of war was 
proclaimed against France until 1756. But a change of the British 
Ministry and the assumption of power on June 29, 1757, by William Pitt, 
the Great Earl of Craltham as prime Minister, wrought a mighty change 
in the conduct of public affairs. He was endowed with a high order of 
intellect, was patriotic, a warm friend of the colonies had the entire con- 
fidence of his countrymen, and his mighty hand was felt in the remotest 
parts of the Kingdom, and his bold policy changed the destiny of the 
North American continent, and advanced England to the position of the 
greatest nation in the world. 

The Military expeditions in the North against Canada in the years 
1856 and 1857 were barren of practical results, and in 1858 an army of 
nearly nine thousand men composed of British Regulars and provincials 
from the neighboring colonies, Virginia furnishing a quota of about nine- 
teen hundred men commanded by Washington, was formed. 

The army rendezvouzed at Raystown now Bedford, Pennsylvania, 


and under the command of General John Forbes in September commenced 
its slow and toilsome march through the wilderness to Fort Duquesne. 

Major Grant in command of an advance column of eight hundred men 
when upon a hill almost in sight of the Fort was led into an ambuscade 
and met with a most disastrous defeat, and was himself captured with a 
greater part of his command. 

This hill was for many years known as Grant's Hill, now included in 
the limits of Pittsburgh, and the street running along it still bears his 

As the army approached the fort the French Commander blew up 
his magazine, set fire to the buildings and embarked his force in boats 
and retreated down the river to their Forts in the West, and up the 
Allegheny River. 

On the 25th. of November, 1858, Washington in command of the 
advance guard marched into the Fort, took possession in the name of the 
King and hoisted the British flag. 

The fortifications were repaired and a strong guard placed in it and 
the name changed to Fort Pitt. 

The possession of Fort Duquesne which had been the scourge of the 
Pennsylvania and Virginia frontiers, brought peace to those distracted 
colonies and terminated the struggle between France and England in the 
Ohio Valley. 

Pittsburgh in 1908 celebrated the one hundred and fiftieth anniver- 
sary of the founding of this city, there being present members of the 
Pitt and Forbes families from England as the guests of the city. 

The war in the North in 1758, resulted in the English under Major 
General Amherst, capturing Louisburg on the island of Cape Breton from 
the French. 

The expeditions against the French Forts on Lakes George and 
Champlain in New York was conducted by General Abercrombie with an 
army of seven thousand regulars and nine thousand colonial troops, and 
an attempt to capture Fort Ticonderoga on Lake Champlain resulted in 
the disastrous defeat of the English with the loss of nearly two thousand 

The British Army returned across Lake George, having failed in its 

In 1759 the English under General Amherst captured the French 
Forts at Ticonderoga and Crown Point and under General Sir Wm. 
Johnson the French Fort at Niagara. 

General Wolf with an army of eight thousand men fought a battle 
on the 14th of September, 1759 on the plains of Abraham and totally 
defeated the French under Montcalm, both commanders being mortally 
wounded, resulting in the surrender of Quebec to the English. 

In 1760 a large army under the command of General Amherst com- 
pelled the capitulation of all Canada, and by the treaty of Peace of 1763 
I'rance relinquished her claims to all territory in North America East 
of the Mississippi except New Orleans and was confirmed in her right to 
the country west of that river, while Spain ceded to Great Britain Florida 
and all its territory East of the Mississippi. 


Early Settlements West of the Mountains. 

"I hear the tread of pioneers, 

Of nations yet to be, 

The first low wash of Waves: 

Where, soon shall roll a human sea." 

— ^Whittier, 

At a very early period Great Britain developed the policy of settling 
the country West of the Allegheny Mountains in order to forestall the 
French who laid claim to the valley of the Ohio. 

The Ohio Land Company was chartered in 1749 and King George 
the second granted to it 500,000 acres of land on the South side of the 
Ohio Kiver between the Little Kanawha and Monongahela Rivers. 

The charter required that the Company should build a fort and settle 
one hundred families on its lands within seven years. 

Christopher Gist was appointed agent of the Company to survey and 
locate its lands and to attend to its affairs West of the mountains. He 
established a trading Post at Wills Creek now Cumberland and stocked 
it with goods to trade to the Indians. He also commenced a settlement in 
a valley west of Laurel Hill in what is now Fayette County, Pennsylvania. 

The opposition of the French and Indians checked the efforts of the 
Company to locate settlers and subsequent treaties with the Indian tribes 
and the war of the Revolution put an end to all land schemes on the 
upper Ohio, and the new country of Indiana as it was called faded away. 

In 1752 the Virginia Assembly passed an Act releasing all settlers 
from the payment of taxes for the period of ten years, who would locate 
on lands west of the mountains. 

In 1754 the Governor of Virginia by proclamation promised lands to 
the soldiers who would enlist to serve in the French and Indian wars. 

After the capture of Fort Duquesne by General Forbes in 1758, 
adventurers began to cross the mountains and cluster around the walls of 
Ihe Fort now called Fort Pitt, seeking the protection of its garrison and 
gradually extended up the streams and to the surrounding neighborhood, 
composing the skirmish line of civilization. 

In the peace of Paris in 1763 France ceded the Ohio Valley to 
England, and in the same year King George the III issued a proclamation 
forbidding any of his subjects from occupying lands on the western waters 
until they were purchased from the Indians, and ordered the settlers 
already there to withdraw. 

The settlers paid no attention to this proclamation as it was considered 
by them that the land on the east side of the Ohio did not belong to the 
Indians as they had no villages in that territory and had not occupied it 
for many years if ever, but used it in common as a hunting ground. 

John Simpson Discovering Elk Creek 


At one time about 1766 the authorities sent soldiers to dispossess the 
settlers on the Monongahela of their holdings, but if they performed this 
unpleasant duty the inhabitants moved back as soon as the soldiers were 

The colony of Pennsylvania in 1768 made some kind of treaty with 
one or more tribes of Indians for the purchase of lands west of the moun- 
tains in order to keep them quiet, but Virginia never purchased any title 
from them. 

In 1754 an attempt was made to settle the Tygart Valley by Files 
and Tygart, but they failed through the hostility of the Indians. 

In the fall of 1758 a small colony headed by Thomas Decker attempted 
a settlement on the Monongahela just above the site of Morgantown at 
the mouth of the creek which still bears his name, but in the spring of 
1 759 it was broken up by a party of Delawares and Mingoes and the greater 
part of its inhabitants murdered. 

In 1766 Zachel Morgan, James Chew, and James Prickett made a 
permanent settlement at the site of Morgantown. 

After the close of the French and Indian war a treaty of peace was 
made by the English and various tribes of Indians in the Ohio Country in 
1765, which brought comparatively peace and quiet to the Virginia fron- 
tier and emigration began to flow over the mountains to the virgin lands 
of North "Western Virginia. 

It was during the continuance of this exemption that settlements 
were made on the waters of the Monongahela and Ohio rivers. 

The first of these in order of time was that made on the Buckhannon 
river, a branch of the Tygart 's Valley river, and was induced by a flat- 
tering account of the country as given by two brothers who had spent 
some years there under rather unpleasant circumstances. 

Among the soldiers who formed part of the English garrison at 
Fort Pitt (now Pittsburgh) were William Childers, John Pringle, Samuel 
Pringle and Joseph Tinsey. In 1761 these four men deserted from the 
Fort, and ascended the Monongahela as far as the mouth of Georges 
Creek near the present town of Geneva, Pennsylvania. Here they remained 
a while but not liking the situation crossed over to the head of the 
Youghogany, encamped in the glades and remained there for about twelve 

In one of their hunting rambles Samuel Pringle came on a path 
which he supposed would lead to the inhabited part of Virginia. 

On his return he mentioned the discovery and his supposition 
to his comrades, and they resolved on tracing it. This they accord- 
ingly did, and it conducted them to Looney's creek, then the most 
remote western settlement. While among the inhabitants on Loony's creek 
they were recognized and some of the party apprehended as deserters. 
John and Samuel Pringle succeeded in making their escape to their camp 
in the glades where they remained imtil some time in the year 1764. 

During this year and while in the employ of John Simpson, a trapper, 
they determined to move further west. Simpson was induced to do this 
by the prospect of enjoying the woods free from the intrusion of other 
hunters, the glades having begun to be a common hunting ground for 


the inhabitants of the South Branch, while a regard for their personal 
safety caused the Pringles to avoid a situation in which they might be 
exposed to the observations of other men. 

In journeying through the wilderness and after having crossed the 
Cheat river at the Horse Shoe, now in Tucker County, a quarrel arose 
between Simpson and one of the Pringles, and notwithstanding that peace 
and harmony were so necessary to their mutual safety and comfort, yet 
each so far indulged the angry passions which had been excited, as at 
length to produce a separation. 

Simpson crossed over the Valley river near the mouth of Pleasant 
creek, and passing on to the head of another water course gave it the 
name of Simpson's creek, which still bears his name. Thence he went 
Westwardly and came on to the waters of a stream which he called Elk 
Creek because of the number of animals of that name which he encoun- 
tered. On the opposite side of the "West Fork Eiver from the mouth of 
Elk Creek, and not far from the Fair grounds on what is known as the 
Stealey farm he established his camp and pursued his occupation of a 

After remaining for a year, in which time he neither saw the Pringles 
nor any other human being, and getting scarce of ammunition he journeyed 
to the South Branch valley taking what furs he could carry with him to 
trade for supplies. 

The Border Warfare states that he returned to his encampment and 
continued there until permanent settlements were made in the vicinity. 

It is hardly to be supposed that he resided constantly at the mouth 
of Elk Creek, but used it as a head quarters for his trapping expeditions, 
as it was several years before settlers came into the neighborhood. 

At the time of Simpson's arrival at the site of Clarksburg there was 
not an acre of land in North Western Virginia under cultivation. All 
was a dreary wilderness occupied by buffalo, elk, deer, bear and turkeys 
and the streams swarming with fish. So far as is known John Simpson 
was the first man who stood upon the banks of the West Fork Eiver. 

A stray trapper or a prisoner to the Indians may have passed along its 
waters, but history or tradition makes no note of it, and the credit must 
be given to him. 

It can be imagined that Simpson had a lonely time of it with no 
companion but his own thoughts, no sounds greeting his ear but his own 
voice and the howls of wild beasts quivering upon the slumbering sea of 
the forest night and living in hourly dread of the approach of a savage foe. 
But this sturdy pioneer preferred to brave all of these perils and discom- 
forts rather than be hampered by the restraints of a civilized life. He 
was one of the outer pickets of civilization, the vanguard ever in advance 
of that grand army of emigration that was soon to roll around and 
thousands of miles beyond his humble cabin. 

But little is known of the subsequent history of John Simpson. Like 
many frontiersmen when settlers began to come in to his neighborhood 
he moved further on, most likely into Ohio. 

The commissioners appointed to settle the claims to unpatented lands 
at its session in 1781 granted a certificate of ownership to John Simpson 



Home of the Pringles. 


for 400 acres of land on the West Fork river, opposite the mouth of Elk 
Creek to include his settlement made in 1772. This tract included the Fair 
Ground and the Stealey lands. 

Simpson never perfected his title to this land, but as was the custom 
sold and assigned the certificate to Nicholas Carpenter and it was patented 
to him. Carpenter built a house on it in 1786 that stood for more than 
one hundred years. 

He appears once upon the surface of affairs as a principal in a quarrel 
with one of the Cottrils about a peek of salt, which resulted in Cottril 
being found dead near the cabin of Simpson with his gun cocked, having 
been shot by him. As there were no courts established at the time there 
is no record of any legal proceedings being taken against Simpson on 
account of this affair. 

John and Samuel Pringle after they had separated from Simpson 
continued on up the Valley river to where it is joined by the Buckhannon 
river, and continuing up it and at the mouth of a small branch called 
Turkey Eun, they took up their abode in a hollow sycamore tree, not far 
from the present town of Buckhannon. The hollow tree in which they 
lived stood about two and a half or three miles from the Court House in 
Buckhannon on the Southerly or right bank of Turkey Run about one 
hundred yards from where it empties into the Buckhannon river on the 
westerly side. The tree has long since disappeared. Tradition says that 
a fence rail could be turned around inside of it without striking the sides. 
This would have made the tree about thirty feet in circumference. 

The site is still well known to the inhabitants of the neighborhood. 

The situation of these men was not an enviable one, remote from their 
fellow men, with no salt, bread or garden vegetables and fearing arrest 
as deserters from the army. They remained in this condition for three 
years and not until they were reduced to two loads of powder could they 
be driven to venture to the Eastern settlements to replenish their supply. 

In the latter part of 1767 John Pringle left his brother and intended 
to make for a trading post on the Shenandoah, and appointed a period for 
his return. 

Samuel Pringle in the absence of John suffered for food, one of his 
loads of powder was expended in a fruitless attempt to shoot a deer. 
His brother had already delayed his return several days beyond the time 
fixed for his return and he was apprehensive that he had been recognized, 
taken to Fort Pitt and would perhaps never get back. With his remain- 
ing load of powder he was fortunate enough to shoot a fine buffalo, and 
John soon returning with news of peace with the French and Indians, the 
two brothers agreed to leave their wilderness home, but also resolved to 
return with others and settle permanently in that region. They accord- 
ingly left their humble home with many regrets and returned to the 
Eastern settlements, but with the determination to return and permanently 
reside in the neighborhood of their Sycamore Tree. 

The settlers on the head waters of the Potomac listened to the descrip- 
tion of the western country by the Pringles, its fertility, climate and 
quantities of game with delight, and with that restless spirit that charae- 


terizes the pioneers, quite a number of tliem agreed to move to this newly 
discovered country. 

But before moving permanently a party of them resolved to examine 
for themselves and in the fall of 1768 under the guidance of Samuel 
Pringle visited and explored the region that had been so long inhabited 
by the Pringles. 

Being pleased with it, they in the following Spring of 1769 with a few 
others repaired thither with a view of cultivating as much corn as would 
support them and their families the first year after their emigration. 

In addition some erected cabins and prepared for permanent occu- 
pation of the territory now Upshur County. 

John Jackson and his sons, George and Edward, settled at the mouth 
of Turkey run, John Hacker higher up on the Buckhannon river, where 
Bush's Fort was afterwards built, Alexander and Thomas Sleeth near to 
the Jackson's. The others of the party William Hacker, Thomas Hughes, 
Jesse Hughes, John Eadcliff, William Radcliff and John Brown appear 
to have employed their time in hunting and exploring the surounding 
country, thus supplying those who were clearing land with an abundance 
of meat, and acquiring a knowledge of the country which was of great 
use to the colony afterwards. 

In one of their expeditions they discovered and gave the name to 
Stone Coal Creek, which flowing westernly induced them to believe that 
it emptied into the Ohio Eiver. Descending the creek they came to its 
confluence with a stream near where Weston now stands, to which they 
gave the name of the West Fork. After having gone some distance 
down this river they returned by a different route, being better pleased 
with the land they had seen than with that on the Buckhannon River. 

Soon after this other emigrants arrived under the guidance of Samuel 
Pringle, Among them were John Cutright, Benjamin Cutright, who 
settled on the Buckhannon, and Henry Rule who located just above the 
mouth of Fink's Run. 

Before the arrival of Samuel Pringle, John Hacker had begun to 
improve the spot which Pringle had chosen for himself. To prevent any 
unpleasant feeling Hacker agreed that if Pringle would clear as much land 
on a creek which had recently been discovered by the hunters as he had 
on the Buckhannon, they could then exchange places. Complying with 
this condition Pringle took possession of Hacker's improvement and 
Hacker of the clearing Pringle had made on the creek which was then 
called Hacker's Creek. Jolm Radcliff and William Radcliff also settled 
on this stream. These comprise all the improvements which were made 
on the upper branches of the Monongahela in the years 1769 and 1770. 

At the close of the working season of 1769 some of these adventurers 
returned to their families on the South Branch, and when they returned 
to gather their crops found them entirely destroyed. In their absence 
the buffalo had broken down the fences and eaten all the corn. This 
mishap delayed the moving of their families until the fall of 1770, and 
from this time dates the permanent settlement of the Country. 

In the year 1771 Captain James Booth and John Thomas settled on 
Booth's Creek on land that was afterwards owned by the Martin family 


and others shortly followed. Captain Booth was afterwards killed by the 
Indians and his loss was severely felt by the inhabitants in his neighbor- 

On the 31st December, 1771 a party of explorers consisting of John 
Merrick, Samuel Cottrill, Andrew Cottrill, Levi Douglass and Sotha 
Hickman, encamped on Ann Moores run near the present town of 
Grasselli in Clark District. 

They were engaged in hunting and looking out for lands upon which 
to make permanent settlements. On New Year's day 1772 they turned 
out to hunt, and passing south through the low gap where Lemuel D. 
Holden afterwards lived for so many years, and near there killed a bear 
and several turkeys. 

On the little bottom where Brushy Fork empties into Elk Creek their 
dogs discovered a herd of buffalo and in a short time the hunters had 
killed seven of them. One of the largest of the herd being fatally wounded 
in attempting to escape down Elk Creek fell dead into the bed of the 
little stream that puts into Elk below the mouth of Brushy Fork, and 
lay in such a position that they could not pull him out, and he was left 
to lie there -wdth regrets that they could not get his robe. 

The party remained in this camp all winter and were visited by a 
friendly Indian who hunted with them for some time. 

They discovered the abandoned camp on the "West Fork River of 
Robert Lindsay a trapper, and also where he had made one or more 
canoes to transport his furs down to Fort Pitt. 

In the Spring of 1772 they selected lands on which to establish 
permanent homes. Andrew Cottrill located his claim and built his cabin 
at the site of their camp, on Ann Moore's run, where Grasselli is now 
located. Samuel Cottrill just east of where Clarksburg now stands, near 
the Jackson grave yard. Sotha Hickman on the opposite side of Elk Creek 
near where the Elk View Cemetery now is, and Levi Douglas preempted 
four hundred acres on the Brushy Fork of Elk. John Merrick did not 
permanently locate in this country but probably went further West. 

There are still residing in Harrison County many descendants of the 
two Cottrills, Hickman and Douglass, and they have the satisfaction of 
knowing that their ancestors were among the very first permanent settlers 
in the present limits of Harrison County. 

In this year, 1772, the beautiful Tygarts Valley now in Randolph 
County, was nearly all taken up by settlers, among them being the Had- 
dens, Connelly's, Whiteman's, Warwick's, Nelson's, Stalnaker's, Riffle's 
and Westf all's. The latter of these found and interred the bones of 
Files' family, which had lain bleaching in the storms of eighteen years. 

In the year 1772 the Horseshoe bottom on the Cheat River was located 
by Captain James Parsons of the South Branch, and in his neighborhood 
settled Robert Cunningham, Henry Fink, John Goff and John Minear. 

The Dunkard Bottom was settled by Robert Butler, William Morgan, 
and some others in the same year. 

Thomas Nutter in 1772 took up one thousand four hundred acres on 
Elk Creek close to Clarksburg at this time, on which was built the famous 


Kiitter's fort, which was a haven of security to the many families of 
settlers when harrassed by Indian forays. 

John Nutter located on the West Fork river near Clarksburg and 
Obadiah Davisson above him, near where the salt works was afterwards 
located, and Daniel Davisson where Clarksburg now stands. 

These were the principal settlements made in Harrison County prior 
to the year 1774. 

Few and scattering as they were no sooner was it known that settle- 
ments had commenced in what was reported to be a rich country full of 
game than a heavy emigration set in to this new Eldorado. 

This emigration exhausted the bread supplies in some localities in the 
year 1773, and there was considerable suffering until the com crop was 
gathered, so much so that it was called the starving year. 

Colonel "William Lowther was for many years gratefully remembered 
by the inhabitants for his great exertions to secure corn, and for his success 
in relieving their sufferings. 

Daniel Davisson, who is mentioned above, was the original proprietor 
of the land on which Clarksburg now stands, which was included in his 
four hundred acre survey. Tradition states that Daniel Davisson 's cabin 
was built on the west side of Chestnut street between Pike and Main, near 
where the Southern Methodist church now stands. 

Andrew Davisson took up four hundred acres on the opposite or 
east side of Elk Creek from Daniel Davisson 's survey. 

Under the act of May 1779 for adjusting and settling the titles of 
claimers to unpatented lands, the counties on the western waters were 
divided into districts, and four commissioners were appointed for each 
district. The first district was composed of Monongalia, Yohogania and 
Ohio Counties, these three counties having been organized in 1776. 

The records of the proceedings of this commission as relates to 
Monongalia County, which at that time included practically the Northern 
half of West Virginia and a portion of Pennsylvania and of course of the 
territory afterwards formed into Harrison County. 

The certificates granted by this commission show the time and place 
of settlement of the person to whom they are granted, or by his assignor, 
and are of the greatest importance in fixing the date of occupancy of the 
country by the pioneers. 

It appears from this record that the commissioners held meetings at 
Red stone Old Fort near Brownsville, Peimsylvania, at Colonel John 
Evans' house near Morgantown, at Cox's fort, in what is now Washington 
County, Pennsylvania, at Clarksburg, at the house of Samuel Lewellen, 
at the house of John Peirpont, near Morgantown, at the house of Thomas 
Evans and at the Ohio County Court House. 

Below will be found one of the certificates copied in full followed 
by extracts of others omitting the formal part: 

Certificates granted in 1781 at the house of Colonel John Evans: 

"We, the commissioners for adjusting claims to unpatented lands in 
the counties of Monongahela, Yohogania and Ohio, do hereby certify that 
John Evans Assignee of Daniel Veatch is entitled to four hundred acres 

Sc<A.^^ //^^^ 


of land in Monongalia County on the Monongahela River, on the West 
side of said river to include his settlement made in 1770. 

Given under our hands at Colonel John Evan's this 7th. day 
of March in the fifth year of the commonwealth 1781. 

John P. Duvall, 
James Neal, 
Will Haymond. 

This certificate cannot be entered with the surveyor after the 26th of 
October, 1781. 

Wm. McCleary, Clk. Com. 
Ent'd, 9th. April 1781. 

The following extracts taken from certificates issued in 1781 by this 
commissioner to settlers for lands in Monongalia County in the territory 
subsequently included in Harrison County as it was originally created in 
1784 from the former county. 

The changing of the name of streams and the duplication of quite 
a number of others leads to some confusion in locating entries, and it is 
possible that some of them given below are outside the limits of Harrison 
County as originally formed, but this occurs, if at all in but few instances. 

Henry Snider is entitled to 400 acres of land in Monongalia County 
on the waters of the West Branch of the Monongahela River adjoining 
lands claimed by Enoch James to include his settlement made in the year 

Peter McCune 400 acres at the mouth of Rooting Creek, in the right 
of residence having made a crop of com before the year 1778 to include 
his improvement made on said land in 1778. 

Hezekiah Davisson 400 acres in the right of residence to include his 
improvement made in the year 1773. 

Hezekiah Davisson is entitled to 1,000 acres of land adjoining his 
improvement made in 1773. 

Hezekiah Davisson assignee of Jonathan Lambert 400 acres on Lam- 
bert's Run adjoining the lands of Joshua Allen to include his settlement 
made in 1774. 

Hezekiah Davisson, assignee of Jonathan Lambert 1,000 acres in the 
right of preemption on Lambert's Run, adjoining lands of Joshua Allen. 

Josiah Davisson 400 acres on Pleasant Creek, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1775. 

Josiah Davisson 1000 acres in the right of preemption adjoining his 
settlement on Pleasant Creek. 

Andrew Davisson, Junior, 400 acres in the right of residence on a 
branch of Simpson's Creek called Thomson's Run including his improve- 
ment made thereon in 1774. 

Andrew Davisson, Junior, 1000 acres in the right of preemption ad- 
joining to his right of residence by an improvement made in 1774. 

Andrew Davisson, Junior, assignee of William Boon, is entitled to 
400 acres on the waters of Simpson's Creek adjoining lands claimed by 
James Anderson, including his settlement made thereon in 1773. 


Thomas McCan 300 acres on Davisson's Eun, adjoining lands of 
Thomas Berkley to include his settlement made in 1775. 

Thomas McCan 1000 acres adjoining his settlement made in 1775. 

Archibald Hopkins, assignee of Andrew Davisson, Junior, 400 acres 
on a branch of the waters of Simpson's creek known by the name of Jerry's 
Eun, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Daniel Davisson is entitled to 1000 acres in the right of preemption 
adjoining his settlement made in 1773. 

Nicholas Carpenter, assignee of John Simpson is entitled to 400 acres 
of land in Monongalia County on the West Fork, opposite to the mouth 
of Elk Creek to include his settlement made in the year 1772. 

The above named John Simpson was the first settler in Harrison 
County as now (1909) constituted, he having established his camp on the 
above described tract of land in 1764 for the purpose of trapping. 

Ncholas Carpenter 400 acres on Ten Mile Creek at the mouth of 
Carter's Eun by right of residence to include his improvement made in 

James Anderson, Senior, 400 acres on Simpson's Creek, adjoining 
to lands of Andrew Davisson, to include his settlement made in 1771. 

James Anderson, Senior, 1000 acres on Simpson's Creek, adjoining 
lands of Andrew Davisson in the right of preemption, adjoining his settle- 
ment made in 1771. 

James Anderson, Junior, 400 acres on Simpson's Creek, adjoining 
the land of John Powers, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

James Anderson, Junior, 1000 acres on Simpson's Creek, adjoining 
the lands of John Powers, and adjoining his settlement made in 1771. 

Thomas Batton, Junior, assignee, to Thomas Batton, Senior, 400 acres 
on a drean of the Ohio Eiver, and about one mile from the mouth of the 
Little Kanawha Eiver, and about one mile from the Indian Old Field, in 
the right of residence, to include his improvement made in the year 1772. 

Hezekiah Davisson, assignee of "William Eunnion 100 acres in Monon- 
galia County, the right of preemption, adjoining to his settlement made 
in the year 1773. 

Calder Raymond 400 acres on Salt Lick Creek, a branch of the Little 
Kanawha, in the right of residence and raising corn before 1778. Includ- 
his improvement made thereon in 1773. 

Thomas Haymond 400 acres in the right of residence and raising corn 
before the year 1778, on Salt Lick Creek, a branch of the Little Kanawha, 
includng his improvement made thereon in 1773. 

Thomas Eead 400 acres on the West Fork joining lands claimed by 
John Davisson to include his settlement made in 1775. 

Thomas Batton, Junior, 400 acres, at the Forks of Booth's Creek, 
adjoining lands of John Thomas, including his settlement made thereon 
in 1776. 

Joseph Davisson 400 acres on Davisson's Eun, at the Fork, in the 
right of residence to include his improvement made in 1773. 

Obadiah Davisson, 400 acres on Davisson's Eun at the Big Lick, in 
the right of residence, to include his improvement made thereon in 1773. 

Jonas Webb 400 acres on Simpson's Creek, adjoining lands claimed by 


the heirs of George Wilson, in the "Pedlars right," to include his settle- 
ment made thereon in 1773, with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining 

Benjamin Webb, 400 acres on the waters of Simpson's Creek, adjoin- 
ing lands claimed by Samuel Bearden in the right of residence, with a 
preemption of 1000 acres adjoining thereunto. 

Hezekiah Davisson, 400 acres on the West Fork, adjoining the lands of 
Thomas Barkley, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Hezekiah Davisson 400 acres on the waters of West Fork adjoining 
lands of Thomas Barkley in the right of residence to include his improve- 
ment made in 1775. 

Benjamin Ratcliff 400 acres on Hacker's Creek adjoining lands 
claimed by William Ratcliff, to include his settlement made thereon in 
1774 with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

Thomas Webb 400 acres on the waters of the West Branch of the 
Monongahela River adjoining lands claimed by Charles Washburn, in 
the right of residence, to include his improvement made in 1773. 

Benjamin Coplin 400 acres on the Brushy Fork of Elk Creek adjoin- 
ing to lands claimed by Levy Douglass, to include his settlement made 
thereon in 1773 with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

Joseph Davisson assignee of Benjamin Coplin, 400 acres on Simpson 's 
Creek adjoining lands claimed by James Anderson, with a preemption of 
1000 acres adjoining thereto. 

Daniel Davisson, assignee of George shin, 400 acres on Limestone 
Creek, in the right of residence to include his improvement made thereon, 
adjoining lands of Amariah Davisson in 1771. 

Thomas Cunningham 400 acres on the Right Hand Fork of Ten Mile 
Creek at Jones improvement, in the right of residence, to include his im- 
provement made thereon in 1772. 

Joseph Lowther, heir at law to Robert Lowther 400 acres, adjoining 
lands claimed by Charles Washburn on Washburn's Run, to include his 
settlement made in 1775. 

Bonan Stought (probably Benjamin Stout) 400 acres on the waters 
of Simpson's Creek, adjoining lands claimed by Jonathan Stought in 
the right of residence, to include his improvement made thereon. 

Heir at law to John Thomas, 400 acres on Thomas' Run a drain of 
Booth's Creek, adjoining lands claimed by Ezekiel Thomas, to include his 
settlement made thereon in the year 1771, 

William Taylor, 400 acres on the North Side of Davisson 's Run from 
Washburn's camp, upwards, in the right of residence to include the im- 
provement made thereon in 1776. 

Thomas Stought 400 acres on the main fork of Elk Creek adjoining 
lands claimed by John Ratcliff, in right of residence to include his im- 
provement made in 1775 with a preemption of 200 acres adjoining thereto, 

Benjamin Shin is entitled to 400 acres on Simpson's Creek adjoining 
lands claimed by George Stewart to include his settlement thereon in 1772. 

Samuel Shin, 400 acres, in the right of residence to include his im- 
provement made on Levy's Shins Run below the Buffalo Lick in 1771. 

Samuel Harbard 400 acres on the West Fork of the Monongahela 


River in the right of residence, adjoining lands claimed by Levy Shinn to 
include his improvement made thereon in 1775. 

John Stackhouse, 400 acres on the Head Waters of Booth's Creek, ad- 
joining lands claimed by the heirs of Davis Edwards, to include his set- 
tlement made in 1775, with a preemption of 400 acres adjoining thereunto. 
Evan Thomas, 400 acres on the waters of Booth's Creek, adjoining 
Thomas Batten's land in the right of residence to include his improvement 
made in 1774. 

Morgan Morgan, assignee to Zachanah Morgan, Junior, 400 acres on 
Salt Lick Creek, a drain of the Little Kanawha, to include his settlement 
made in 1773. 

John Button, assignee to Thomas Keller, 400 acres on Simpson 's Creek, 
adjoining lands of Samuel Beardin, to include his settlement made in 1776. 
Simon Cockran 400 acres on Lambert's Run, adjoining Hezekiah 
Davisson's land, including his settlement made in 1773. 

John Evans, Junior, assignee of Shively, 400 acres on Goose Creek, a 
branch of Hughes River, about six miles from the mouth of said creek, to 
include his settlement begun in 1773 with a preemption of 1000 acres, ad- 

Francis Reed, assignee to Joseph Gregory, 400 acres on the West Fork, 
at the mouth of Crooked Run, to include his settlement made in 1776, with 
a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

Major Powers, 400 acres on both sides of Glady Creek, adjoining the 
lands of William Pettyjohn, Junior, to include his settlement made in 1776, 
with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

Heir at law of Nathanial Davisson, deceased, 400 acres on Davisson's 
Run, adjoining lands, claimed by Obediah Davisson, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1773. 

Nathanial Davisson was killed by Indians in 1779, while hunting on 
Ten Mile Creek. 

Daniel Davisson is entitled to 400 acres of land on Elk Creek adjoin- 
ing lands claimed by Thomas Nutter, to include his settlement made in the 
year 1773. 

This is the land upon which the greater part of Clarksburg now 
stands, and Daniel Davisson is known as the proprietor of Clarksburg. 

John Giiford, 400 acres on Booth's Creek adjoining lands of William 
Robey, Junior, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

David Bowen, heir at law to Samuel Bowen, 1000 acres on Bingamon 
on the waters of the right hand fork in right of preemption, to include his 
settlement made in 1773. 

Enoch James 400 acres on the West Fork of the Monongahela river, to 
include his settlement made in 1775, with a preemption right to 1000 acres 

Jacob Springer, 400 acres in the right of residence to include his im- 
provement made on the Salt Lick Creek, a branch of the Little Kanawha 
River in 1773, also a right of preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

John Springer, 1000 acres in right of preemption, adjoining his im- 
provement, obtained in right of residence made in 1773 on Salt Lick Creek, 
a branch of the Little Kanawha River. 


Isaac Prichard, 400 acres in right of residence to include his improve- 
ment made on Salt Lick Creek, a branch of the Little Kanawha River, in 
1773, with a right of preemption of 400 acres adjoining. 

Jesse Pigman, 400 acres in right of residence and raising corn before 
the year 1776, situate on Salt Lick Creek, at the forks of the same, about 
four miles below the Salt Lick, to include his settlement made in 1773, also 
a right of preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

Dennis Springer, 400 acres in right of residence, and raising corn, 
situate on the West side of the Little Kanawha, about two miles below the 
mouth of Salt Lick Creek to include his improvement made in 1773, also 
a right in preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

John Logan 400 acres in right of residence, having raised com, before 
]778 on Hughes River about four miles above the forks of the same on 
the south side thereof made in 1777, also a right in preemption to 1000 
acres adjoining. 

James Chew, assignee to John Miller, Junior, 400 acres, in right of the 
said Miller's, having resided and raised corn before 1778, and proving that 
he, the said Miller, never having taken up for himself nor sold any land in 
the said County, nor on any of the western waters, to include the improve- 
ment made on sundry Holly trees by the said James Chew, on the head of 
the right hand fork of the Salt Lick Creek, and the drains of Elk River, in 
1773, also a right in preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

Henry Barnes, 400 acres about two and a half miles above the forks 
of Hughes River, on the North Side of the South Fork of said River, in 
right of having resided and raising a crop of corn before the year 1778, 
also a right in preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

Thomas Parkeson, 1000 acres in right of preemption, to include his 
improvement situate on the East Pork of the Monongahela River, and at 
the Falls of the same, known by the name of the Tygart Valley Falls to 
include the same, made in 1773. 

John Peirpoint, assignee of Samuel Merefield, 400 acres at the mouth 
of the Tygart 's Valley River, in the forks of the said river, to include his 
settlement made in 1775. 

William Robinson, assignee to John Smith, 400 acres for the said John 
Smith's right of residence and raising corn to include his settlement made 
on Salt Lick Creek in 1773. 

Charles Mclntire, assignee of Charles Burkham, who was assignee of 
Rob. Murphy, 400 acres on the West Fork of Monongahela River, below the 
mouth of Simpson's Creek, including his settlement made in 1773, with a 
preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

Charles Mclntire, assignee to John Tucker, 400 acres on the West 
Fork, adjoining the land of Samuel Merefield, to include his settlement 
made in 1773. 

Joseph Coon, assignee of Michael Oxx, 400 acres on the waters of 
West Fork adjoining the land of John Tucker, to include his settlement 
made in 1772. 

Phillip Coon, 400 acres at the Stone Coal Lick, adjoining lands of 
Phillip Coon, to include his settlement made in 1776, 


Anthony Coon, 400 acres on the Cole Lick Run, adjoining the lands 
of Conrad Coon, to include his settlement made in 1776. 

Coonrod Coon, on the Stone Coal Lick Run, adjoining the lands of 
Phillip Coon, to include his settlement made in 1776. 

George Cockran, 400 acres about two miles from the head of the right 
hand fork of Salt Lick Creek, to include his improvement made in 1773. 

John Gray, 400 acres on Salt Lick Creek, a branch of the Little Kan- 
awha River, to include his improvement made in 1773, in the right of re- 
siding in and making a crop of corn, in 1778, with a preemption of 1000 
acres adjoining. 

William Smith, 400 acres on Lost Creek, at the King's Luck, to include 
provement made thereon in 1773 in the right of residing and raising com 
said county before 1778 with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining thereto. 

James Gray, on the South Side of Salt Lick Creek, to include his im- 
provement made thereon in 1773 in the right of residing and raising corn 
in said County before 1778, with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining 

James Johnson, assignee, of Rudolph , 400 acres on the East 

side of the West Fork River, nearly opposite the mouth of Bingamon 
creek, adjoining lands claimed by Henry Snider, to include his settlement 
made in 1772, with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

Isaac Williams, 400 acres on the Ohio River, opposite the mouth of 
the Muskingum River, to include his settlement made thereon in 1775, with 
a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

Robert Thornton, 400 acres on the North Side of the Little Kanawha 
River, to include his settlement made in 1773, with a preemption of 1000 

Thomas Harris, 400 acres on the Upper Glady Creek, a branch of Su- 
gar Creek, adjoining lands claimed by a certain Lewis, to include his set- 
tlement made in 1775, with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

John Evans, Junior, assignee to Philip Shively, 400 acres on Grass 
Creek, a branch of Hughes River, to include his settlement made thereon 
about six miles above the mouth of Grass Creek, with a preemption of 1000 
acres adjoining. 

Simon Cochran, 400 acres on Lambert's Run, adjoining lands claimed 
by Hezekiah Davisson to include his settlement made in 1773, with a pre- 
emption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

John Willson and Martin Shobe, assignee to James Kiiots, as tenants 
in common 400 acres on the Dry Fork of Cheat River, to include a settle- 
ment at the Horse Camp made in 1776 with a preemption of 1000 acres 

Levi Wells, assignee of Jepith Tobin, 400 acres on Glady Run, a branch 
of the Brushy Fork of Elk Creek, to include his settlement made in 1772. 

Samuel Hyde, 400 acres on the waters of the West Fork in the right 
of having a residence on the Western Waters, by making a crop of com, 
before 1778, to include an improvement made on adjoining lands, granted 
to John P. Duvall, at the Indian House in 1773. 

William Thompson, 400 acres on Fox Grape Creek, a drain of the Ty- 


gart Valley, adjoining lands claimed by William McClery, to include his 
settlement made in 1775, with a preemption of 1000 acres. 

Mark Hardin, 400 acres on a Creek that empties into the Little Kan- 
awha, on the east side, about a mile from the mouth of the said river, ad- 
joining lands claimed by Robert Thornton, to include his settlement made 
in 1772, with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

Benjamin Archer, assignee of James Cumberford, 400 acres on Mill 
Creek, about four miles from the Ohio River to include his settlement made 
in 1770, with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

Jonathan Bozart, 400 acres in the right of having resided and raised a 
crop of corn before 1778, situate on the West Fork about one mile above 
the mouth of Buffalo Creek, to include his settlement made in 1774, with a 
preemption of 400 acres. 

Henry McFarland, assignee of Hezekiah Hardesley, 400 acres on Ty- 
garts Valley Run, adjoining lands granted to the said McFarland on the 
Mud Lick river, in the said Hardesley right of residing on the Western 
Waters, a whole year before the first of January, 1778. 

Henry Barnes, 400 acres about two miles and a half from the forks of 
Hughes River, on the North side of the South Fork in the right of having 
a residence on the Western Waters, by making a crop of corn before 1778. 

Charles Fallingnash, 400 acres on the head of Stony Run, adjoining 
lands claimed by Edward Tanner, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

William Lowther, heir at law of Robert Lowther, 400 acres on both 
sides of the West Fork River at the mouth of Hacker's Creek, adjoining 
lands of said William Lowther, to include his settlement made thereon in 

Daniel McFarland, assignee of Abraham Evans, 400 acres on Goose 
Creek, a branch of Hughe's River, adjoining lands granted to said McFar- 
land, on said creek, to include his settlement begun there in 1775. 

Simon Hendricks, 200 acres on the waters of Booth's creek, in the 
right of preemption, adjoining lands claimed by Henry Tucker, to include 
his settlement made in 1775. 

Charles Whitecliff, 400 acres on the Little Kanawha River, adjoining 
lands granted to the said Whitecliff, at said place in the right of residence, 
and making a crop of com. 

Jesse Bails, 400 acres on a branch of Tygarts Valley River below Glady 
Creek, and near to lands known by the name of the "Levells" to include 
his settlement made thereon in 1772. 

William Robison, assignee to John Evans, 400 acres on Salt Lick 
Creek, to include his settlement made in 1773, in said Evans right of resid- 
ing and raising com. 

Edward Jackson and John Fink, as tenants in common, assignee to 
George Parsons, 400 acres in the Parson's right of residing and raising a 
crop of com, to include an improvement made by the said Parsons, on the 
head of Little Elk, adjoining lands claimed by Timothy Dorman in 1775. 

George Jackson, 400 acres on the second Big Run, adjoining lands 
claimed by Reger, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

John Swearingen, Senior, 400 acres on Ten Mile Creek, a branch of 


the West Fork, at Nicholas Carpenter's camp, in the right of residing and 
making com before 1778. 

Stephen Ratcliff, assignee to John Rice, 400 acres on a fork of Davis- 
son's Run, adjoining lands of Amassa Davisson, to include his settlement 
made in 1773. 

William Robison, assignee to John Hardesley, 400 acres, on Salt Lick 
Creek, to include his settlement began in 1773. 

Daniel McFarland, assignee to William Oakman, 400 acres on Goose 
creek, a branch of Hughes' river, adjoining lands granted to the said Mc- 
Farland on said creek, to include his settlement begun thereon in 1775. 

William Tucker, 400 acres on Booths creek, adjoining lands claimed 
by the heirs of James Booth, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Richard Ratcliff, 300 acres on the waters of the Tygarts Valley River 
on the West side thereof, adjoining lands claimed by John Reger, to include 
his settlement made in 1771. 

John Ratcliff, 400 acres on Elk creek, adjoining lands claimed by Jon- 
athan Stout, in the right of having settled a tenant thereon, to include his 
settlement thereon in 1773. 

Ezekial Thomas, 400 acres on the waters of Booths Creek, adjoining 
lands claimed by John Thomas, deceased, to include his settlement made 
in 1773, with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

Isaac Richards, 400 acres on the waters of Elk Creek, adjoining lands 
claimed by Charles Harrison in the right of residence, to include his im- 
provement made thereon. (No date.) 

Isaac Shinn, 400 acres on Simpson's Creek, in the right of residence 
to include his improvement made, adjoining lands claimed by Andrew 
Davisson in 1775. 

Joseph Shreeve, 400 acres on Lost Creek, on the left Hand Fork, in 
right of residence, to include his improvement made thereon in 1773. 

John Wilkinson, 400 acres on Simpson's Creek, adjoining lands 
claimed by Andrew Davisson, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

John Goodwin, Junior, 400 acres on the waters of Booths Creek, ad- 
joining lands claimed by John Rickmire, in the right of residence to in- 
clude his improvement made in 1775. 

Frederick Cooper, 400 acres on Cheat River, opposite the mouth of 
Bull's Run, to include his settlement made thereon in 1776. 

David Minear, 200 acres, Clay Lick Run, a branch of Cheat River, in 
right of residence to include his improvement made thereon in 1776. 

John Minear, 400 acres at the mouth of Pleasant Creek, to include his 
settlement made thereon in 1775. 

Salathial Goff, assignee to William Wilson, 400 acres on Cheat River, 
opposite to lands claimed by Thomas Parsons to include his settlement 
made in 1776. 

Jonathan Minear, 200 acres on Cheat River, below the mouth of Clover 
Run, to include his settlement made thereon in 1776. 

John Minear, 400 acres on Cheat River, opposite the mouth of Clover 
Run, to include his settlement made in 1776. 

Salathial Goff, assignee to Thomas Pence, 200 acres on Cheat River, 


nearly opposite the Horse Shoe Bottom, to include his settlement made in 

William Lowther, assignee to George Grundy, 400 acres on Simpson's 
Creek, adjoining lands claimed by William Robeson, to include his settle- 
ment made thereon in 1770, with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

William Lowther, 400 acres on Hacker's Creek, adjoining lands 
claimed by Jesse Hughes, to include his settlement made in 1772, with a 
preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

William Lowther, assignee to William Stewart, 400 acres on the East 
Side of the West branch of the Monongahela River, adjoining his settle- 
ment as assignee of Charles Washburn, to include his settlement made in 
1775, with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

William Lowther, assignee to Robert Park, 400 acres adjoining his 
settlement as assignee to Charles Washburn, to include his settlement made 
thereon in the year 1776 with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

William Lowther, assignee to Charles Washburn, 400 acres on the 
waters of the West branch of the Monongahela River, adjoining to Jacob 
Richard's land to include his settlement made in 1771. 

Jesse Edwards, heir at law of David Edwards, 400 acres on Booth's 
Creek, adjoining lands claimed by John Owens, to include his settlement 
made in 1772. 

Peter Smallwood Roby, assignee to John Creig, 400 acres on the waters 

of Lost Creek, adjoining lands claimed by RatclifE, to include his 

settlement made in 1773. 

Hezekiah Wade, 400 acres on the head of Crooked Run, adjoining 
lands claimed by John Pollock, to include his settlement made in 1776. 

Daniel McFarland, assignee to James Milligan, 400 acres on Goose 
Creek, a branch of Hughes River, adjoining lands granted to the said Mc- 
Farland, at the Plum Orchard, including his settlement begun in 1775. 

Daniel McFarland, assignee of Zebland Cooper, 400 acre^s on Goose 
Creek, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

Charles Stewart, 400 acres on that branch of the West Fork called 
Buffalo, about three miles from Richard's Fort, to include his settlement 
made in 1771. 

John Reger, 400 acres on each side of the Buckhannon River, near by 
joining lands claimed by Timothy Dorman to include his settlement made 
in 1773. 

Ammas Huff, assignee to Richard Robins, 400 acres on the West Fork, 
above and adjoining lands, claimed by Thomas Helton, to include his set- 
tlement made in 1776. 

Daniel McFarlin, assignee of Francis Griffin, 400 acres on Mud Lick 
Run, a branch of the Tygarts Valley River, to include the land on both 
sides of the run, to Buffalo Lick, by corn right prior to 1778. 

George Cochran, 400 acres about two miles from the head of Salt Lick 
Creek, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

Van Swearingen, son of John, 400 acres on Ratcliff camp run, a drain 
of Ten Mile Creek, to include his settlement in 1774. 

David Evans, 400 acres on the West Fork of Booths Creek, to include 
his settlement made in 1775. 


William Robinson, assignee of James Peltel, 400 acres on Salt Lick 
Creek, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

John Willson, 400 acres, on both sides of West Fork of Monongahela 
River, adjoining lands of Joshua Allin, to include his settlement made in 

Joshua Allen, 350 acres on the West Fork of the Monongahela River, 
adjoining lands claimed by John Simpson, to include his settlement made 
in 1775, and a preemption right to 1000 acres adjoining. 

James Cochran, 400 acres on Salt Lick Creek, a branch of the Little 
Kanawha to include his settlement made in 1773, and 1000 acres adjoining 
by preemption. 

John Wade, Junior, 400 acres on the West Fork at the mouth of 
Booth's Creek, to include his improvement made in 1773. 

William Robinson, assignee to Philip Showiley, 400 acres on the North 
Side of Tygarts Valley, adjoining or near a place called Forshey's Level, 
opposite the mouth of Lick Run, to include his settlement in 1775. 

Charles Martin, assignee to John Murphy, 400 acres on the South Side 
of Hughes River, about six miles from its mouth, to include his settlement 
begun in 1775, with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. 

John Clune and William John, tenants in common, 400 acres on Heze- 
kiah Davisson's Run, a branch of Ten Mile, adjoining land claimed by the 
said Davisson, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

Jacob Beeson, 1000 acres preemption on North Fork of Hughes River, 
about ten miles from its head, in the right of George Green, to include 
Green's settlement made in 1773. 

James Cochran, 400 acres on Salt Lick Creek, in the right of raising 
a crop of corn prior to 1778. 

John Ratcliff, 400 acres on Tygarts Valley Fork, at Pringles Ford, to 
include his settlement made in 1773. 

John Ratcliff, assignee to Henry Smith, 400 acres on Gnatty Creek, a 

branch of Elk Creek, adjoining land of Peter McQ , to include his 

settlement made in 1773. 

John Ratcliff, assignee of Martin Queen, 400 acres on the Main Fork 
of Elk Creek, adjoining lands claimed by Thomas Stout, to include his set- 
tlement made in 1773. 

William Robinson, assignee of Thomas Hardin, 400 acres on Salt Lick 
to include his settlement begun in 1773. 

Charles Martin, assignee to Daniel Stephens, 400 acres on Mudlick, 
Creek, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

William Robinson, assignee to Thomas Hardin, 400 acres on Mudlick, 
adjoining lands of Benjamin Shinn, to include his settlement made in 

Richard Falls, assignee to William Hark, 400 acres on Hacker's Creek, 
adjoining lands claimed by John Hacker, to include his settlement made in 

John Jackson, Junior, 400 acres on Turkey Run, a branch of Buckhan- 
non Fork of the Monongahela River, adjoining lands of John Jackson, to 
include his settlement made in 1773. 


William Robinson, assignee to Jesse Booth, 400 acres on Salt Lick 
Creek, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

William Robison, assignee to James Howard, 400 acres on Salt Lick 
Creek, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

William Leather, assignee to Isaac Rennean, 400 acres on the West 
Side of the West Fork at a place called Hickory Flats, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1775. 

Levi Douglass, 400 acres on the Brushy Fork of Elk Creek, adjoining 
lands claimed by Benjamin Coplin, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

Thomas Clear, assignee to John Kerby, 400 acres on the Fork of Prin- 
gles Run and drain of Cheat River, opposite to William Morgan's land, to 
include his settlement thereon. 

Thomas Clear, assignee to Zadock Springer, 400 acres on Salt Lick 
Creek, a branch of the Little Kanawha, in the right of having raised a crop 
of corn, prior to 1778. 

J. Biddle, assignee to William Williams, 400 acres on the right hand 
fork of Bingamon, in the said Williams' right of raising a crop of com 
prior to 1778. 

Stephen Ratcliff, 400 acres on Lost Creek, adjoining lands claimed by 
Henry Runion, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

John Ratliff, assignee to Charles Parsons, 400 acres on Elk Creek, ad- 
joining land claimed by Joseph Hastings, to include his settlement made 
in 1773. 

P. Smallwood Roby, assignee to John Gray, 1000 acres on Lost Creek, 
to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Samuel Harbert, heir to Thomas Harbert, deceased, 400 acres on the 
West Fork, adjoining lands of Levy Shinn, to include his settlem^it made 
in 1775. 

John Schoolcraft, 400 acres on Stone Coal Run, a branch of the West 
Fork, adjoining lands claimed by Henry Flesher, to include his settlement 
made in 1775. 

Michael Cresap, deceased, is entitled to 400 acres of land in Monon- 
galia County on the Ohio River, above and adjoining the mouth of Bull 
Creek, in the right of having settled a tenant on said land, to include his 
settlement made in 1775, with a preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

Thomas Clear, assignee to Joseph Yeager, 400 acres on the East Side 
of Hughes River opposite the lands of Humphrey Bell, including his im- 
provement made in 1775, with a preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

The heir at law to Michael Cresap, deceased, is entitled to 400 acres on 
the Ohio River at the mouth of French Creek, in the right of having settled 
a tenant on said land in 1775. 

The heirs of Michael Cresap, 400 acres on the Ohio River, above the 
mouth of Bull Creek, to include his settlement by a tenant in 1773. 

This is the same Captain Michael Cresap, who was accused of killing 
some Indians on the Ohio River, which brought on the war of 1774. 

Note — Captain Cresap at the commencement of the war of the Revo- 
lution, marched his Company to Boston and took part in the siege of that 
City. He was taken sick and died while in New York and was buried in 
Trinity Church yard. 


William Haymond, assignee to Francis Tibbs, 400 acres on Hacker's 
Creek at the mouth of Miller's Kun, to include his settlement made in 1771. 

William Raymond, assignee to Daniel Veach, 400 acres on Hacker's 
Creek, adjoining lands of Benjamin Radcliff, to include his settlement 
made in 1771. 

John Alban, 400 acres on the head of Pedlar 's Run, a branch of Simp- 
son 's Creek, to include his settlement made in 1776, with a preemption to 
1000 acres adjoining. 

Joel Reed, 400 acres on the south side of the Little Kanawha, to in- 
clude his improvement made about one mile from the mouth of the Little 

Jonathan Bayer, 400 acres on Tygarts Valley River, at a place called 
Forshey's level, including his improvement made in 1774. 

Edward Jackson, 400 acres on Fink's Run, adjoining lands of John 
Fink to include his settlement made in 1774, with a preemption to 1000 
acres adjoining. 

George Jackson, assignee to George Parsons, 1000 acres by preemption 
that adjoins lands claimed by Benjamin Cutright made in 1776. 

George Peck, assignee to Edward Tanner, 400 acres on the Buckhan- 
non, adjoining lands of George Jackson, to include his settlement made in 

Jacob Reager, 400 acres on Second Big Run, to include his settlement 
made in 1776. 

William Robinson, 400 acres on the West Fork, adjoining lands of the 
Widow Brown, to include his settlement made in 1773, with a preemption 
of 1000 acres adjoining. 

John Fink, assignee to Benjamin Cutright, 400 acres on Stony Run, 
adjoining lands claimed by George Jackson. 

John Wolf, 200 acres on Elk, adjoining lands of Daniel Stout, to in- 
clude his settlement made in 1776. 

Alexander West, 400 acres on the head of Brown's Creek adjoining 
land claimed by Charles Wolf, to include his settlement made in 1772, with 
a preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

John Wilson, William McClery, and Theophilus Philips, acting as 
executors of George, William and Alexander Kern, as tenants in common, 
400 acres on a branch of Simpson's Creek, called the Pedler's Run, adjoin- 
ing lands formerly claimed by Benjamin Copland, to include their settle- 
ment made in 1776. 

John Tucker, assignee to James Tucker, 400 acres on the West Fork 
adjoining lands of Thomas Hollan, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

George Runner, assignee to Elijah Runner, 400 acres on Hacker's 
creek on the right of preemption, adjoining lands claimed by Brown, by 
the name of Black Oak Flat, to include his improvement made in 1774. 

Timothy Dorman, 400 acres on a branch of Buckhannon river near 
the land of Jacob Reger, in the right of preemption, to include his improve- 
ment, made in 1773. 

Note — This is the same Dorman, who, being captured by the Indians 
near Buckhannon Fort, afterwards joined them in their raids on the white 



settlements. He was an Englishman of violent disposition and had been 
transported to America for his crimes. 

Christopher Strader, 400 acres in the right of raising a com crop be- 
fore 1778 on Buckhannon Fork. 

Nancy "Washburn, heir of Isaac Washburn, 400 acres, on the West 
Fork to include his settlement made in 1771. 

William Parsons, preemption of 1000 acres on Cheat River opposite 
to the mouth of Lick Creek, to include his improvement made in 1775. 

John Booth, heir of James Booth, in the forks of the Monongahela 
River, to include his settlement made in 1771. 

William McCleery, assignee of Basil Morris, 1000 acres, preemption 
right on the waters of Ten Mile at a place called Kelley's Lick, to include 
his settlement made in 1771. 

William McCleery, assignee to Joseph Caldwell, 1000 acres at the 
mouth of Indian Camp Run, a branch of Ten Mile, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1771. 

William McCleery, assignee to James Gray, 1000 acres on the mid- 
dle fork of Ten Mile, to include his settlement made in 1771. 

William McCleery, assignee to Samuel McCoy, 1000 acres on Ten 
Mile, at the mouth of Grass Run and New Creek, to include his settlement 
made in 1771. 

William McCleery, assignee to Robert Hunter, 1000 acres at the 
mouth of the Middle Fork of Ten Mile to include his settlement made in 

William McCleery, assignee to Paul Morris, 1000 acres on Spring 
Creek, to include his settlement made in 1774. 

Stephen Ratliff, assignee to John Price, 1000 acres on a fork of 
Davisson's Run, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

John Ratliff, 1000 acres on Elk Creek, to include his settlement made 
in 1773. 

John Ratliff, assignee to Charles Parsons, 1000 acres on Elk Creek to 
include his settlement made in 1773. 

John Ratliff, assignee to Martin Kern, 1000 acres on the main fork of 
Elk Creek, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

John Ratliff, assignee to Henry Smith, 1000 acres on Gnatty Creek, 
to include his settlement made in 1773. 

James Neal, assignee to John Harden, Senior, 400 acres on Big Elk 
Creek, about two miles above the Hollow Sycamore, including an Indian 
Fort, to include his settlement made in 1776. 

James Neal, assignee to John Morgan, 400 acres on Gnatty Creek, a 
branch of Elk Creek, at the mouth of Raccoon Run, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1771. 

Jame Neal, assignee to Elias. Beggle, 400 acres on the Monongahela 
River, adjoining lands of Adam O'Brien, and the heirs of Isaac Wash- 
burn, to include his settlement made in 1771. 

James Neal, assignee to John Thomas, 400 acres on the Left Hand 
Fork of Ten Mile Creek, at the mouth of Turkey Run, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1771. 

James Neal, assignee to William Ferguson, 400 acres on the Left 


Hand Fork of Freeman's Creek, on a small run emptying into the South 
Side to include his settlement made in 1773. 

James Neal, assignee to George Richards, 400 acres on the head of 
Limestone Creek, adjoining lands at Caloo Lick, claimed by Nicholas Car- 
penter, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

Charles Fomash, assignee to Alexander Heath or Sleath, 400 acres on 
the Buckhannon River, adjoining lands of John Jackson, to include his 
settlement made in 1772. 

Richard Merifield, 1000 acres by preemption adjoining his improve- 
ment made in 1766 on Lost Run. 

John P. Duvall, assignee of James Wade, 400 acres on Rock Camp a 
branch of Ten Mile Creek, at Hezekiah Davisson's and Carpenter's Camp^ 
to include his settlement made in 1772. 

John P. Duvall, assignee to Rudolph Ballenger, 400 acres in the Forks 
of the West Fork, a com right prior to 1778. 

Coleman Brown's heirs, 400 acres to include his settlement on the 
West Fork, made in 1774, adjoining lands of Samuel Merrifield. 

John Shirley, assignee to Jacob Shirley, 400 acres on the right hand 
fork of Pringles Run, a branch of Cheat (No date). 

Thomas Pindal and John P. Duval, tenants in common, 400 acres on 
Goose Creek, a branch of Hughes River adjoining lands of Christian Coff- 
nian, on Hindals corn right prior to 1778. 

John P. Duvall, assignee to Philip Borman, 400 acres on Limestone 
Creek, including Limestone Lick, ad joining lands of Thomas Bartley, to 
include his settlement iu 1775. 

John P. Duvall, assignee to Basil Bowers, 400 acres on the run above 
Pringles Ford on the West Side about a mile from the river, to include 
his settlement made in 1775. 

John P. Duvall, assignee to William Wade, 400 acres on Catys Lick 
run including the lick, to include his settlement made in 1776. 

Hartley Duval, 400 acres on Tygarts Valley River, at the mouth of 
the run above Pringles Ford, in right of residence (No date). 

John P. Duval, assignee to Jonathan Rees, 400 acres on the main fork 
of Elk adjoining lands of Thomas Stout, to include his settlement made in 

John Price Duvall, assignee to George Williams, Jr., 400 acres on the 
right hand fork of the main fork of Freeman 's Creek, to include his settle- 
ment begun in 1772. 

Samuel Duval, 400 acres on Goose Creek, two miles above the Plumb 
Orchard, a corn right prior to 1778. 

John P. Duvall, assignee to Robert Burkett, 400 acres on the first bot- 
tom of Sandy Fork, a branch of the West Fork, to inslude his settlement 
made in 1775. 

John Price Duval, assignee to Elijah Williams, 400 acres on Free- 
man's Creek, to include his settlement made m 1775. 

John P. Duval, assignee to Samuel Mclntire, 400 acres at the Indian 
House on the waters of the West Fork, to include his settlement made in 


Lewis Duval, 400 acres on Freeman's Creek, to include his settlement 
made in 1775. 

Christian Coffman and John P. Duval, tenants in common, 400 acres 
on Goose Creek, to include Coffman 's settlement prior to 1778. 

Andrew Davisson, senior, 400 acres on Elk Creek, adjoining lands of 
Daniel Davisson to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Note — This survey included that part of Clarksburg now on the East 
side of Elk Creek, part of the Jackson land and the old Depot. 

Daniel Davisson and Hezekiah Davisson assignees to Peter Hapfield 
400 acres on Ten Mile at the mouth of Gregory's Run to include his settle- 
ment made in 1770. 

Hezekiah Davisson, assignee to John Williams, 400 acres on Elk Run 
Lick, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Basil Williams, 400 acres in the Forks of Ten Mile, adjoining lands 
of Daniel Davisson, to include his settlement made in 1774. 

Hezekiah Davisson, assignee to George Williams, senior, 400 acres on 
Ten Mile where Nathaniel Davisson was killed, by virtue of a corn right 
prior to 1773. 

Jeremiah Simpson, 400 acres on Cheat River and a run called Buffalo 
Run, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

James Neal, assignee to William Kennison, 400 acres on Ten Mile, 
to include his settlement made in 1773. 

William McCleery, assignee of David Evans, 400 acres on Spring 
Creek, including his settlement made in 1774. 

William McCleery, assignee to Charles Hickman, 400 acres on Spring 
Creek, to include his settlement made in 1774. 

William McCleery, assignee to Jacob Morris, 400 acres on Spring 
Creek, to include his settlement made in 1774. 

William McCleery, assignee to James Hughes, 400 acres on Spring 
Creek, to include his settlement made in 1774. Additional settlements 
were made on Spring Creek in the year 1774 by William Cowvines, 
James Seaton, Enos Thomas, Abraham Hickman, Jonathan Hickman, 
Harvey Thomas, John Knotts, Francis Seaton, and Joseph Howard. 
They all assigned their claims to William McCleery. 

William McCleery, assignee to Christopher Leak, 400 acres on Fox 
Grape Creek, a branch of Tygart's Valley River, at a place called Clover 
Flat adjoining land of William Thompson, to include his settlement made 
in the year 1769. 

William McCleery, assignee to Ashael Martin, 400 acres on the waters 
of Fox Grape Creek, at Clover Flat, in said Martin's right of residing 
and raising a crop of corn on the western waters, before January 1, 1778, 
he having proven that he hath not taken up or settled any land on the 
western waters. 

William McCleery, assignee to John Martin, 400 acres on Fox Grape 
Creek, a branch of Tygarts Valley River to conclude his settlement begun 
thereon in 1770. 

William McCleery, assignee to Joseph Caldwell, 400 acres at the 
mouth of Indian Camp Run, a drain of the middle fork of Ten Mile, that 
being a branch of the West Fork, to include his settlement made in 1771. 


■William MeCleery, assignee to James Gray, 400 acres on the Middle 
Fork of Ten Mile Creek to include his settlement made in 1771. 

William MeCleery, assignee to Kobert Hunter, Junior, 400 acres on 
the Middle Fork of Ten Mile, about a mile from the mouth of said Middle 
Fork, to include his settlement made in 1772. 

"William MeCleery, 400 acres on the West Fork, opposite the lands 
of Francis Reed, above the mouth of Fall Run, to include his setttlment 
made in 1771. 

William MeCleery, assignee to Robert Hunter, Junior, 400 acres on 
]\Tile, at the mouth of Grass Run and New Creek, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1771. 

William MeCleery, assignee to Basil Morris, 400 acres on Ten Mile, 
at a place called Shatley's Lick, to include his settlement made in 1771. 

William MeCleery, assignee to Moses Cooper, 400 acres at the Forks 
of Hughes and the Little Kanawha Rivers, adjoining lands claimed by 
Henry Enochs, to include his settlement made in 1778. 

William MeCleery, assignee to Garret Clawson, 400 acres on Sandy 
Fork of the Little Kanawha River, a corn right prior to 1778. 

William MeCleery, assignee to Patrick Beatty, 400 acres on the Little 
Kanawha River, about one and a half miles below the mouth of the 
Hughes River, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

William MeCleery, assignee to William Hunter, 400 acres at the 
mouth of Stewarts Creek, a branch of the main Left Hand Fork of the 
Little Kanawha, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

William MeCleery, assignee to Owen Thomas, 400 acres on the South 
Side of the Right Hand Fork of Hughes River, about two and a half miles 
above the forks, to include his improvement made in 1773. 

Salathiel Goff, assignee to William Wilson, 400 acres on Cheat River, 
opposite lands claimed by Thomas Parsons, to include his settlement made 
in 1776. 

George Stuart, 400 acres on Simpson Creek, below the Block House, 
to inf^lude his settlement made in 1772. 

Jesse Bailes, 400 acres on a branch of Tygarts Valley River, lying 
below Glady Creek, and near land knoAvn as Levels, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1772. 

James Tibbs, 400 acres on Rooting Creek, adjoining lands of James 
Arnold, to include his settlement made in 1771. 

Jacob Bush, 400 acres on the West Fork, about two miles below the 
main fork of said river, to include his improvement made in 1777. 

John Bush, 200 acres on Buckhannon, adjoining lands of John Hack- 
er, to include his improvement made in 1773. 

John Jackson, 1000 acres by preemption adjoining his settlement 
(near the Buckhannon) made in 1772. 

Henry Flesher, 400 acres at the mouth of Stone Coal Creek, to include 
his settlement made in 1776. 

Note — This survey includes the site of the present town of Weston. 

John Jackson, 400 acres on Buckhannon River, adjoining lands of 
George Jackson, to include his settlement made in 1772. 

John Swearingen, Senior, 400 acres on Washburn's Run, a drain of 


Ten Mile, adjoining lands of William Taylor, to include his preemption 
made in 1772. 

Jacob Israel, assignee to William Minor, 400 acres in the main forks 
of Hughes River, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Jacob Israel, assignee to David Evans, 400 acres on Sand Fork of 
Little Kanawha, to include his improvement made in 1775. 

Jacob Israel, assignee to John Holton, 400 acres on the East Side 
of Hughes River, about six miles from its mouth, to include his improve- 
ment made in 1775. 

Jacob Israel, assignee of Elias Gerrard, 400 acres on a branch of the 
Little Kanawha River, called Stewarts creek, to include Gerrard 's settle- 
ment made prior to 1778. 

Jacob Israel, assignee to Paul Larsh, 400 acres on Spring Creek, to 
include his settlement made in 1774. 

Jacob Israel, assignee of Samuel Swingler, 400 acres on Salt Lick 
Creek, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Jacob Israel, assignee of Stephen Minor on Ten Mile Creek, to include 
his settlement made in 1773. 

Jacob Israel, assignee of Abner Mundale, 400 acres on Spring Creek, 
including his settlement begun in 1774. 

William Robinson, 400 acres at the mouth of Three Fork Creek, and 
adjoining a run called Berkeley's Run, to include his improvement made 
in 1773. 

This survey is supposed to have included the site of the town of 

Jacob Israel, assignee of John Minor, 400 acres on Spring Creek, 
including his settlement made in 1774. 

Jacob Israel, assignee of William Garrard, 400 acres on Salt Lick 
Creek to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Jacob Israel, assignee of John Evans, 400 acres on Spring Creek, to 
include his settlement made in 1774. 

Thomas Berry, Jr., 400 acres on Simpson's Creek (no date). 

John Mller, Senior, assignee of Robert Williams, 200 acres on the 
waters of the Monongahela River on Cheat River "opposite lands claimed 
by Frederick Cooper, to include his settlement made in 1776." 

Daniel Cameron, assignee of Frederick Beebles, 150 acres on Cheat 
River, at the mouth of Bulls Run, to include his settlement made in 

Daniel Cameron, 400 acres on Cheat River, one mile below the mouth 
of Licking Creek, in right of residence. 

John Pettyjohn, Jr., 400 acres on the Tygart Valley waters, adjoin- 
ing William Pettyjohn's land, to include his settlement made in 1774. 

Abraham Little, 400 acres on both sides of Glady Creek, adjoining 
and above Major Power's land, to include his settlement made in 1776. 

Salathiel Goff, 400 acres on Cheat River, adjoining lands of Daniel 
Cameron to include the actual settlement of Salathiel Goflf in 1774, with 
a preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

Benjamin Shinn, 400 acres on Jones' Run, to include his settlement 
made in 1771. 


John Davisson 209 acres on the West Fork, adjoining land of Thomas 
Read's to include his settlement made in 1775. 

Henry Runyon, assignee of William Richards, 400 acres on Lost 
Creek, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

Henry Runyon, 400 acres on West Fork, adjoining lands of Isaac 
Washburn, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Henry Runyon, assignee to William Richards, 400 acres on Lost 
Creek, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

David Edwards, 400 acres on the waters of Elk Creek, to include his 
settlement made in 1777. 

Samuel Cottrill's heirs, assignee to Charles Griggoleey, 400 acres on 
Rooting Creek, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

John Wood, 400 acres on the East Side of the West Branch of Monon- 
gahela River, adjoining Levy Shinn's land, to include his settlement made 
in 1775. 

Josiah Davisson, 400 acres on Monongahela River, adjoining lands 
of Hezekiah Davisson, to include his improvement made in 1773. 

William Robinson, assignee to Charles Beckham, 400 acres on Simp- 
son's Creek, adjoining lands of John Powers, to include his settlment 
made in 1775. 

Thomas Hughes, 400 acres on the West Fork, adjoining lands of 
Elias Hughes, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Elias Pointer, 400 acres on Buckhannon River, adjoining Edward 
Tanner's lands to include his settlement made in 1776. 

Edward Ratliff, 400 acres on the Left Hand Fork of Freeman's 
Creek, called Gee Lick Run, adjoining lands of Gee Bush, to include his 
improvement made in 1772. 

John Whendy, 400 acres at the mouth of Whendy's Run, a drain of 
Hackers Creek, to include his improvement made in 1771. 

William Ratliff, 400 acres on Hacker's Creek adjoining lands claimed 
by John Whendy, to include his settlement made in 1771. 

Samuel Beard, 400 acres on Simpson's Creek, adjoining the lands 
of Benjamin Webb, to include his settlement made in 1776. 

William Murphy, 400 acres on the waters of Simpson's Creek, about 
a mile above the lands claimed by John Bradley, to include his improve- 
ment made in 1775. 

Daniel Fink, 400 acres at the Mud Lick on French Creek, a drain 
of the Buckhannon River, to include his improvement made in 1772. 

Charles Washburn, 400 acres on the West Branch of the Monon- 
gahela River, adjoining lands of Adam O'Brien, to include his settlement 
made in 1773. 

Obediah Davisson, 400 acres on Davisson 's Run, adjoining lands of 
Nicholas Carpenter, to include his settlement made in 1777. 

Obediah Davisson, a preemption to 1000 acres, adjoining his settle- 
ment made in 1773. 

David Sleath, 200 acres on the waters of Hacker's Creek, adjoining 
lands claimed by Samuel Bonnett, to include his settlement made in 


Edward Tanner, 300 acres on Buckhannon River, on the bottom 
called Grannery Bottom, to include his improvement made in 1773. 

Heirs of Andrew Cottrill, deceased, 400 acres on Ann Moore's Run, 
adjoining lands of Amaziah Davisson, to include his settlement made in 

Heirs of Andrew Cottrill, 400 acres on the waters of Elk Creek, 
adjoining lands of Joseph Hastings, to include his settlement made in 

Joseph Hastings, 400 acres on Elk Creek, adjoining John Ratliff's 
land to include his settlement made in 1775, with a preemption to 1000 
acres adjoining. 

Mathew Nutter, 300 acres on the East Side of Elk Creek adjoining 
lands claimed by Amaziah Davisson, to include his settement made in 

Joseph Hastings, assignee to Charles Gregoly, 400 acres on the waters 
of Elk Creek, adjoining lands of Thomas Hastings, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1775, with a preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

Christopher Nutter, 300 acres on Suds Run, a drain of Elk Creek, 
adjoining the lands of the heirs of Andrew Cottrill, to include his improve- 
ment made in 1772. 

James Tanner, 400 acres on the West Branch of the Monongahela 
River, adjoining lands of Elias Hughes, to include his improvement made 
in 1772, with a preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

Edward Tanner, 400 acres on the Buckhannon River, adjoining lands 
of Elias Panter to include his improvement made in 1776. 

William Hacker, Senior, 400 acres on the West Fork, adjoining 
lands of George Bush to include his settlement made in 1779. 

John Cutright, Senior, 400 acres at the mouth of Cutright's Run, 
to include his settlement made in 1770, with a preemption to 1000 acres 

John Hacker, 400 acres on Hacker's Creek, adjoining lands of John 
Sleath, Senior, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

John Hacker, 400 acres on Buckhannon, adjoining lands of George 
Jackson, to include his settlement made in 1774. 

John Sleath, senior, 400 acres on Hacker's Creek, adjoining lands of 
John Hacker, to include his settlement made in 1777. 

Edward Cunningham, 400 acres on the Left Fork of Bingamon 
Creek, to include his settlement made in 1773, with a preemption to 1000 
acres, adjoining. 

John Powers, 400 acres on Simpson's Creek, adjoining land of James 
Anderson, to include his settlement made in 1772. 

Edmund West, assignee to Thomas Hughes, senior, 400 acres on 
Sycamore Lick Run, a branch of the West Fork, opposite Thomas Hughes, 
Junior's land, to include his settlement made in 1773, with a preemption 
to 1000 acres adjoining. 

James Washburn, 400 acres on the West Fork River, adjoining lands 
of Charles Washburn, to include his settlement made in 1775, with a 
preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 


Isaac Davisson, 400 acres on the "West Fork, adjoining lands of John 
McCauUey, to include his improvement made in 1776. 

Christopher Baker, 400 acres on Murphy's Run, adjoining lands of 
Andrew Davisson, to include his settlement made in 1776. 

Samuel Harbert, heir of Thomas Harbert, deceased, assignee of 
John Jones, 400 acres on Jones' Run, adjoining lands claimed by William 
Robinson to include his settlement made in 1773. 

James Smith, 400 acres on a drain of Simpson's Creek, adjoining 
lands of John Nutter, to include his settlment made in 1772. 

William Runyon, 400 acres on Sycamore Creek, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1773. 

Amariah Davisson, 400 acres on the waters of Elk Creek, adjoining 
lands of Matthew Nutter, to include his settlement made in 1776. 

Amariah Davisson, 1000 acre by preemption on Limestone Creek, 
to include his improvement made in 1773. 

Thomas Nutter, 400 acres on Elk Creek, adjoining lands claimed 
by Sotha Hickman to include his settlement made in 1775. 

Note — On this tract was located the famous Nutter's Fort, which 
furnished protection to the settlers for miles around. It was situated on 
the present turnpike to Buckhannon about two miles from Clarksburg. 

William Roberson, assignee to Benjamin Shinn, 400 acres on Ten Mile 
adjoining lands of Benjamin Roberson, including his settlement made in 

Henry Fink, assignee to Henry Rule, 400 acres on Buckhannon River, 
adjoining lands of David Wilson, to include his settlement made in 1770. 

Levy Shinn, 400 acres on the West Fork, adjoining lands of John 
Wood, to include his settlement made in 1773, with a preemption to 1000 
acres adjoining. 

John Simpson, Junior, 400 acres on the waters of Sud's Run, adjoin- 
ing lands of John Good, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Jonathan Cobum, 300 acres on the West Fork of the Monongahela 
River, in the bent of the river, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

James Arnold, 400 acres on Rooting Creek, at the old Field Lick, to 
include his improvement made in 1771, with a preemption to 1000 acres 

Benjamin Robinson, assignee to Jacob Reece, 400 acres on Ten Mile, 
adjoining lands of William Robinson, to include his settlement made in 

Edmund West, 400 acres on Hacker's Creek, adjoining lands of 
William Ratcliff, including his settlement made in 1773. 

Adam O'Brien, assignee to John Richards, 400 acres on Lost Creek, 
adjoining lands of John Cain, including his settlement made in 1771. 

John Schoolcraft, heir of Anstead Schoolcraft, 400 acres on the main 
fork of Fink's Run, adjoining lands claimed by Henry Phink, to include 
his settlement made in 1774. 

Joseph Neal, 400 acrees on Robeson's Run, adjoining lands of Thomas 
Day, including his settlement made in 1773. 

Arnold Richards 300 acres on the West Fork River, adjoining lands 
of William Lowther, to include his settlement made in 1773. 


Jacob Break, assignee of Samuel Pringle, 400 acres on Buckhannon 
adjoining lands of Peter Pufenglory, to include his settlement made in 

John Jackson, assignee of Samuel Seduscus, 300 acres on the waters 
of Buckhannon, adjoining lands of George Jackson, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1776. 

Paul Richards 400 acres on the West Fork, adjoining lands of Arnold 
Richards, to include his settlement made in 1774. 

Isaac Runyon, assignee of George Claypole, 400 acres in the "Bent of 
the River Creek" to include his settlement made in 1774. 

This creek, which is a tributary of the West side of the West Fork 
River, about five miles above Clarksburg was afterwards, and is now called 
Coburns Creek. 

Elias Hughes, 400 acres on the West Fork, adjoining lands of James 
Tanner to include his improvement made in 1770 

John Hain, 250 acres on the West Fork, adjoining lands of Jacob 
Richards to include his improvement made in 1770. 

Jacob Richards, 400 acres on Sycamore Creek, to include his improve- 
ment made in the year 1771. 

Note — This survey contained Richard's Fort, mentioned in the Border 
Warfare, and was situated about six miles from Clarksburg on the West 
Milford road. 

Jesse Hughes, 400 acres on the Hacker's Creek, adjoining lands of 
Edmund West to include his settlement made in 1770. 

Isaac Richards, 400 acres on the West Side of Elk Creek, adjoining 
lands of Charles Harrison in right of residence. (No date), 

Conrad Richards 400 acres at the mouth of Lost Creek, to include his 
settlement made in 1773, with a preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

Daniel Hain 400 acres on Lost Creek, adjoining lands of Conrad 
Richards, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Adam O'Brien 400 acres on the West Fork, to include his settlement 
made in 1775, adjoining lands of Charles Washburn. 

Matthew Schoolcraft 400 acres on Slab Camp Bottom on that branch 
of the Monongahela River called Land Fork to include his settlement made 
in 1774. 

This location is probably on the waters of the West Fork or Buck- 

James Schoolcraft 400 acres on the Main Fork of Fink's Run, adjoin- 
ing lands of John Schoolcraft, to include his settlement made in 1774. 

Isaac Edwards, assignee to John Murphy, 400 acres on Andrew 
Davisson's Run, to include his improvement made in 1775. 

Benjamin Wilson and Jacob Conrad, tenants in common, assignee 
to John Davis, 400 acres at Bull Town on the Little Kanawha River to 
include his settlement made in 1775. 

Benjamin Wilson, 400 acres on Leading Creek, a branch of Tygart's 
Valley River, adjoining lands of Thomas Skidmore, to include his im- 
provement made in 1773, with a preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

Wilson's Fort which was situated in the Valley a short distance 
below the present town of Beverly was probably located on this land. 


Sotha Hickman 1000 acres on Elk Creek, by right of preemption 
adjoining lands of Matthew Nutter, to include his settlement made in 

John Tucker, senior, 200 acres on the West Fork Eiver, on the Stone 
Coal Lick, to include his improvement made in 1775. 

John Tucker, Senior, assignee to Samuel Merrefield, 400 acres on 
"West Fork, adjoining Coon's Creek, to include his settlement made in 

George Tucker, 400 acres on the waters of Booth's Creek, adjoining 
the drains of the Tygart's Valley River, to include his improvement made 
in 1775. 

Samuel Merrifield, 400 acres on the West Fork, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1773. 

Samuel Merrifield, heir of Samuel Merrifield, 400 acres on Booth's 
Creek, adjoining lands of Williams Tucker to include his settlement made 
in 1773. 

Joseph Davis, assignee to Frederick Ice, 400 acres on Tygart's Valley 
fork of the Monongahela to include his settlement made in 1770. 

Richard Falls, assignee to William Anderson, 400 acres on Cheat 
River, adjoining John Scott's land, to include his settlement made in 

Ezekiel York 400 acres on the waters of Tygarts Valley at a place 
called Hardin's cove, to include his settlement made in 1774. 

Jesse York, 400 acres in Hardin's Cove, adjoining lands of Ezekiel 
York, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

John Tucker, Junior, 400 acres on Booth's Creek, at the Big Lick, 
to include his improvement made in 1775. 

John Jackson 400 acres in Tygarts Valley Fork, adjoining the lands 
of Jonathan Byard to include his settlement made in 1775. 

John Jonston, 1000 acres by preemption on the waters of Tygart's 
Valley Fork, adjoining lands of Graham Byard, to include his settlement 
made in 1775. 

John Carey 400 acres on Tygart's Valley River, adjoining Forsher's 
Levels, to include his settlement made in 1776. 

Jeremiah Prather, assignee of John Davis, who was assignee to Daniel 
Hazel, 200 acres in Tygart's Valley, on the West Side of the river, adjoin- 
ing lands of Peter Cassity and Benjamin Jones, to include his settlement 
made in 1771. 

John Tucker, the third, 400 acres on Booth's Creek, to include his 
settlement made in 1776. 

William Tucker, Junior, 400 acres on the dividing ridge between 
Tygart's Valley River and Booth's Creek, to include his settlement made 
in 1775, adjoining lands of the heirs of James Booth. 

Thomas Merifield 400 acres on the waters of Booth's Creek, on 
Homer's Run, to include his improvement made in 1766. 

Thomas Merrifield 500 acres by preemption adjoining his improvement 
made in 1776. 


Joseph Tomlinson, Junior, 600 acres on the Ohio River adjoining his 
settlement made in 1773, opposite Letarts Falls, a preemption. 

John P. Duvall, assignee to Martin Worthington, 400 acres on Polk 

Creek, beginning at the road that comes to the Creek from the G 

Lick, to include his settlement begun in 1772. 

John P. Duvall, assignee of Hugh Evans, 400 acres at the mouth 
of the Left Hand Fork of Shinn's Run, to include his settlement made 
in 1775. 

Robert Harding, 400 acres on Goose Creek, by right of residence. (No 

Robert Conner, 400 acres on Cheat River, adjoining lands of James 
Conner to include his improvement made in 1776. 

John Tucker, assignee of Samuel Merrifield 800 acres by preemption 
on the West Fork, adjoining Coon's Creek. 

William Stewart, assignee to James Workman, 400 acres on the 
Little Kanawha, on the west side of said Kanawha, in the right of said 
Workman's residence, to include an improvement made in 1776, with a 
preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

William, John and Lewis Rogers, tenants in common, 400 acres on 
Mill Creek at the forks of said Creek, above the Falls, to include their 
improvement made in 1778. 

Robert Cunningham, 400 acres on Cheat River, adjoining lands of 
James Parsons on the one side and Salathiel Goff on the other, to include 
his settlement made in 1774. 

John Plummer, 400 acres on Tygarts Valley Fork, about two miles 
from Pettyjohns fording to include his settlement made in 1775. 

Samuel Megenley, 400 acres on the Little Kanawha, adjoining 
Alexander Henderson's lowest entry, to include his improvement made in 

William Westfall, 400 acres on Teters Creek, to include his settlement 
made in 1772. 

Abraham Thomas 400 acres on the South side of the main fork of 
the Little Kanawha, to include his settlement made in 1774. 

Peter Springstone, 400 acres on Mill Creek, adjoining lands of Elias 
Barker, to include his settlement made in 1772. 

Robert Woods, assignee of Andrew Scott, 400 acres on Lee's Creek, 
a branch of the Ohio, adjoining and above his Excellency General Wash- 
ington's survey, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

The heirs of Andrew Robinson, deceased, assignee of Andrew Scott, 
heir of Andrew Scott deceased, 400 acres on Lee's Creek,a branch of 
the Ohio, joining lands of Robert Woods, to include his settlement made 
in 1773. 

John Boggs, assignee of David McClure, who was assignee of 
Kennicks, 1000 acres by preemption on the north side of the Little Kana- 
wha about six miles from its mouth to include his improvement made in 

John Knox, 400 acres on Beaver Creek, a branch of Hughes River, 
to include his settlement made in 1776. 

Sarah Province, assignee of Richard Lemasters, 400 acres on Mill 


Creek, above the Falls, to include said Lemasters settlement made in 

Sarah Province, assignee of Eobert Bennett, 400 acres above the Falls 
to include his improvement made in 1770. 

James Chew, assignee of George Cochran preemption to 1000 acres 
adjoining his settlement made on Salt Lick Creek in 1773. 

William Robinson, assignee of James Pettet, preemption to 1000 acres 
adjoining his settlement on Salt Lick Creek. , 

William Robinson, assignee of William Harden, 1000 acres adjoining 
his settlement on Salt Lick in 1773. 

John Morrison 400 acres on Sand Fork, on the West Side of the 
Little Kanawha, about four miles from the same. (No date). 

Henry Morrison, 400 acres on Sand Fork adjoining lands of John 

John Chew, assignee of Thomas Haymond, preemption to 1000 acres 
adjoining Haymond 's improvement on Salt Lick Creek made in 1773. 

William Robinson, assignee of John Hardesty, preemption to 1000 
acres adjoining his improvement on Salt Lick Creek in 1773. 

William Robinson, assignee of Adam Hyder, preemption to 1000 
acres adjoining Hyder 's settlement at the Forks of Cheat known as Black 

William Robinson, assignee of Joseph Beedle, 1000 acres adjoining 
his improvement made in 1773 on Salt Lick. 

Wiliam Robertson, assignee of Ed Harden, 1000 acres, adjoining his 
improvement made on Salt Lick in 1773. 

John Madison, Junior, 400 acres on Big Sandy Creek, between 
the two Kanawha's, at a large glade near the Creek a com right. 

David Wilson, 400 acres on Buckhannon River, adjoining Henry 
Phinks, to include his settlement made in 1774. 

Henry Rhodes, 400 acres on Buckhannon River adjoining Jacob 
Brakes, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Christopher Hannaman, 400 acres on Stewart's run, including his 
improvement made in 1774. 

Aaron Smith, 400 acres on Simpson's Creek, adjoining lands of John 
Mclntire, including his settlement made in 1772. 

Daniel Fink, assignee of Dennis Murphy, 400 acres on Fink's Run, 
a drain of the Buckhannon River, to include his settlement made in 

Isaac Edwards, 400 acres on the right hand fork of Ten Mile Creek, 
adjoining lands of Thomas Cunningham to include his improvement made 
hi 1772. 

Charles Harris 400 acres on Elk Creek, at the Big Poplar, to include 
his settlement made in 1771. 

Joseph Wilkinson, 400 acres on Simpson's Creek, adjoining Samuel 
Wilkinson's land. (No date). 

John Yeoakum, 400 acres on Barkers Creek, to include his settlement 
made in 1773.. 

Michael Yeocham, 400 acres on Sugar Creek, adjoining lands of 
William Gibson, to include his settlement made in 1772. 


William Gibson, heir of William Gibson, deceased, 400 acres on Sugar 
Creek, adjoining lands of Michael Yoacham. 

William Smith, assignee to John Stuart, 400 acres on Sugar Creek, 
adjoining lands of Davis Davis, to include his settlement made in 1776. 

John Allison, 400 acres on Hughes River, about four miles above 
the mouth of Goose Creek, including his improvement made in 1775. 

Ezekiel Boggs, 400 acres on Hughes River, adjoining the lands of 
John Allison to include his improvement made in 1775. 

Henry Taylor, 400 acres on Hughes River, adjoining lands of Ezekiel 
Boggs to include his improvement made in 1775. 

Robert Taylor, 400 acres on Hughes River adjoining lands of Henry 
Taylor, to include his improvement made in 1775. 

Samuel Taylor, 400 acres on Hughes River, adjoining lands of Robert 
Taylor, to include his improvement made in 1775. 

John Clark, 400 acres on the South Side of Hughes River, adjoining 
lands of Samuel Taylor, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

James Allen, 400 acres on Hughes River adjoining lands of John 
Clark, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

John Chapman, 400 acres on Hughes River, adjoining lands of James 
Allen, including his improvement made in 1775. 

David Barr, 400 acres on Hughes River, adjoining lands of John 
Chapman, including his improvement made in 1775. 

John McKnight, 400 acres on Hughes River, adjoining lands of David 
Barr, including his improvement made in 1775. 

James McRobins, 400 acres on Hughes River, adjoining lands of John 
McKnight, including his improvement made in 1775. 

John McGlend, 400 acres on Hughes River adjoining lands of James 
McRobins, including his improvement made in 1775. 

Robert Cavins, 400 acres on Hughes River, adjoining lands of John 
McGlend, including his improvement made in 1775. 

Thomas Gilliland, 400 acres on Hughes River adjoining lands of 
Robert Cavins, including his improvement made in 1775. 

Hugh Gilliland, 400 acres on Hughes River, adjoining lands of 
Thomas Gilliland, including his improvement made in 1775. 

Mical Hults, 400 acres on Hughes River, adjoining lands of Hugh 
Gilliland, including his improvement made in 1775. 

Jacob Miller, 400 acres on Hughes River, adjoining lands of Michael 
McKnight, including his improvement made in 1775. 

Jacob Rice, 400 acres on Hughes River adjoining lands of Jacob 
Miller, including his settlement made in 1775. 

Joseph Gregory, 400 acres on the East Side of Elk, to include the 
mouth of Davisson's Run to include his improvement made in 1772. 

Samuel Wilkinson, assignee of William Boon, 400 acres on the North 
Fork of Simpson's Creek, including his settlement made in 1774. 

William Stuart, assignee of John Cutright, 400 acres on the waters of 
Wills Creek, a branch of the Ohio, adjoining his Excellency General Wash- 
ington's land, to include his improvement made in 1773. 

Heirs of James Owens, deceased, 400 acres on Booth's Creek adjoining 
lands of John Owens, including his settlement made in 1774. 


John Owens, 400 acres on Booth's Creek, adjoining land of John 
Thomas, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

James McKenny, 400 acres on Simpson's Creek, and Lost Run. (No 

William McKinney, 400 acres on Simpson's Creek and Lost Run. (No 

Thomas Clare, assignee of Jacob Weatherbolt, 400 acres on the South 
side of the Little Kanawha, ten miles above the mouth of Hughes River, 
to include his settlement made in 1772. 

John Ramsey, 400 acres on the lower side of the Little Kanawha, 
at the mouth of Hughes River, including the improvement made by George 
Yeager, in 1772. 

William Stuart, 400 acres on the South side of the Little Kanawha, 
a small distance above the mouth of Worthington Creek, including his 
settlement made in 1772. 

Jacob Beeson on the right of George Greene, 400 acres on the North 
Side of the Little Kanawha three or four miles from the mouth of Hughes 
River, to include his improvement made in 1772. 

William John, assignee of John Draggoo, 400 acres, on the East Side 
of the Little Kanawha, in a large bend opposite the mouth of a run, empty- 
ing into the said river on the West side by right of settlement. No date. 

John Pierce Duval, assignee of Elisha Collings, 1000 acres by pre- 
emption on the West Fork, opposite the land of Francis Reed, above the 
mouth of Falling Run, adjoining lands of Thomas Barkley to include the 
improvement made by Thomas Collings in 1771. 

Henry Robinson, assignee of William Meginley, preemption to 1000 
acres in the Round Bottom, above the mouth of Booths Creek, to include 
Meginley 's settlement made in 1772. 

John Simpson, 400 acres on the West Fork, to include his settlement 
made in 1775. 

John Briscol, Senior, 400 acres on Briscol's Run, a branch of the Ohio, 
six miles above the mouth of the Little Kanawha, including his settlement 
in 1773. 

John Briscol, Junior, 400 acres on the Ohio, near the mouth of the 
Little Kanawha, including his settlement made in 1773. 

Paremas Briscol, 400 acres on the Ohio, at a place called Indian Field, 
to include his settlment made in 1773. 

Walter Briscol, 400 acres on the Ohio adjoining lands of John Briscol, 
including his settlement made in 1773. 

Richard Holmes, 400 acres on Washington's Creek, on the waters of 
the Little Kanawha, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Jonah Holmes, assignee of Patrick Dosing, 400 acres on the Little 
Kanawha, adjoining lands of Richard Holmes, including his settlement 
made in 1773. 

Martin Shobe, assignee of Charles Ratcliff, 400 acres on Duck Creek, 
including his settlement made in 1772. 

James Parsons, 400 acres in the Horseshoe Bottom, Cheat River, to 
include his settlement made in 1769. 


Thomas Parsons, 400 acres on Horse Shoe run, including his settlement 
made in 1774, also a preemption to 400 acres adjoining. 

John O'Finn, 400 acres on Bull Creek, including his settlement made 
in 1775. 

Kobert Wood, assignee of James Caldwell, 400 acres on the Litttle 
Kanawha, to include Caldwell's settlement made in 1773. 

Henry Enochs, Junior, 400 acres on Owen's Fork of Ten Mile, to in- 
clude his settlement made in 1775. 

Robert Briscol, assignee of John Wilson, 400 acres on Ohio Eiver, to 
include the settlement made by Wilson in 1773. 

John Gibson, 400 acres on the West Fork of the Little Kanawha, to 
include his settlement made in 1772. 

John Miller, assignee of Isaac Dillon, 400 acres on Booth's Creek, 
including his settlement made in 1774. 

John Wickwire, assignee of Richard Merryfield, 400 acres on Booth's 
Creek to include his settlement made in 1773. 

John Wickwire, assignee of James Templeton, 400 acres on Booth's 
Creek, to include his settlement made in 1774. 

Ezekiel Thomas, 400 acres on Booth's Creek, including his settlement 
made in 1773. 

Jeremiah Smith, 400 acres on Simpson's Creek, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1774. 

Samuel Smith, 400 acres on Simpson's Creek, to include his settlement 
made in 1774. 

James Chew, assignee of Charles Washburn, 400 acres on Stone Coal 
Creek, to include his settlement made in 1774. 

Daniel Stout, 400 acres on Elk Creek, including his settlement made 
in 1775. 

Jonathan Stout, 400 acres on Simpson's Creek, including his settle- 
ment made in 1772. 

Charles Burcham, 400 acres on Simpson's Creek, including his settle- 
ment made in 1774. 

Peter Crouse, heir of William Crouse, 300 acres on Crooked Run, 
including his settlement made in 1773. 

Jonathan Stout, assignee of William Davis, 40 acres on Simpson's 
Creek to include his settlement made in 1772. 

John Owen's 400 acres on Booth's Creek, including his settlement 
made in 1774. 

John Anderson, heir of John Anderson, deceased, 400 acres on Booth's 
Creek, including his settlement made in 1774. 

John Merefield, 400 acres on Otter Creek, a branch of Tygart's Valley 
River, to include his settlement made in 1774. 

William Isner, 400 acres on Tygart's Valley River, including his set- 
tlement made in 1775, adjoining lands of Benjamin Wilson, 

George Stuart, 400 acres on Simpson's Creek, below the Block House, 
adjoining lands of William Lowther, to include his settlement made in 

John Booth, heir of James Booth, 200 acres on the South Side of 


Tygart's Valley River, opposite Forshey's level, to include his improve- 
ment made in 1778. 

Eichard Yates, assignee of Michael Tyger and Thomas Bond, who 
was assignee of Charles Churchwell, 400 acres in the forks of the Little 
Kanawha river, adjoining lands of Henry Castle, including his improve- 
ment made in 1774. 

Samuel Merefield, 400 acres on the West Fork, including his settle- 
ment made in 1773, 

Michael Heagle, 400 acres on the Buckhannon, adjoining the lands of 
Charles Fallinash, to include his settlement made in 1776. 

John Heagle, 400 acres on Buckhannon, adjoining lands of Michael 
Heagle, including his settlement made in 1776. 

George Bush, heir of Michael Bush, 400 acres on Buckhannon River, 
adjoining lands of George Jackson, to include his settlement made in 

John Syms, 400 acres on Cheat River, at the mouth of Clover Run, 
including his settlement made in 1775. 

John Boggs, assignee of David McClure, 400 acres on the Little 
Kanawha, about a mile and a half below the first main fork opposite the 
Falls, on the upper side of the river, to include his settlement made in 

Richard Yates, assignee of Michael Tyger, and Thomas Bond, who 
was assignee to Charles Churchill, 1000 acres by preemption at the forks 
of the Little Kanawha to include his improvement made in 1774. 

Nathaniel Redford, 500 acres to include his improvement made in 
1775, on the Little Kanawha, opposite lands of Richard Lee. 

Gabriel Wilkinson, 400 acres on Simpson's Creek, adjoining lands of 
Samuel Wilkinson, including his settlement made in 1772. 

Charles Martin, assignee of Daniel Stephens, 400 acres on Booth's 
about two miles from the West Fork, adjoining lands of Benjamin Shinn, 
to include his settlement made in 1774. 

Charles Martin, assignee of Michael Whitelock, 400 acres at Mud Lick, 
to include his settlement made in 1774. 

James Current, assignee of James Anderson, 400 acres on Booth's 
Creek, including his settlement made in 1776. 

Jacob Israel, assignee of Stephen Minor, to include his settlement 
made in 1773. 

John Simpson, 400 acres on the West Fork, including his settlement 
made in 1775. 

John Heagle, 400 acres on Buckhannon River, adjoining lands of 
Michael Heagle, including his settlement made in 1776. 

Henry Flesher, assignee of Alexander Maxwell, 400 acres on the West 
Fork, to include his settlement made in 1776, adjoining lands of Isaac 

Peter Puffinliger, 400 acres on the Buckhannon River, at the mouth 
of Ratliff's run, including his settlement made in 1774. 

Humphrey Bell, 400 acres on Hughes River. (No date). 

Henry Fink, 300 acres on the Left Hand Fork of Stone Coal, about 
three miles from its mouth. (No date). 


David Shepherd, 400 acres on the upper side of the Little Kanawha, 
about five miles from the mouth, to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Moses Shepherd, 400 acres on a small drain of the Ohio Eiver, about 
two miles below Bull Creek, with a preemption to 1000 acres adjoining. 

Joseph Thompson, 400 acres on Stewart's Fork of Elk ,including Sand 
Lick to include his settlement made in 1775. 

John Thompson, 400 acres at Clover Flats, on the Fox Grape Creek, 
to include his settlement made in 1772. 

James Brown, 400 acres on the Left Hand Fork of Lost Creek, to in- 
clude his improvement made in 1775. 

John Thompson, assignee of Henry Thompson, 400 acres on Gnatty 
Creek, at the mouth of Prather Run, to include his settlement made in 

Joseph Hutchings, 400 acres on the Left Hand Fork of Fox Grape 
Creek, to include his improvement made in 1773. 

Francis Barrell, assignee of Henry Haines, 328 acres on Coburn's 
Creek, to include his settlement made in 1775. 

James Taylor, 400 acres on the right hand fork of Fox Grape Creek, 
to include his settlement made in 1773. 

Charles Harris, 1000 acres at the Hollow Poplar on Elk Creek to include 
his residence. (No date). 

John Hawkins Low, assignee of Patrick McEllroy and Major Tem- 
plier, 1000 acres on Bull Creek, two miles from its mouth, to include the 
improvement made in 1774, by said McEllroy and Templin. 

John Hadin, 200 acres on Hadin's Mill Run, a branch of Tygart's 
Valley River, to include his settlement made in 1774. 

John Hawkins Low, assignee of John Pierce, who was assignee of John 
Shoemaker, 400 acres on Bull Creek, to include Shoemaker's improvement 
made in 1774. 

John Sleath, Senior, 400 acres on Hacker's Creek, adjoining lands of 
John Hacker, to include his settlement made in 1777. 

Thomas Nutter, assignee of Edward West, 400 acres on Elk, including 
his settlement made in 1772. 

Daniel McFarland, assignee of James Moranday, who was assignee of 
Henry Thomas, 400 acres in the main forks of the Little Kanawha, to 
include his settlement made in 1774. 

Henry Castell, 400 acres on the Little Kanawha, adjoining Paul Arm- 
strong's land to include his settlement made in 1775. 

Paul Armstrong, preemption to 1000 acres, on the Little Kanawha, in- 
cluding his settlement made in 1775. 

Richard Yates, assignee of Michael Tegards 400 acres in the forks of 
the Little Kanawha, adjoining lands of Henry Castle, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1774. 

George Teter, 400 acres on Tygart's Valley River, adjoining said river, 
to include his settlement made in 1772. 

Henry Enochs, assignee of Richard Jackson, 400 acres on the Little 
Kanawha, adjoining lands of Richard Lee, to include his settlement made 
in 1774. 


George Parker, 400 acres on the waters of Cheat Eiver, to include his 
improvement made in 1781. 

Richard Lee, 400 acres on the Little Kanawha, to include his settle- 
ment made in 1774 adjoining lands of Nathaniel Bedford. 

Owen Davis, 400 acres on Carter 's Eun, to include his settlement made 
thereon in the year 1770, also 1000 acres adjoining in right of preemption. 

Thomas Davis, assignee to Owen Davis, 400 acres on the West Fork 
of the Monongahela River, to include his settlement made in 1774. Also 
to same 1000 acres adjoining by preemption. 

John Hardin, Junior, assignee of Benjamin Rodgers, 400 acres to 
include his settlement made in 1771 at Hardin's Cove on the waters of 
Tygart Valley Fork of the Monongahela River. 

Richard Merrifield, assignee of Moses Templin, 400 acres on Lost Run, 
to include his settlement made in 1766. 

Noah Hadden, preemption to 1000 acres, about two miles from the 
mouth of Red Creek, known as Hadens Cabin, to include his improvement 
made in 1776. 

Michael Hagle, 400 acres on Buckhannon River, adjoining lands of 
Charles Fallinash, to include his settlement made in 1776. 

John Hagle, 400 acres on the Buckhannon river, adjoining lands 
claimed by Michael Hagle, to include his settlement made in 1776. 

William Anglin, 400 acres on Tygart 's Valley River at Pringles Ford, 
including his settlement made in 1773. 

John Booth, heir of James Booth 400 acres on Booths Creek in the 
forks of the Monongahela River, to include his settlement made in 1771. 

Levy Wells 400 acres on the West Fork adjoining lands of Thomas 
Reed in the right of having a tenant thereon in 1770, also 1000 acres in 
right of preemption on the West Fork adjoining lands of Thomas Reed in 
right of having a tenant settled thereon in 1770. 

The records of the Harrison County's surveyors book show that Jona- 
than Coburn on June 27th, 1785, entered 200 acres on Sycamore Creek to 
include the Mud Lick, and on October 1, 1785, he entered 200 acres on 
Coburn 's Creek adjoining and between the lands of Henry Runyon, Isaac 
Davisson and his settlement whereon he now lives. 

Not all of the parties receiving these certificates from the commission 
afterwards perfected their titles but sold and assigned them to others 
who had the lands called for, surveyed and received patents for them. 

Many of the holders of certificates had their lands surveyed in Monon- 
galia County, and others waited until Harrison County was formed, and 
had their surveys made in that County. 

Many of the settlers did not take up homesteads, preferring to be a 
squatter on public or private lands, purchase land office treasury warrants 
and locate them in one or more places, if they saw fit, or buy land from the 
large land owners. 

After the establishment of the Virginia Land Office in 1779 it became 
so easy to own land that the homestead practically passed out of use. 

There were also a class of squatters and rovers who would make a 
clearing, build a cabin without troubling themselves about perfecting a 


title, but would sell their improvement to some one else and move to 
another location where the hunting was good. 

The Surveyor's Office for Harrison County was opened for business in 
the fall of 1784 at Clarksburg and by the end of the year eighty different 
tracts of land were returned as surveyed and entered on the books of the 

In the year 1785 nine hundred and sixty surveys were made. In the 
year 1786 three hundred and thirty five were made. 

This indicates quite an increase in the population for the time men- 


Indian Tribes. 

The Indian tribes that brought death and destruction to the Virginia 
frontiers had their villages in what is now the State of Ohio. 

The Wyandottes occupied the Valley of the Sandusky river, the 
Delawares on the Tuscarawas and Muskingum Rivers, the Shawnees along 
the Sciota, their principal towns being in the neighborhood of Chillicothe, 
the Miamas on the Great and Little Miami Rivers, the Mingoes in the 
neighborhood of Steubenville, the Ottawas along the valleys of the San- 
dusky and Maume Rivers and the Chippewas along the Southern shores of 
Lake Erie. 

From these strongholds they would send out their war parties against 
an almost defenceless settlement and after striking a blow would quickly 
return to their homes with what little plunder they could carry with 

The settlers always held to the theory that the proper policy was to at- 
tack the Indians in their villages and by their destruction bring the war 
home to them and thus break up their excursions on the frontier. 

Their appeal to the State and National authorities were many and 
loud for protection. Both of these authorities had all they could do while 
the war of the Revolution was on, and after it was over the country was 
almost exhausted of men and money, and for this reason the frontier was 
pretty much left to take care of itself. 

It was not until after the adoption of the Constitution of the United 
States and when the strong hand of "Washington was endeavoring to weld 
discordant States into an authority resembling a nation, that any great 
efforts were attempted to break the power of these savages on their native 
heath, and while meeting with defeat at first, finally succeeded in destroy- 
ing their military strength by the brilliant action of Big Timbers under 
the command of Mad Anthony Wayne in 1794. 

The expeditions against the Harrison County frontier were chiefly 
made by the Shawnees, Mingoes, Delawares, and Wyandottes. The 
Shawnees were the most persistent in their hostilities perhaps from their 
being somewhat closer to the scene of action. 

The trails generally pursued by these war parties in their attack on 
the West Fork Settlements led up the Little Kanawha to the mouth of 
Leading Creek, just below the present town of Glenville, thence up that 
creek to its head waters, thence over the divide to the waters of Freeman's 
Creek, or some other tributary of the West Fork. 

Raids were sometimes made up Middle Island Creek and thence over 
on to the waters of Ten Mile Creek. 

The Indian was always suspicious of the white man, and as soon as 
his untutored mind grasped the idea that the newcomers had come to stay 
and that he would be dispossessed of his country he naturally went to war, 
and from that time down to quite a recent period he has protested and 
resisted in vain the encroachment of the whites upon what the Indian con- 
sidered his own. 


Early Indian Troubles and Dunmores War. 

The first murders committed by the Indians on the territory of West 
Virginia west of the mountains of which we have any account was that 
of the two brothers Eckarly's, trappers and hunters, which occurred on 
Cheat River in what is now Preston County in the year 1753. This was 
the opening tragedy that for a generation stained the forest aisles of West 
Virginia with blood. 

Eobert Files and David Tygart in the year 1753 as given by some 
writers, the Border Warfare gives the date as 1754, moved with their 
families from the South Branch of the Potomac following a trail across 
the mountain to the East fork of the Monongahela River. Files located 
at the present site of Beverly in Randolph County at the mouth of the 
Creek, which still bears his name, and Tygart built his cabin two miles 
above and on the river, which for many years was known as Tygarts Valley 
Kiver, and in the valley which still bears his name. 

Discovering that a well traveled path, known as the Warriors road, 
used by the Indians ran up the valley near their cabin, determined them 
to abandon their settlements and return East of the mountains. But they 
delayed too long. At a time when all the family of Files were at home 
except one boy, a party of Indians returning from the South branch, 
inhumanly murdered them all. Young Files being close by and hearing 
the noise of the attack, approached near enough to discover what was 
taking place, ran for Tygart 's cabin and gave the alarm. Tygart hurriedly 
gathering his family together managed to escape from a similar fate and 
reached the settlements on the South Branch in safety. 

It was not until the year 1772 that a second attempt was made to 
settle in Tygart 's Valley. Among the early settlers that took up lands 
there were the names of Hadden Whitman, Wamsley, Warwick, Nesson 
Stalnaker, Riffle, Westfall and Wilson. 

Thomas Decker and others settled at the mouth of the creek which 
still bears his name in Monongalia County, but the little colony was set 
upon in the Spring of 1759 by a party of Delawares and Mingoes and de- 
stroyed, some few of them escaping. 

After the termination of the war with France Pontiac the great chief 
of the Ottawas organized a conspiracy to capture all the English Forts 
along the Great Lakes and located in the Country East of them. This was 
so carefully planned that it came very nearly being successful. The fort 
at Detroit was the only one that was not captured and hundreds of lives 
were lost on the frontier settlements and Fort Pitt itself was surrounded 
and beseiged in the year 1763. 

Col. Henry Boquet an officer of the British Army was sent with a 
large force over the route made by General Forbes in 1758, relieved Fort 


Pitt and conducted an expedition into the Indian Country, burnt their 
towns and entered into a treaty of peace with them in 1764. 

From the time of this treaty up to the year 1773 there was peace up- 
on the border and settlements were made along the waters of the Monon- 

Captain Bull was a Delaware Chief whose original village was on the 
head waters of the Susquehannah Eiver in N. Y. He had been prominent 
in urging his people to take part in Pontiac 's conspiracy against the whites 
in 1763. 

Sir William Johnson, Superintendent of Indian affairs, caused him to 
be arrested and imprisoned for some time but he was finally discharged. 

Captain Bull with five families of his relatives moved to the Little 
Kanawha about the year 1767 and settled at a place callel BuUtown by the 
white settlers. This was at a salt spring about a mile below the present 
Bulltown Post Office, Braxton County. 

A German by the name of Stroud, who had settled on Gauley River 
had his family murdered during his absence in 1772 by a party of 

A party of settlers from the settlement on Hacker's Creek under the 
pretense that these murders had been committed by Captain Bull's people, 
in this year attacked and kiUed the entire village at Bulltown. William 
White, William Hacker, Jesse Hughes and John Cutright are said to have 
been with the party. 

Among the Indians who were friendly to the whites was one known as 
Bald Eagle, who frequently visited the settlements in West Augusta, and 
went on hunting and fishing expeditions with the settlers among whom he 
was always a welcome visitor. In one of these visits in 1774 he was dis- 
covered alone by Jacob Scott, William Hacker and Elijah Runner, who 
reckless of the consequences, murdered him simply because he was an In- 
dian. The body was propped up in a canoe with a piece of com bread 
thrust in his mouth, and the canoe launched on the Monongahela River. 
The canoe floated near to the shore below the mouth of George's Creek, 
was discovered by a Mrs. Province, who had it brought to the bank and the 
body decently buried. 

Early in the year 1774 the canoes of the white traders were robbed on 
the Ohio River by Indians, and Indians were killed in retaliation until 
finally the family of Logan, a Mingo chief of great influence was murdered 
by a party of reckless whites while they were peacefully in camp. 

These occurrences aroused both the settlers and the Indians and what 
is known as Dunmore's war broke out and continued with occasional in- 
termissions for twenty years. 

John Murray the Earl of Dunmore was then the royal Governor of 
the colony of Virginia at Williamsburg, and by reason of urgent appeals 
from the settlers west of the mountains organized an expedition against 
the Indians beyond the Ohio. 

General Andrew Lewis led the column that moved by way of the 
Greenbrier Country, and on the 10th of October, 1774 fought the combined 
Indian tribes under Cornstalk, a Shawnee Chief, at the mouth of the Big 


Kanawha now Point Pleasant, and defeated him with heavy loss on both 

Lord Dunmore commanded the northern column which marched by 
the way of Fort Pitt to the Sciota River, where at Camp Charlotte near 
Chillicothe, Ohio, he negotiated a treaty of peace with the tribes in that 
neighborhood in November 1774. 

The treaty was observed for a time but the murder of Cornstalk by 
the troops stationed at Point Pleasant and the breaking out of the war of 
the Revolution, and the instigation of British officers, again let loose the 
savages on the Virginia frontier and their predatory forays continued 
until 1795. 

Cornstalk, the Shawnee chief who commanded the Indian army at the 
battle of Point Pleasant, came to Lord Dunmore 's camp and entered into 
a treaty of peace with the whites. 

He was not only a great warrior but had the reputation of being a 
skilled forest statesman, orator, and a wise ruler of his people. 

Colonel Benjamin "Wilson, who for many years was a resident of Har- 
rison County, and a prominent man of affairs on the frontier, was a mem- 
ber of Dunmore 's staff on this expedition and was present at the council. 
In remarking on the appearance of Cornstalk Colonel Wilson as stated in 
the Border Warfare, said "When he arose he was in no wise confused or 
daunted but spoke in a distinct and audible voice without stammering or 
repetition and with peculiar emphasis. His looks while addressing Dun- 
more were truly grand and majestic, yet graceful and attractive. I have 
heard the first orators in Virginia, Patrick Henry and Richard Henry Lee, 
but never have I heard one whose powers of delivery surpass those of 
Cornstalk on that occasion." 

In the Spring of 1777, Cornstalk visited Fort Randolph which had 
been erected at Point Pleasant, then commanded by Captain Matthew Ar- 
buckle, to inform him that the Indians were preparing to make war on the 

During Cornstalk 's visit at the fort one of the soldiers of the garrison 
while out hunting was killed by an Indian. This so enraged the soldiers 
that they arose in mutiny and murdered Cornstalk who was then in the 
fort, the guest of the commanding officer. 

This cowardly act caused deep regret and excited the just indignation 
of all conservative people on the frontier towards the inhuman mob. 

The Shawnees were a warlike tribe and the frontier of Virginia 
suffered a bloody retaliation for this barbarous act, and they broke upon 
the settlements with such fury that this year, 1777, was known as the 
bloody year of the three sevens. 


Indian Wars. 

The result of this renewing of hostilities between the Indians and 
whites was first felt in Harrison County in the summer of 1774. 

Death of Brown and capture of Eobinson and Hellen. 

On the 12th day of July 1774 as William Eobinson, Thomas Hellen 
and Coleman Brown were pulling flax in a field on the West side of the 
West Fork Eiver opposite the mouth of Simpson's Creek, a party of eight 
Indians, among whom was Logan, afterwards the celebrated Mingo chief, 
warrior and orator, approached unperceived and fired at them. 

Brown fell instantly, his body perforated by several balls and Hellen 
and Eobinson unscathed, sought safety in flight. Hellen, being then an 
old man, was soon overtaken and made captive, but Eobinson, with the 
elasticity of youth, ran a considerable distance before he was taken, and but 
for an untoward accident might have effected his escape. 

Believing that he was outstripping his pursuers and anxious to ascer- 
tain the fact, he looked over his shoulder but before he discovered the In- 
dian giving chase, he ran with such violence against a tree that he fell 
stunned by the shock and lay powerless and insensible. In this situation 
he was secured by a cord, and when he revived was taken back to the place 
where the Indians had Hellen in confinement, and where lay the lifeless 
body of Brown. They then set off to their towns, taking with them a horse 
belonging to Hellen. 

When they approached near enough to the Indian village on the 
Muskingham to be distinctly heard, Logan gave the scalp halloo and sev- 
eral warriors came out to meet them, and conducted the prisoners into the 
village. Here they passed through the accustomed ceremony of running 
the gauntlet, but with far different fortunes. Eobinson having been pre- 
viously instructed by Logan, who, from the time he made him his prisoner, 
manifested a kindly feeling towards him, made his way with but little in- 
terruption to the council house, but poor Hellen from the decrepitude of 
age, and his ignorance of the fact that it was a place of refuge, was sadly 
beaten before he arrived at it, and when at length came near enough he 
was knocked down with a war club before he could enter. After he had 
fallen they continued to beat him with such unmerciful severity that he 
would assuredly have fallen a victim to their barborous usage, but that 
Eobinson at some peril for the interference, reached forth his hand and 
drew him within the sanctuary. When, however, he had recovered from 
the effects of the violent beating which he had received, he was relieved 
from the apprehension of further suffering by being adopted into an In- 
dian family. 

A council was next invoked to resolve on the fate of Eobinson and 
then rose in his breast feelings of the most anxious inquietude. Logan 


__ __^ _ 

assured him that he should not be killed; but the council appeared deter- 
mined that he should die, and he was tied to the stake. Logan then ad- 
dressed them and with much vehemence insisted that Robinson too should 
be spared, and had the eloquence displayed on that occasion been less than 
Logan is believed to have possessed, it is no means wonderful that he ap- 
peared to Robinson (as he afterwards said) the most powerful orator he 
ever heard. But commanding as his eloquence might have been, it seems 
not to have prevailed with the council, for Logan had to interpose other- 
wise than by argument or entreaty to succeed to the attainment of his ob- 

Enraged at the pertinancy at which the life of Robinson was sought 
to be taken, and reckless of the consequences he drew the tomahawk from 
his belt and severing the cords which bound the devoted victim to the 
stake, led him in triumph to the cabin of an old squaw by whom he was 
Immediately adopted. 

After this, so long as Logan remained in the town where Robinson 
was, he was kind and attentive to him, and when prepared to go again to 
war got him to write the letter which was afterwards found on the Hol- 
stein at the house of a Mr. Robinson, whose family were all murdered by 
the Indians. Robinson remained with his adopted mother until he was re- 
deemed under the treaty concluded at the close of the Dunmore 

The note referred to above is given by DeHass as follows : 

Captain Cresap : 

What did you kill my people on Yellow Creek for? The white people 
killed my people at Corestoga, a great while ago, and I thought nothing 
of that. But you killed my kin on Yellow Creek, and took my cousin pris- 
oner. Then I thought I must kill too, and I have been three times to war 
since, but the Indians are not angry only myself. 

July 21, 1774. Captain John Logan. 

The celebrated speech of Logan which for generations has been re- 
garded not only as a sample of the oratory of an untutored savage but as 
a specimen of natural eloquence that will compare favorably with the say- 
ings of the great orators of any land, was uttered at a treaty held by Lord 
Dimmore the Governor of Virginia at Camp Charlotte on the Sciota in 
Ohio when negotiating a treaty of peace with the hostile Indian tribes, 
after the battle of Point Pleasants, October 10, 1774. The speech is as 
follows : 

"I appeal to any white man to say if he ever entered Logan's cabin 
hungry and he gave him not meat ; if he ever came cold and naked and he 
clothed him not. During the course of the last long and bloody war Logan 
remained idle in his cabin, an advocate for peace. Such was my love for 
the whites that my countrymen pointed as they passed and said, "Logan 
is the friend of the white men." 

"I had even thought to live with you but for the injuries of one man. 
Captain Cresap, the last Spring, in cold blood and unprovoked, mur- 
dered all the relations of Logan not even sparing my women and children. 


There ruBS not a drop of my blood in the veins of any living creature. 
This called on me for revenge. I have sought it. I have killed many. I 
have glutted my vengeance. For my country I rejoice at the beams of 
peace, but do not harbor a thought that mine is the joy of fear. Logan 
never felt fear. He will not turn on his heel to save his life. "Who is 
there to mourn for Logan? Not one." 

The following declaration of William Kobinson is published in Jeffer- 
son 's notes in Virginia edition of 1801 : 


"William Kobinson of Clarksburg in the County of Harrison and State 
of Virginia, subscribed to these presents, declares that he was in the year 
1774 a resident on the "West Fork of the Monongahela River, in the County 
then called "West Augusta, and being in his field on the 12th of July, with 
two other men, they were surprised by a party of eight Indians, who shot 
down one of the others and made himself and the remaining one prisoners ; 
this subscriber's wife and four children having been previously conveyed 
by him for safety to a fort about twenty-four miles off ; that the principal 
Indian of the party who took them was Captain Logan ; that Logan spoke 
English well and very soon manifested a friendly disposition to this sub- 
scriber and told him to be of good heart that he would not be killed, but 
must go with him to his town where he would probably be adopted in some 
of their families, but, above all things, that he must not attempt to run 
away; that in the course of the journey to the Indian town he generally 
endeavored to keep close to Logan, who had a great deal of conversation 
with him, always encouraging him to be cheerful and without fear, for 
that he would not be killed, but should become one of them, and constantly 
impressing on him not to attempt to run away : that in these conversations 
he always charged Captain Michael Cresap with the murder of his family; 
that on his arrival in the town, which was on the 18th of July, he was tied 
to a stake, and a great debate arose whether he should not be burnt; 
Logan insisted on having him adopted while others contended to burn 
him ; that at length Logan prevailed, tied a belt of wampum around him as 
a mark of adoption, loosed him from the post and carried him to the cabin 
of an old squaw where Logan pointed out a person who he said was this 
subscriber's cousin, and he afterwards understood that the old woman was 
his aunt and two others his brothers, and that he now stood in the place of 
a warrior of the family who had been killed at Yellow Creek; that about 
three days after this Logan brought him a piece of paper and told him he 
must write a letter for him, which he meant to carry and leave in some 
house where he should kill somebody; that he made ink with gun powder 
and the subserier proceeded to write the letter by his direction, addressing 
Captain Michael Cressap in it, and that the purport of it was to ask ""Why 
he had killed his people?" That some time before they had killed his 
people at some place (the name of which the subscriber forgets) which he 
had forgiven, but since that he had killed his people again at Yellow 
Creek, and had taken his cousin, a little girl, prisoner, that therefore he 
must war against the whites; but that he would exchange the subscriber 


for his cousin, and signed it with Logan's name, which letter Logan took 
and set out again to war, and the contents of this letter, as recited by the 
subscriber calling to mind that stated by Judge Innes, to have been left 
tied to a war club in a house where a family was murdered, and that being 
read to the subscriber he recognizes and declares that he verily believes 
it to have been the identical letter which he wrote, and supposes he was 
mistaken in stating as he had done before from memory, that the offer of 
the exchange was proposed in the letter; that it is probable it was only 
promised him by Logan, but not put in the letter ; that while he was with 
the old woman that she repeatedly endeavored to make him sensible that 
she had been of the party at Yellow Creek, and by signs showed how they 
decoyed her friends over the river to drink, and when they were reeling 
and tumbling about, tomahawked them all, and that whenever she entered 
in this subject she was thrown into the most violent agitations, and that 
afterwards he understood that amongst the Indians killed at Yellow Stone 
was a sister of Logan's; that he continued with the Indians util the month 
of November, when he was released in consequece of the peace made by 
them with Lord Dunmore ; that, while he remained with them the Indians 
in general were very kind to him, and especially those who were his 
adopted relations, but above all the old women and family in which he 
lived, who served him with everything in their power, and never asked or 
even suffered him to do any labor, seeming in truth to consider him and 
respect him as the friend they had lost. All of which matters and things 
so far as they are stated to be of his own knowledge, this subscriber 
solenmly declares to be true, and so far as they are stated to be on infor- 
mation from others he believes them to be true. 

Given and declared under his hand at Philadelphia, this 28th day of 
February, 1800. 

William Kobinson.'' 

The charges of Logan against Captain Cresap years afterwards, led 
to a bitter controversy between his friends and Thomas Jefferson, and the 
above declaration of Eobinson was taken to sustain Mr. Jefferson's posi- 
tion that Logan was correct in accusing Cresap of murdering his family 
at Yellow Creek, and thus precipitating a bloody and disastrous war on 
the white settlers. 

It was contended by Captain Cresap 's friends that Logan was mis- 
taken in accusing him of murdering his family, and that he confounded 
the skirmish at Captina, where Cresap was present with a Yellow Creek 
affair where Logan's relatives were killed, and that Cresap was not 
present at that time. 

In the chancery cause of Michael Cresap vs. Archibald McLean and 
Jonathan Roberts in the Circuit Court of Harrison County there is filed a 
printed slip from a newspaper published it is supposed in 1775, of which 
the annexed is a copy. The slip was filed as an evidence of the death of 
Captain Michael Cresap, the father of the plaintiff. 

New York, October 23. 
On the 12th inst. arrived here on his return from the Provincial 
Camp at Cambridge, and on the 18th departed this life of a fever in the 


28tb year of Ms age, Captain Michael Cresap, Esq., eldest son of Col. 
Thomas C. Cresap of Potowmack, Virginia. 

He was Captain of a rifle company now in the Continental Army be- 
fore Boston. He served as a Captain of a rifle Company under the com- 
mand of Lord Dunmore in the late expedition against the Indians, in 
which he eminently distinguished himself by his prudence, firmness and 
interpidity as a brave officer, and in the present contest between the Parent 
State and the colonies, gave proof of his attachment to the rights and li- 
berties of his country. He has left a widow and four children to deplore 
the loss of a husband and father and by his death his country is deprived 
of a worthy and esteemed citizen. 

His remains were interred the day following in Trinity Church yard 
with military honors attended by a vast concourse of people. 
The following is the order of the procession : 

Sergeant Major, 

Grenadiers with their fire locks reversed. 


Drums and fifes, 

Captain of Grenadiers, 


Adjutants conducting the funeral. 

Band of Music, 


The corpse, the pall supported by eight Captains, 

Chief Mourners, 

Major with his sword drawn, 

Second Battalion, 

First Battalion, 

Non Commissioned officers. 

Battalion of Officers, 

"Ward Officers, 

Citizens of New York. 


In June 1777 a party of Indians came to the house of Charles Grigs- 
by on Eooting Creek, a tributary of Elk Creek, ten miles from Clarksburg. 
Mr. Grigsby being from home the Indians plundered the house of every- 
thing considered valuable by them, and which they could readily carry 
with them, and destroyed many other articles, departing taking with them 
Mrs. Grigsby and her two children as prisoners. Returning home soon 
after, seeing the desolation which had been done in his short absence and 
unable to find his wife and children, Mr. Grigsby collected some of his 
neighbors and set out in pursuit of those by whom the mischief had been 
effected, hoping that he might overtake and reclaim from them the partner 
of his bosom and the pledges of her affection. His hopes were of but 
momentary existence, following in the trail of the fugitives when they had 
arrived in the neighborhood of Lost Creek, a distance of about six miles, 
they found the body of Mrs. Grigsby and of her younger child, where 
they had been recently killed and scalped. Stimulated to more ardent ex- 


ertions by the distressing scene just witnessed, the pursuers pressed for- 
ward with increased expectation of speedily overtaking and punishing the 
authors of this bloody deed, leaving two of their party to perform the 
sepulture of the unfortunate mother and her murdered infant. But before 
the whites were aware of the nearness to the Indians these had become 
apprised of their approach and separated so as to leave no trail by which 
they could be further traced. They had of course to give over the pursuit 
and returned home to provide more effectively against the perpetration of 
similar acts of atrocity and darkness. 

The Grigsby cabin stood on a little stream which is still known as 
Grigsby's Run, a branch of Rooting Creek, and was afterwards included in 
the farm of James A. Young, situated near Pleasant Hill Church about 
ten miles from Clarksburg in Elk District. 

February 1, 1907. 
H. Raymond, Esq., 

Dear Sir: — A family by the name of Grigsby was murdered by the 
Indians on a run known by the name of Grigsby's Run, a tributary of 
Rooting Creek, which empties into Rooting Creek on the Simon Arnold 
farm about half way between Romines Mills and Johntown. 

My first recollection of this farm is that it was purchased by my 
u.ncle, James A. Young from Colonel Martin, father of A. W. Martin, Mrs. 
Dr. McKeehan and others. 

I think the location of the house was near where the road leaves the 
run for Clarksburg via Horeb Church. 

Yours truly, 

J. W. Young. 


A short time after this, two Indians came on the "West Fork and con- 
cealed themselves near to Coon's Fort, awaiting an opportunity of effect- 
ing some mischief. While thus lying in ambush a daughter of Mr. Coon 
came out for the purpose of lifting some hemp in a field near to the fort 
and by the side of the road. Being engaged in performing this business 
Thomas Cunningham and Enoch James passed along and seeing her, 
entered into conversation with her, and after a while proceeded on their road 
but before they had gone far, alarmed by the report of a gun, they looked 
back and saw an Indian run up to the girl, tomahawk and scalp her. The 
people of the Fort were quickly apprised of what had been done, and im- 
mediately turned out in pursuit but could not trace the course taken by 
the savages. It afterwards appeared that the Indians had been for some 
time waiting for the girl to come near enough for them to catch and make 
her prisoner before she could alarm the fort, or get within reach of its guns, 
but when one of them crossed the fence for this purpose she espied him 
and ran directly towards the fort. Fearing that he would not 
be able to overtake her without approaching the fort so as to involve him- 
self in some danger, he shot her as she ran, and going up to her he toma- 
hawked and scalped her. In endeavoring then to secure himself by flight 
he was shot at by James but at so great a distance as to prevent the doing 
of execution. The following letter is of interest in this connection : 


Shinnston, W. Va., 4-3, 1908. 
Mr. Menry Haymond, 

Dear Sir: — Fort Coon was situated on the west bank of Coon's Run 
about three miles from its mouth and confluence with the West Fork 
River. The site of the old fort is in Marion County about one half mile 
from the Harrison County line on the late Peter B. Righter farm. It was 
in the territory of Harrison County from 1784 until 1843 at which time 
Marion County was formed. One of the daughters of the Coon family 
was captured and killed by the Indians about the year 1778. I think that 
the fort was abandoned in 1789 or 1790 or soon after John Mclntire was 
killed on the waters of Bingamon Creek about two miles North of 
Shinnston. Respectfully, 

B. A. Reeder. 

The name of the girl that was killed was Maudline Coon. 


In September 1777 Leonard Petro and William White, being engaged 
as scouts in watching the path leading up the Little Kanawha River to the 
Tygarts Valley killed an elk late in the evening, and taking a part of it 
with them withdrew a short distance for the purpose of eating their sup- 
pers and spending the night. About midnight White, awaking from sleep, 
discovered by the light of the moon that there were several Indians near, 
who had been drawn in quest of them by the report of the gun in the even- 
ing. He saw at a glance the impossibility of escaping by flight and pre- 
ferring captivity to death he whispered to Petro to lie still lest any move- 
ment of his might lead to this result. In a few minutes the Indians sprang 
on them, and White, raising himself as one lay hold on him aimed a 
furious blow with his tomahawk, hoping to wound the Indian by whom he 
wes beset, and then make his escape. Missing his aim he affected to have 
been ignorant of the fact that he was encountered by Indians, professed 
great joy at meeting with them, and declared that he was then on his way 
to their towns. They were not deceived by the artifice for although he 
assumed an air of pleasantness and gaiety calculated to win upon their 
confidence, yet the woeful countenance and rueful expression of poor 
Petro convinced them that White 's conduct was feigned that he might lull 
them into inattention and they be enabled to effect an escape. They were 
both tied for the night and in the morning White being painted red and 
Petro black, they were forced to proceed to the Indian towns. 

When approaching a village the whoop of success brought several to 
meet them and on their arrival at it they found that every preparation 
was made for their running the gauntlet, in going through which cere- 
mony both were much bruised. White did not, however remain long in 
captivity. Eluding the Indians' vigilance he took one of their guns and 
begun his flight homeward. Before he had traveled far he met an Indian 
on horseback, whom he succeeded in shooting, and mounting the horse 
from which he fell his return to the Valley was much facilitated. 

Petro was never heard of afterwards. The painting of him black had 


indicated their intention of killing him, and the escape of White probably- 
hastened his doom. 

During this time and after the return of White among them the in- 
habitants of Tygarts Valley in what is now Randolph County, practiced 
their accustomed watchfulness until about the twentieth of November 1777 
when there was a considerable fall of snow. This circumstance induced 
them to believe that the savages would not attempt an irruption among 
them until the return of Spring and they became consequently inattentive 
to their safety. 

Generally the settlements enjoyed perfect quiet from the first appear- 
ance of winter until the return of Spring. In this interval of time the In- 
dians are usually deterred from penetrating into them as well because of 
their great exposure to discovery and observation in consequence of the 
na]?:edness of the woods and the increased facility of pursuing their trail 
in the snows, which then usually covered the earth, as of the suffering pro- 
duced by their lying in wait and traveling in their partially unclothed con- 
dition in this season of intense cold. Instances of their being troublesome 
during the winter were rare indeed, and never occurred but under very 
peculiar circumstances, the inhabitants were therefore not culpably remiss, 
when they relaxed in their vigilance and became exposed to savage inroad. 


A party of twenty Indians designing to commit some depredations 
during the fall, had nearly reached the upper end of Tygarts Valley when 
the snow which had inspired the inhabitants with confidence in their se- 
curity commenced falling. Fearful of laying themselves open to detec- 
tion if they ventured to proceed further at that time, and anxious to effect 
some mischief before they returned home, they remained concealed about 
ten miles from the settlements until the snow disappeared. On the 15th of 
December they came to the house of Darby Connoly, at the upper ex- 
tremity of the valley and killed him, his wife and several of the children, 
and took three others prisoners. Proceeding to the next house they killed 
John Stewart, his wife and child and took Miss Hamilton, sister-in-law to 
Stewart, into captivity. They then immediately changed their direction 
and with great dispatch entered upon their journey home with the cap- 
tives and plunder taken at these two places. 

In the course of the evening after these outrages were committed, 
John Haddon passing by the house of Connolly saw a tame elk belonging 
there, lying dead in the yard. This and the death like silence which 
reigned around excited his fears that all was not right, and entering into 
the house he saw the awful desolation which had been committed. Seeing 
that the work of blood had been but recently done, he hastened to alarm 
the neighborhood, and sent an express to Captain Benjamin Wilson, liv- 
ing about twenty miles lower in the valley, with the melancholy intelli- 
gence. With great promptitude Captain Wilson went through the settle- 
ment exerting himself to procure as many volunteers as would justify go- 
ing in pursuit of the aggressors, and so indefatigable was he in accom- 
plishing his purpose that on the day after the murders were perpetrated 


he appeared on the theatre of their exhibition with thirty men, prepared 
to take the trail and push forwards in pursuit of the savages. For five 
days they followed through cold and wet without perceiving that they had 
gained upon them. At this time many of the men expressed a determi- 
nation to return. They had suffered much, traveled far, and yet saw no 
prospect of overtaking the enemy. It is not wonderful that they became 

In order to expedite their progress the numerous water courses which 
lay across their way, swollen to an unusual height and width, were passed 
without any preparation to avoid getting wet, the consequence was that 
after wading one of them, they would have to travel with icicles hanging 
from their clothes the greater part of a day before an opportunity could 
be allowed of drying them. They suffered much, too, for the want of 
provisions. The short time afforded for preparation, had not admitted of 
their taking with them as much as they expected would be required, and 
they had already been on the chase longer than was anticipated. Under 
these circumstances it was with great difficulty Captain Wilson could pre- 
vail on them to continue the pursuit one day longer, hoping the Indians 
would have to halt in order to hunt for food. Not yet being sensible 
that they gained upon them the men positively refused going farther, and 
they returned to their several homes. 

This was the last outrage committed by the savages in North Western 
"Virginia in this year, and although there was not as much mischief effected 
by them in this season as had been in others, yet the year 1777 has become 
memorable in the annals of Border Warfare. 

The murder of Cornstalk, the great Shawnee Chief, and his com- 
panions at Point Pleasant, the attack on Wheeling fort, the loss of lives 
and destruction of property which then took place, together with the fatal 
ambuscade at Grave Creek Narrows of Captain William Foreman with his 
Company of Militia from Hampshire County, all conspired to render it a 
period of much interest, and to impress its incidents deeply on the minds 
of those who were actors in these scenes and this period was known as the 
"Bloody year of the three 7's." 

The grave of the Connolly family is still pointed out about one-third 
of a mile below the mouth of Connolly Run. 

After the winter became so severe as to prevent the Indians from 
penetrating the Country and committing further aggressions, the in- 
habitants became assured of safety and devoted much of their time to the 
repairing of the old forts and block houses and building new ones in pre- 
paring for the storm that everyone expected would break upon the de- 
fenceless frontier in the Spring of 1778. The murder of Cornstalk, while 
a prisoner in the hands of the whites, had stirred the war-like nation of 
Shawnees to avenge the death of their chief. Other tribes were urged to 
attack the settlements by the English officers stationed at Detroit, who fur- 
nished them with arms, ammunition and supplies and gave rewards for 

The war of the Revolution was now at high tide and Great Britain 
considered it legitimate mode of warfare against the rebellious colonies 


to let loose a horde of savages against peaceful settlers, ■women 
and children. 

General Mcintosh, the officer in command of Fort Pitt, in the Spring 
of 1778 constructed Fort Mcintosh on the Ohio at the mouth of Beaver 
River for the protection of that portion of the frontier. 

From Wheeling to Point Pleasant, a distance of one hundred and 
eighty-six miles there was then no obstacle whatever presented to the ad- 
vance of Indian War parties into the settlements in the Monongahela Val- 
ley and its upper tributaries. 

The consequences of this exposure had always been severely felt, and 
never more so than after the establishment of Fort Mcintosh. Every im- 
pediment to their invasion of one part of the country caused more frequent 
irruptions into other parts where no difficulties were interposed to check 
their progress and brought heavier woes on them. 


Anticipating the commencement of hostilities at an earlier period of 
the season than usual several families retired into Harbert's block house 
situated on Jones' Run in Eagle District a tributary of Ten Mile about 
eleven miles from Clarksburg in the month of February. But notwith- 
standing the prudent caution manifested by them in the step thus taken, 
yet the state of the weather lulling them into false security, they did not 
afterwards exercise the vigilence and provided care which was necessary 
to insure their future safety. On the third of March some children play- 
ing with a crippled crow at a short distance from the yard, espied a num- 
ber of Indians proceeding towards them, and running briskly to the house 
told that "a number of red men were close by." John Murphy stepped 
to the door to see if danger had really approached, when one of the In- 
dians, turning the corner of the house, fired at him. The ball took effect 
and Murphy fell back into the house. The Indian, springing directly in, 
was grappled by Harbert and thrown on the floor. A shot from without 
wounded Harbert, yet he continued to maintain his advantage over the 
prostrate savage, striking him as effectively as he could with his tomahawk 
when another gun was fired at him from without the house. The ball 
I»assed through his head and he fell lifeless. His antagonist then slipped 
out of the door sorely wounded in the encounter. 

Just after the first Indian had entered, an active young warrior, hold- 
ing in his hand a tomahawk with a long spike in the end, also came in. 
Edward Cunningham instantly drew his gun to shoot him, but it flashed 
and they closed in doubtful strife. Both were active and athletic and sen- 
sible for the high prize which they were contending each put forth his 
utmost strength, and strained his every nerve to gain the ascendency. For 
a while the issue seemed doubtful. At length by great exertion Cunning- 
ham wrenched the tomahawk from the hand of the Indian and buried the 
spike to the handle in his back. Mrs. Cunningham closed the contest, see- 
ing her husband struggling closely with the savage she struck at him with an 
axe. The edge wounding his face severely, he loosened his hold and made 
his way out of the house. 


The third Indian who had entered before the door was closed, pre- 
sented an appearance almost as frightful as the object which he had in 
view. He wore a cap made of the unshorn front of a buffalo with the ears 
and horns still attached to it, and which, hanging loosely about his head, 
gave to him a most hideous aspect. On entering the room this infernal 
monster aimed a blow with his tomahawk at a Miss Reese, which alighted 
on her head wounding her severely. The mother of the girl, seeing the up- 
lifted arm about to descend on her daughter, seized the monster by the 
horns, but his false head coming off, she did not succeed in changing the 
direction of the weapon. The father then caught hold of him, but being 
far inferior in strength and agility, he was soon thrown on the floor, and 
must have been killed but for the timely interference of Cunningham, who, 
having succeeded in ridding the room of one Indian, wheeled and sunk a 
tomahawk into the head of the other. 

During all this time the door was kept by the women, though not 
without great exertion, the Indians from without endeavoring several times 
to force it open and gain admittance, and they would at one time succeed- 
ed but that, as it was yielding to their efforts to open it, the Indian who 
had been wounded by Cunningham and his wife, squeezing out of the 
aperture which had been made, caused a momentary relaxation of the ex- 
ertions of those without, and enabled the women to again close the door 
and prevent the entrance of others. These were not, however, unemployed. 
They were engaged in securing such of the children in the yard as were 
capable of being carried away as prisoners, and in killing and scalping the 
others, and when they had effected this, dispairing of being able to do 
further mischief, they retreated to their towns. 

Of the whites in the house only one was killed and four were wound- 
ed, and seven or eight children in the yard were killed or taken prisoners. 
One Indian was killed and two badly wounded. Had Reese engaged soon- 
er in the conflict the other two who had entered the house would no doubt 
have been likewise killed, but being a quaker he looked on ^nthout par- 
ticipating in the conflict until his daughter was wounded. Having then to 
contend singly with superior prowess, he was indebted for the preservation 
of his life to the assistance of those whom he refused to aid in pressing 

Henry W. Bigler in a letter written from St. George, Utah, to the 
Clarksburg Telegram, writes of this affair as follows: 

"On page 173 Border "Warfare it is stated by Withers that some chil- 
dren playing with a crippled crow, espied a number of Indians coming 
towards them and running briskly to the house told that a number of red 
men were close by, etc. Here permit me to state that among the children 
was the late Joseph Cunningham of Harrison County, your State, then a 
boy about eight years old. I have heard him tell the story. He was my step 
mother's Uncle and often when I was a boy he would come to my father's, 
stay over night and relate his experiences with Indian life, and tell all 
about how he was taken a captive. He said the children were at play in 
a clay hole with a crippled crow, when all at once they saw the Indians 
coming, and that he ran into an old loom house, slipped down through the 
treadle hole and hid under the floor. He was, however, soon taken from 


liis place of refuge by a lusty savage and made to follow him and the In- 
dians to their towns. He ran the gauntlet composed of little Indian boys 
about his o^vn size. They pelted him with sticks and with their fists until 
at last he turned and showed fight and struck back. This caused a great 
laugh and seemed to greatly please his captors. He was at once adopted 
into an Indian family and lived with them sixteen years. He almost 
forgot his mother tongue, but his name he never forgot and said whenever 
he happeed to be alone he would repeat "Joe Cunningham, Joe Cunning- 
ham," over and over a number of times. 

When he was twenty-four years old he was ransomed but it was with 
reluctance that he was induced to return to the whites to live. He had 
lived so long with the Indians that he had become perfectly reconciled to 
stay with them. He did not feel at home among the whites, became dis- 
satisfied and finally went back to his red friends to live, and not until then 
did he discover that the Indians lived dirty, filthy lives. Seeing this he 
left them, returned to the whites, married a respecable white woman and 
lived the live of a white man the balance of his days. 

He said some times he went with the Indians to steal horses from the 
whites. On one occasion they were pursued so closely that they hid them- 
selves in the Ohio River and were obliged to lie in water all night with 
their heads barely out of the watery element. Sometimes he went with 
the Indians to war against the whites, but he never could shoot at a white 
man. He was with the Indians when they defeated St. Clair (November 
4, 1791) but said he "I never could shoot; every time I raised my gun 
and took aim my heart failed me. During the engagement I stood behind 
trees and many times I thought I would shoot, but every time I brought 
my gun to my face to draw a bead my heart told me not to shoot. I threw 
away my bullets, poured out part of my powder onto the ground, and 
when the chief came to me after the battle, he shook my powder horn, pat- 
ted me on the back and said "puty well, puty well" believing I had shot 
it away. 

I might tell a bear story or two of his, but perhaps enough is written 
and may not be worth printing." 

Note : — ^The Harbert Block House was situated on Jones ' Run, a 
branch of Ten Mile Creek in Eagle District less than two miles from 

The tradition of the neighborhood is that five or six whites and one 
Indian was killed, and that the whites were buried in one grave. 

A boy by the name of William Harbert at the time of the attack was 
in the garden gathering turnips, he ran towards the house, in his flight 
he dodged between the legs of an Indian who struck at him with a toma- 
hawk but missed. After he gained entrance to the house he crawled 
under the bed and ate turnips during the fight. 

Mr. Elmore Harbert says that just before the civil war he dug into 
the grave where the Indian was buried and found a skull and leg bones. 


On the 11th day of April, 1778, a party of Indians came to the house 
of William Morgan at the Dunkard Bottom of Cheat River. They there 


killed a young woman by the name of Brain, Mrs. Morgan, the mother of 
William, and her granddaughter and Mrs. Dillon and her two children 
and took Mrs. William Morgan and her child prisoners. 

When on their way home they came near to Prickett's fort, they 
hound Mrs. Morgan to a bush, and went in quest of a horse for her to ride, 
leaving her child with her. She succeeded in untying with her teeth, the 
bonds which confined her, and wandered the balance of that day and part 
of the next before she came in sight of the fort. Here she was kindly treat- 
ed and in a few days sent home. Some men going out from Prickett's 
fort some short time after, found at the spot where Mrs. Morgan had been 
left by the Indians, a fine mare stabbed to the heart. Exasperated at the 
escape of Mrs. Morgan they had no doubt vented their rage on the animal 
which they had destined to carry her weight. 


In the last of April 1778 a war party of about twenty Indians came 
to the Hacker's Creek settlement, now in Lewis County, and the upper 
West Fork. 

At this time the inhabitants of those neighborhoods had removed to 
West Fort on the creek where Jane Lew now stands, and to Ei chard's 
Fort on the river six miles from Clarksburg, and leaving the women and 
children in them during the day under the protection of a few men, the 
others were in the habit of performing the usual labors of their farms in 
companies, so as to preserve them from attack of the Indians. 

A company of men being thus engaged in the first week of May in a 
field on Hacker's Creek and being a good deal dispersed in various occu- 
pations, some fencing, others clearing and a few ploughing, they were un- 
expectedly fired upon by the Indians and Thomas Hughes and Jonothan 
Lowther shot down, the others being incautiously without arms fled for 
safety. Two of the Company having the Indians rather between them 
and the West's Fort, ran directly to Richard's as well for their own se- 
curity as to give the alarm there. But they had already been apprised 
that the enemy was at hand. Isaac Washburn who had been to mill on 
Hacker's Creek the day before on his return to Richard's Fort and while 
crossing the river at the mouth of Washburn's Run below the mouth of 
Lost Creek was shot from his horse tomahawked and scalped. The finding 
of his body thus cruelly mangled had given them the alarm and they were 
already on their guard before the men from Hacker's Creek arrived with 
the intelligence of what had been done there. The Indians then left the 
neighborhood without effecting more havoc, and the whites were too weak 
to go in pursuit and molest them. 

Seventy years after this event Washburn's gun was found, and upon 
unscrewing the breech pin the load was found intact, the powder was in 
a good state of preservation and the patching around the ball was of home 
made linen and seemed as sound as ever. 



About the middle of June 1778 three women went out from "West's 
fort to gather greens in a field adjoining and while thus engaged were at- 
tacked by four Indians lying in wait. One gun only was fired and the ball 
from it passed through the bonnet of Mrs. Hacker who screamed aloud 
and ran with the others towards the Fort. 

An Indian having in his hand a long staff with a spear in one end, 
pursuing closely after them, thrust it at Mrs. Freeman with such violence 
that entering her back just below the shoulder it came out at her left 
breast. With his tomahawk he cleft the upper part of her head and car- 
ried it off to save the scalp. 

The screams of the women alarmed the men in the fort, and seizing 
their guns they ran out just as Mrs. Freeman fell. Several guns were 
fired at the Indian while he was getting her scalp but with no effect. 
They served, however, to warn the men who went out that danger was at 
hand, and they quickly came in. 

Jesse Hughes and John Schoolcraft, who were out, in making their 
way to the fort, came very near two Indians standing by the fence looking 
towards the men at West's so intently that they did not perceive any one 
near them. They, however, were observed by Hughes and Schoolcraft who 
avoiding them made their way in safety. Hughes immediately took up his gun 
and learning the fate of Mrs. Freeman went with some others to bring in 
the corpse. While there he proposed to go and show them how near he 
had approached the Indians after the alarm had been given, before he 
saw them. 

Charles and Alexander West, Eli as Hughes, James Brown and John 
Sleeth went with him. Before they arrived at the place one of the Indians 
was heard to howl like a wolf, and the men with Hughes moved on in the 
direction from which the sound proceeded. Supposing that they were 
then near the spot Jesse Hughes howled in like manner and being instantly 
answered they ran to the point of the hill and looking over it saw two 
Indians coming towards them. Hughes fired and one of them fell. The 
other took to flight. Being pursued by the whites he sought shelter in a 
thicket of brush and while they were proceeding to intercept him at his 
coming out, he returned by the way he had entered and made his escape. 
The wounded Indian likewise got off. When the whites were in pursuit 
of the one who took to flight they passed near to him who had fallen and 
one of the men was for stopping and finishing him, but Hughes called to 
him "he is safe, let us have the other," and they all pressed forward. On 
their return however he was gone, and although his free bleeding enabled 
them to pursue his track readily for awhile, yet a heavy shower of rain 
oson falling, all trace of him was quickly lost, and could not be after- 
wards regained. 


On the 16th day of June, 1778, as Captain James Booth and Nathaniel 
Cochran were at work in a field on Booth's Creek, they were fired at by 


a party of Indians. Booth fell but Cocliran being very slightly wounded, 
took to flight. He was, however, overtaken and carried into captivity to 
their towns. From thence he was taken to Detroit where he remained 
sometime, and endeavoring to escape from that place, unfortunately took 
a path which led him immediately to the Maumee old towns. Here he 
was detained awhile and sent back to Detroit, where he was exchanged and 
from whence he made his way home after having had to endure much 
suffering and many hardships. 

The loss of Captain Booth was severely felt by the inhabitants in that 
settlement. He was not only an active and enterprising man, but was 
endowed with superior talents and a better education than most of those 
who had settled in the country, and on these accounts was very much 

A few days after this transaction Benjamin Shinn, William Grundy 
and Benjamin Washburn, returning from a lick on the head of Booth's 
Creek were fired on by Indians when near to Baxter's Run in Simpson 
District. Washburn and Shinn escaped unhurt, but Grundy was killed. 
He was a brother of Felix Grundy afterwards the celebrated lawyer of 
Tennessee, whose father was then residing on Simpson's Creek on the farm 
afterwards owTied by Col. Benjamin Wilson. 

This occurrance took place about two miles from Bridgeport near the 
cattle scales on the farm now (1908) owned by Morgan R. Lodge. 

One of the Indians in pursuing the other two men of the party ap- 
proached near enough to Washburn to seize him by the collar of his coat. 
He immediately threw his coat off and left it with the Indian increased 
his speed and got safely away. 

This party of Indians continued for some days to prowl about the 
neighborhood seeking opportunities of committing murder on the inhabi- 
tants, fortunately, however, with but little success. 

James Owens, a youth of sixteen years of age, was the only one whom 
they succeeded in killing after the murder of Grundy. Going from 
Powers' Fort on Simpson's Creek to Booth's Creek, his saddle girth gave 
way, and while he was down mending it a ball was discharged at him, 
which killed both him and his horse. 

Seeing that the whites in that neighborhood had all retired to the 
fort and being too weak openly to attack it, they crossed over to Bartlett's 
Ran and came to the house of Gilbert Hustead who was then alone and 
engaged in fixing his gun lock. Hearing a noise in the yard for which he 
was unable to account, he slipped to the door to ascertain from whence 
it proceeded. The Indians were immediately around it and there 
was no chance for his escape. Walking out with an air of the utmost 
pleasantry, he held forth his hand to the one nearest him and asked them 
all to walk in. While in the house he affected great cheerfulness and by 
his talk won their confidence and friendship. He told them he was a 
King's man and unwilling to live among the rebels, for which reason when 
others retired into the Fort he preferred staying at his own house, anxiously 
hoping for the arrival of some of the British Indians to afford him an 
opportunity of getting among English friends. Learning upon inquiry 
that they would be glad to have something to eat, he asked one of them 


to shoot a fat hog, which was in the yard that they might regale on it that 
night, and have some on which to subsist while traveling to their towns. 
In the morning still further to maintain the deception he was practicing 
he broke his furniture to pieces saying "the rebels shall never have the 
good of you." He then accompanied them to their towns acting in the 
same apparently contented and cheerful manner, until his sincerity 
Mas believed by all and he obtained leave to return to his family. He 
succeeded in making his way home, where he remained sore at the destruc- 
tion of his property, but exulting in the success of his artifice. 


While this party of Indians were engaged on Booth's Creek and in the 
surrounding County a more numerous body had invaded the settlements 
lower down and were engaged in the work of destruction there. They 
penetrated to Coburn's Creek, now Monongalia County, unperceived, and 
were making their way, as was generally supposed, to a fort not far from 
Morgantown, probably Kearns, when they fell in with a party of whites 
returning from the labors of the corn field, and then about a mile from 
Coburn's fort. The Indians had placed themselves on each side of the road 
leading to the fort, and from their covert fired on the whites before they 
were aware of the danger. John Woodfin being on horseback had his thigh 
broken with a ball, which killed his horse and enabled them to catch him 
easily. Jacob Miller was shot through the abdomen and soon overtaken, 
tomahawked and scalped. The others escaped to the Fort. 

Woodfin was afterwards found on a considerable eminence overlooking 
the fort tomahawked and scalped. The Indians had most probably taken 
him there that he might point to them the least impregnable part of the 
fortress, and in other respects give them such information as would tend 
to insure success to their meditated attack on it, but when they heard its 
strength and the force with which it was garrisoned dispairing of being 
able to reduce it in a fit of disappoined fury they murdered him on the 

They next made their appearance on Dunkard Creek and near to 
Stradler's Fort. Here, as on Coburn's Creek they lay in ambush on the 
road side, awaiting the return of the men who were at work in some of the 
neighboring fields. Towards evening the men came on carrying with them 
some hogs, which they had killed for the use of the fort people, and on 
approaching where the Indians lay concealed were fired on and several fell. 
Those who escaped injury from the first fire returned the shot and a severe 
action ensued. But so many of the whites had been killed before the 
savages exposed themselves to view, that the remainder were unable long 
to sustain the unequal contest. Overpowered by numbers, the few who 
were still unhurt fled precipitately to the fort, leaving eighteen of their 
companions dead in the road. These were scalped and mangled by the 
Indians in a most shocking manner and lay sometime before the men in 
the fort, assured of the departure of the enemy went out and buried them. 
Weakened by the severe loss sustained in this bloody skirmish had the 


Indians pushed forward to attack the fort in all human probability, it 
would have fallen before them. There were at that day very few settle- 
ments which could have maintained possession of a garrison for any length 
of time after having suffered so great a dimunition of the number of their 
inhabitants, against the onsets of one hundred savages, exercising their 
wonted enegy, and still less would they be able to leave their stronghold 
and cope with such superior force in open battle. 

Nor were the settlements as yet sufficiently contiguous to each other 
to admit of their acting in concert, and combining their strength to operate 
effectively against these invaders. "When alarmed by the approach of the 
foe all that they could do generally was to retire to a fort, and endeavor 
to defend it from assault. If the savages coming in numbers succeeded 
in committing any outrage it usually went unpunished. Sensible of their 
want of strength the inhabitants rarely ventured in pursuit to harrass or 
molest the retiring foe. When, however, they would hazard to hang on 
their retreat, the many precautions which they were compelled to exercise 
to prevent falling into ambuscades and to escape the entangling artifices 
of their wiley enemies frequently rendered their enterprises abortive and 
their exertions inefficent. 


The frequent visits paid by the Indians to the country on the West 
Fork and the mischief which they would effect at these times led several 
of the inhabitants to resolve on leaving a place so full of dangers as soon 
as they could make the necessary preparations. A family of Washburn's 
particularly having several times very narrowly escaped destruction com- 
menced making arrangements and fitting up for their departure. But 
while two of them were engaged in procuring pine knots, from which 
to make wax for shoemaking, they were discovered and shot at by the 
Indians. Stephen fell dead and James was taken prisoner and carried to 
their towns. He was there forced to undergo repeated and intense suffer- 
ing before death closed the scene of his miseries. 

According to the account given by Nathianiel Cochran on his return 
from captivity Washburn was most severely beaten on the first evening of 
his arrival at their village, while running the gauntlet and although he 
succeeded in getting to the council house where Cochran was, yet he was 
so disfigured and mutilated that he could not be recognized by his old 
acquaintance, and so stunned and stupefied that he remained all night in 
a state of insensibility. Being somewhat revived in the morning he walked 
to where Cochran sat by the fire and being asked if he were not James 
Washburn replied with a smile, as if a period had been put to his sufferings 
by the sympathetic tone in which the question was proposed, that he was. 

The gleam of hope which flashed over his countenance was transient 
and momentary. In a few minutes he was again led forth that the barbar- 
ities, which had been suspended by the interposition of night might be 
renewed and he made to endure a repetition of their cruelties. He was 
now feeble and too much exhausted to save himself from the clubs and 


Sticks even of the aged of both sexes. The old men and the old women 
who followed him had strength and activity enough to keep pace with his 
fleetest progress, and inflict on him the severest blows. Frequently he was 
beaten to the ground and as frequently as if invigorated by the extremity 
of anguish he rose to his feet. Hobbling before his tormentors, with no 
hope but in death an old savage passed a knife across his ham which cut- 
ting the tendons disabled him from proceeding further. Still they repeated 
their unmerciful blows with all their energy. He was next scalped, though 
alive, and struggling to regain his feet. Even this did not operate to 
suppress their cruelty. They continued to beat him until in the height 
of suffering he again exhibited symptoms of life and exerted himself to 
move. His head was then severed from his shoulders, attached to a pole, 
and placed in the most public place in the village. 

It is a family tradition that Stephen Washburn dreamed that he had 
been scalped by Indians, and it made such an impression upon him the he 
determined to leave the country and return East but before he could do 
this his dream came true. 

It is also a tradition that one of the female members of the Washburn 
family was captured by Indians and taken to their towns West of the Ohio 

One day while a couple of Americans were scouting in the Indian 
Country they came suddenly upon two squaws on the banks of a stream. 
Fearful of their giving the alarm of their presence they concluded to drown 
the two females, but the Washburn woman made herself known, the other 
one was drowned and by the help of the white prisoner the party was 
safely guided out of danger and finally reach the settlements. 

Lewis Wetzel is said to have been one of the party. 

After the attack on the Washburn's there were but two other outrages 
committeed in the upper valley of the Monongahela during that season. 
The cessation on the part of the savages of hostile incursions induced an 
abandonment of the forts, and the people returned to their several homes 
and respective occupations. But aggression was only suspended for a time. 
In October two Indians appeared near the house of Conrad Richards and 
finding in the yard a little girl at play with an infant in her arms, they 
scalped her and rushed to the door. For some time they endeavored to 
force it open but it was so securely fastened within that Richards was at 
liberty to use his gun for its defence. A fortunate aim wounded one of 
the assailants severely and the other retreated helping off his companion. 
The girl who had been scalped in the yard as soon as she observed the 
Indians going away ran with the infant still in her arms and uninjured 
and entered the house, a spectacle of most heart rending wretchedness. 

Soon after this occurrence David Edwards, returning from Winches- 
ter with salt was shot near the Valley River in what is now Randolph 
County, tomahawked and scalped, in which situation he lay for sometime 
before he was discovered. He was the last person who fell a victim to 
savage vengeance in North Western Virginia in the year 1778. 

In North Western Virginia the frequent inroads of small parties of 
savages in 1778 led to greater preparations for security from renewed hos- 
tilities after the winter should have passed away, and many settlements 


received a considerable accession to their strength from the number of 
persons emigrating to them. In some neighborhoods the sufferings of the 
preceding season and the inability of the inhabitants from the paucity 
of their numbers to protect themselves from invasion led to a total abandon- 
ment of their homes. The settlement on Hacker's Creek was entirely 
broken up in the Spring of 1779, some of its inhabitants forsaking the 
country and retiring East of the mountains, while the others went to the 
fort on Buckhannon and to Nutter's Fort near Clarksburg to aid in resist- 
ing the foe and in maintaining possession of the country. When the 
campaign of that year opened the whole frontier was better prepared 
to protect itself from invasion and to shield its occupants from the wrath 
of the savage enemy than it ever had been since it became the abode of the 
white men. There were forts in every settlement into which the people 
could retire when danger threatened, and which were capable of with- 
standing the assaults of the savages, however furious they might be, if 
having to depend for success on the use of small arms only. It was fortun- 
ate for the country that this was their dependence. A few well directed 
shots even from small cannon would demolish their strongest fortress, and 
left them no hope from death but captivity. 

In the neighborhood of Prickett's Fort near Morgantown the inhabi- 
tants were early alarmed by circumstances which induced a belief that the 
Indians were near and they accordingly entered that garrison. It was 
soon evident that their fears were groundless, but as the season was fast 
approaching when the savages might be expected to commence depredations 
they determined on remaining in the fort of a night and yet prosecute the 
business of their farms as usual during the day. Among those who were 
at this time in the fort was David Morgan, a relation of General Daniel 
Morgan, then upwards of sixty years of age. Early in April 1779 being 
himself unwell he sent his two children, Stephen, a youth of sixteen and 
Sarah, a girl of fourteen, to feed the cattle at his farm about a mile away. 
The children thinking to remain all day and spend the time in preparing 
ground for water melons, unknown to their father took with them some 
bread and meat. Having fed the stock Stephen set himself to work, and 
while he was engaged in grubbing his sister would remove the brush, and 
otherwise aid him in the labor of clearing the ground, oecassionally going 
to the house to wet some linen which she had spread out to bleach. Morgan 
after the children had been gone sometime betook himself to bed and soon 
falling asleep dreamed that he saw Stephen and Sarah walking about the 
fort yard scalped. Aroused from slumber by the harrowing spectacle 
presented to his sleeping view, he inquired if the children had returned, 
and upon learning they had not, he set out to see what had detained them, 
taking with him his gun. As he approached the house still impressed 
with the horrible fear that he should find his dream realized he ascended 
an eminence from which he could distinctly see over his plantation, and 
descrying from thence the objects of his anxious solicitude he proceeded 
directly to them and seated himself on an old log near at hand. He had 
been there but a few minutes before he saw two Indians come out from 
the house and make towards the children. Fearing to alarm them too much 
and thus deprive them of the power of exerting themselves ably to make 


an escape, he apprized them in a careless manner of their danger and told 
them to run towards the fort himself still maintaing his seat on the log. The 
Indians then raised a hideous yell and ran in pursuit, but the old gentle- 
man showing himself at that instant caused them to forbear the chase, 
and shelter themselves behind trees. He then endeavored to effect an 
escape by flight and the Indians followed after him. Age and consequent 
infirmity rendered him unable long to continue out of their reach, and 
aware that they were gaining considerably on him he wheeled to shoot. 
Both instantly sprang behind trees, and Morgan seeking shelter in the 
same manner got behind a sugar tree, which was so small as to leave a 
part of his body exposed. Looking around he saAv a large oak about twenty 
yards further and he made to it. Just as he reached it the foremost Indian 
sought security behind the sugar sapling, which he had found insufficient 
to protect him. The Indian sensible that it would not shelter him threw 
himself down by the side of a log, which lay at the root of the sapling. But 
this did not afford him sufficient shelter and Morgan fired at him. The 
ball took effect and the savage rolled over on his back and stabbed himself 
twice in the breast. 

Having thus succeeded in killing one of his pursuers, Morgan took to 
flight and the remaining Indian after him. It was now that trees could 
afford him no security. His gun was unloaded and his pursuer could 
approach him safely. The unequal race was continued about sixty yards 
when looking over his shoulder he say the savage within a few paces of him 
and with his gun raised. Morgan sprang to one side and the ball whizzed 
harmlessly by him. The odds were now not great and both advanced to 
closer combat sensible of the prize for which they had to contend and each 
determined to deal death to his adversary. Morgan aimed a blow with his 
g-un and the Indian hurled a tomahawk at him, which cutting the little 
finger of his left hand entirely off and injuring the one next it very much 
knocked the gun out of his grasp and they closed. Being a good wrestler 
Morgan succeeded in throwing the Indian, but soon found himself over- 
turned and the savage upon him feeling for his knife and sending forth 
a most horrible yell, as is their custom when they consider victory as secure. 
A woman 's apron, which he had taken from the house and fastened around 
him above his knife so hindered him in getting at it quickly, that Morgan 
getting one of his fingers in his mouth deprived him of the use of that 
hand, and disconcerted him very much by continuing to grind it between 
his teeth. At length the Indian got hold of his knife, but so far towards 
the blade that Morgan too got a small hold on the extremity of the handle, 
and as the Indian drew it from the scabbard, Morgan biting his finger 
with all his might and thus causing him somewhat to relax his grasp, drew 
the knife through his hand gashing it most severely. 

By this time both had gained their feet, and the Indian sensible of 
the great advantage gained over him, endeavored to disengage himself, but 
Morgan held fast to the finger until he succeeded in giving him a fatal stab, 
and felt the almost lifeless body sinking in his arms. He then loosened 
his hold and departed for the fort . 

On his way he met his daughter, who not being able to keep pace with 
her brother had followed his footsteps to the river bank where he had 


plunged in and was then making her way to the canoe. Assured thus 
far of the safety of his children he accompanied his daughter to the fort, 
and then in company with a party of the men returned to his farm to 
see if there were any appearance of other Indians being about there. 

On arriving at the spot where the desperate struggle had been, the 
wounded Indian was not to be seen, but trailing him by the blood which 
flowed profusely from his side they found him concealed in the branches 
of a fallen tree. He had taken the knife from his body, bound up the 
wound with an apron and on their approaching him accosted them famil- 
iarly with "How do do broder how do broder." Alas poor fellow their 
brotherhood extended no further than to the gratification of a vengeful 
feeling. He was tomahawked and scalped and as if this would not fill 
the measure of their vendictive passions, both he and his companion were 
flayed, their skins tanned and converted into saddle seats, shot pouches and 
belts, a striking instance of the barbarities which a revengeful spirit will 
lead its possessors to perpetrate. 

The alarm, which had caused the people in the neighborhood of 
Prickett's fort to move into it for safety, induced two or three families 
on Dunkard creek to collect at the house of Mr. Bozart, thinking they 
would be more exempt from danger when together than if remaining 
at their several homes. About the first of April when only Mr. Bozart and 
two men were in the house the children, who had been out at play, came 
running into the yard, exclaiming that there were "ugly red men coming." 
Upon hearing this one of the two men in the house going to the door to 
See if the Indians really were approaching received a glancing shot on his 
breast, which caused him to fall back. The Indian who had shot him 
sprang in immediately after, and grappling with the other white man was 
quickly thrown on the bed. His antagonist having no weapon with which 
to do him any injury called to Mrs. Bozard for a knife. Not finding one at 
hand she seized an axe and at one blow let out the brains of the prostrate 
savage. At that instant a second Indian entering the door shot dead the 
man engaged with his companion on the bed. Mrs. Bozart turned on him 
and with a well directed blow let out his entrails, and caused him to bawl 
out for help. Upon this others of his party who had been engaged with 
the children in the yard came to his relief. The first who thrust his head 
in at the door had it cleft by the axe of Mrs. Bozart, and fell lifeless on 
the ground. Another catching hold of his wounded, bawling companion 
drew him out of the house, when Mrs. Bozart with the aid of the white man, 
who had first been shot, and was then somewhat recovered, succeeded in 
closing and making fast the door. The children in the yard were all killed, 
but the heroism and exertions of Mrs. Bozart and the wounded white man 
enabled them to resist the repeated attempts of the Indians to force open 
the door, and to maintain possession of the house until they were relieved 
by a party from the neighboring settlement. The time occupied in this 
bloody affair from the first alarm by the children to the shutting of the 
door did not exceed three minutes and in this brief time Mrs. Bozart, with 
infinite self possession, coolness and intrepidity succeeded in killing three 

On April 11th 1779, five Indians came to a house on Snowy Creek 


now in Preston County in which lived James Brain and Richard Powell, 
and remained in ambush during the night close around it. In the morning 
early the appearance of some ten or twelve men issuing from the house with 
guns for the purpose of amusing themselves by shooting at a mark, deterred 
the Indians from making their meditated attack. The men seen by them 
were travelers who had associated for mutual security, and who after 
partaking of a morning's repast resumed their journey unknown to the 
savages, when Mr. Brain and the sons of Mr. Powell went to their days 
work. Being engaged in carrying clapboards for covering a cabin at some 
distance from the house they were soon heard by the Indians, who dispair- 
ing of succeeding in an attack on the house changed their position and 
concealed themselves by the side of the path along which those engaged 
at work had to go. Mr. Brain and one of his sons being at a little distance 
in front of them, they fired and Brain fell. He was then tomahawked and 
scalped, while another of the party followed and caught the son as he was 
attempting to escape by flight. 

Three other boys were then some distance behind and out of sight, 
and hearing the report of the gun which killed Brain for an instant sup- 
posed it proceeded from the rifle of some hunter in the quest of deer. They 
were soon satisfied that this supposition was unfounded. Three Indians 
came running towards them, bearing their guns in one hand and toma- 
hawks in the other. One of the boys, stupified by terror and unable to 
stir from the spot was immediately made prisoner. Another, the son of 
Powell was also soon caught, but the third finding himself out of sight of his 
pursuers ran to one side and concealed himself in a bunch of alders where he 
remained until the Indians passed the spot where he lay, when he arose 
and taking a different direction ran with all his speed and effected his 
escape. The little prisoners were then brought together, and one of Mr. 
Powell's sons being discovered to have but one eye, was stripped naked, 
had a tomahawk sunk into his head, a spear ran through his body, and the 
scalp then removed from his bleeding head. 

The little Powell who had escaped from the savages, being forced to 
go in a direction opposite from the house, proceeded to a station about eight 
miles off, and communicated the intelligence of what had been done at 

A party of men equipped themselves and went immediately to the scene 
of action, but the Indians had hastened home as soon as they perpetrated 
their horrid cruelties. One of their little captives, Benjamin Brain, being 
asked by them "how many men were at the house" replied "twelve." To 
the question, how far from thence was the nearest fort, he answered "two 
miles." Yet he well knew that there was no fort nearer than eight miles, 
and that there was not a man at the house, Mr. Powell being from home 
and the twelve men having departed before he and his father had gone 
out to work. His object was to save his mother and the other women and 
children from captivity or death by inducing them to believe that it would 
be extremely dangerous to venture near the house. He succeeded in the 
attainment of his wishes. Deterred by the prospect of being discovered 
and perhaps defeated by the superior force of white men represented to be 


at Mr. Brain's, they departed in the greatest hurry, taking with them two 
little prisoners, Benjamin and Isaac Brain. 

So silently had the whole affair been conducted, the report of a gun 
being too commonly heard to excite any suspicion of what was doing, and so 
expeditiously had the little boy who escaped, and the men who accompanied 
him back move in their course, that the first intimation given Mrs. Brain of 
the fate of her husband was given by the men who came in pursuit. 

Soon after the happening of this affair, a party of Indians came into 
the Buckhannon settlement and made prisoner of Leonard Schoolcraft, a 
youth of about sixteen, who had been sent to the fort on some business. 
When he arrived at their towns and arrangements being made for his run- 
ning the gauntlet, he was told that he might defend himself against the 
blows of the young Indians, who were to pursue him to the council house 
Being active and athletic, he availed himself of this privilege so as to save 
himself from the beating which he would otherwise have received, and lay- 
ing about him with well timed blows, frequently knocked down those who 
came near him, much to the amusement of the warriors, according to the 
account given by others who were prisoners and present. This was the 
last certain information which was ever had concerning him. He was be- 
lieved, however, to have been afterwards in his old neighborhood in the 
capacity of guide to the Indians, and aiding them by his knowledge of the 
country in making successful incursions into it. 

In the month June 1779 at Martin's Fort in what is now Monongalia 
County another murderous scene was exhibited by the savages. 

The greater part of the men having gone forth early to their farms 
and those who remained being unapprehensive of immediate danger and 
consequently supine and careless, the fort was necessarily easily accessi- 
ble, and the vigilance of the savages, who were lying hidden around it, dis- 
covered its exposed and weakened situation and seized the favorable moment 
to attack those who were without. The women were engaged in milking 
the cows outside the gate and the men v/ho had been left behind were loiter- 
ing around. The Indians rushed forward and killed and made prisoners 
of ten of them, James Stuart, James Smally and Peter Grouse were the only 
persons who fell, and John Shriver and his wife, two sons of Stuart, two 
sons of Small and a son of Grouse were carried into captivity. According 
to their statement upon their return there were thirteen Indians in the 
party which surprised them, and emboldened by success instead of retreat- 
ing with their prisoners, remained at a little distance from the fort until 
night, when they put the captives in a vacant house near under custody of 
two of the savages, while the remaining eleven went to see if they could 
not succeed in forcing an entrance at the gate. But the disaster of the 
morning had taught the inhabitants the necessity of greater watchful- 
ness. The dogs were shut out at night and the approach, of the Indians 
exciting them to bark freely gave notice of impending danger in time for 
them to avert it. The attempt to take the Fort being thus frustrated, the 
savages returned to the house in which the prisoners were confined and 
moved off with them to their towns. 

In August 1779 two daughters of Captain David Scott, living at the 
mouth of Pike Kun, now in Monongalia County, going to the meadow 


with dinner for the mowers were taken by some Indians, who were watch- 
ing the path. The younger was killed on the spot, but the elder was taken 
some distance further and every search for her proved unavailing. Her 
father fondly hoped that she had been carried into captiviey and that he 
might redeem her. For this purpose he visited Pittsburg and engaged the 
service of a friendly Indian to ascertain where she was and endeavor to 
prevail on them to ransom her. Before his return from Fort Pitt, some of 
his neighbors directed to the spot by the buzzards hovering over it, found 
her half eaten and mutilated body. 

In September 1779 Nathaniel Davisson and his brother, being on a 
hunting expedition on Ten Mile Creek, left their camp on the morning of 
the day on which they intended to return home, and named an hour, at 
which they would be back and proceeded through the woods in different 
directors. At the appointed time Josiah went to the camp, and after 
waiting there in vain for the arrival of his brother became uneasy lest some 
accident had befallen him and set out in search of him. Unable to see or 
hear anything of him he returned home and prevailed on several of his 
neighbors to aid in endeavoring to ascertain his fate. Their search was 
likewise unavailing, but in the following March he was found by John 
Eoed while hunting in that neighborhood. He had been shot and scalped 
and notwithstanding he had lain out nearly six months, yet he was but 
little torn by wild beasts and was easily recognized. 

During this year, too, Tygart's Valley which had escaped being visited 
by the Indians in 1778, again heard their harrowing yells, and although 
but little mischief was done by them while there, yet its inhabitants were 
awhile kept in fearful apprehension that greater ills would betide them. In 
October of this year, 1779, a party of Indians lying in ambush near the 
road, fired several shots at Lieutenant John White, riding by, but with no 
other effect than by wounding the horse to cause him to throw his rider. 
This was fatal to White. Being left on foot and in open ground he was 
soon shot, tomahawked and scalped. 

As soon as this event was made known, Captain Benjamin Wilson 
with his wonted promptitude and energy raised a company of volunteers, 
and proceeding by forced marches to the Indian crossing at the mouth of 
Sandy Fork of the Little Kanawha, he remained there nearly three days 
with a view to intercept the retreat of the savages. They, however, 
returned by another way and his scheme of cutting them off while crossing 
the river consequently failed 

Sometime after this several families in the Buckhannon settlement left 
the fort and returned to their homes under the belief that the season had 
advanced too far for the Indians again to come among them, but they were 
sorely disappointed. The men being all assembled at the fort for the pur- 
pose of electing a Captain some Indians feU upon the family of John 
Schoolcraft and killed the woman and eight children, two little boys only 
were taken prisoners. A small girl who had been scalped and tomahawked 
until a portion of her brains were forced from the head, was found the next 
day yet alive and she continued to live for several days, the brains still 
oozing from the fracture of her skull. 

The last mischief that was done this fall, 1779, was perpetrated at 


the house of Samuel Cottrill, who lived on the East side of Elk Creek near 
the old Jackson grave yard near where Clarksburg now stands. During 
the night considerable fear was exicited both at Cottrill's and at Sotha 
Hickman 's, who lived on the opposite side of Elk Creek, not far from where 
Elk View Cemetery is now located, by the continued barking of the dogs, 
that Indians were lurking near by, and in consequence of this apprehen- 
sion Cottrill on going to bed secured well the doors and directed that no 
one should stir out in the morning until it was ascertained that there 
was no danger threatening. Awhile before daylight, Cottrill being fast 
asleep, Moses Coleman, who lived with him, got up, shelled some corn and 
giving a few ears of it to Cottrill's nephew with directions to feed the pigs 
around the yard, went to the hand mill in an out house and commenced 
grinding. The little boy being squatted down shelling the corn to the 
pigs found himself suddenly drawn on his back and an Indian standing 
over him ordering him to lie there. The savage then turned towards the 
house in which Coleman was fired and as Coleman fell ran up to scalp him. 
Thinking this a favorable time for him to reach the house the little boy 
sprang to his feet and running to the door it was opened and he was 
admitted. Scarcely was it closed after him when one of the Indians 
endeavored to break it open. Cottrill fired through the door at him and he 
went ofif . In order to see if others were about and to have a better opportunity 
of shooting with effect Cottrill ascended the loft, and looking through a 
crevice saw them hastening away through the field and at too great a dis- 
tance for him to shoot with the expectation of injuring them, yet he con- 
tinued to fire and halloo to give notice of danger to those who lived near 

Sotha Hickman long after this occurrence told Luther Raymond that 
on that night he knew the Indians were prowling around his house but did 
not feel very apprehensive until he heard or saw them striking fire with 
flint and steel. He then remembered that in a shed adjoining his house 
he had a lot of flax, and then feared they intended setting fire to that in 
order to burn the house. In a few minutes he smelled tobacco smoke and 
then knew that they had struck a fire to smoke. 

In the morning hearing the firing over the creek at Cottrills he with his 
family hastily left the house and rapidly took the trail over the hill to 
Nutter's Fort, which was about a mile distant, and reached there in safety. 

John Evans, County Lieutenant of Monongalia County, writes to 
Philip Bush at Winchester applying to him for the means of purchasing 
provisions for the North Western Department and for the Militia when 
called out for the defence of the same. He had advanced all the money he 
could and can no longer get credit. "The people having been so disap- 
pointed in getting their cash for articles they have spared they will part 
with nothing more. ' ' 

The enemy being so troublesome that unless men are constantly kept 
on duty "the frontiers would break up &c." 

The severity of the following winter put a temporary stop to the 
inroads of the savages on the settlements, and gave the inhabitants a much 
needed repose. 

But early in March 1780 Thomas Lackey discovered some moccasiQ 


tracks near the upper extremity of Tygart 's Valley, now Eandolph County, 
and thought he heard a voice saying in an undertone, "Let him alone, he 
will go and bring more." Alarmed by these circumstances he hastened to 
Hadden's Fort which stood at the mouth of Elk Water and told there 
what he had seen, and what he believed he had heard. 

Being so early in the season and the weather far from mild, none 
heeded his tale and but few believed it. On the next day, however, as 
Jacob Warwick, William Warwick and some others from Greenbrier, were 
about leaving the fort on their return home it was agreed that a company 
of men should accompany them some distance on the road. Unapprehen- 
sive of danger, in spite of the warning of Lackey, they were proceeding 
carelessly on their way, when they were suddenly attacked by some Indians 
lying in ambush near to the place where the moccasin tracks had been 
seen on the previous day. The men on horseback all got safely off, but 
those on foot were less fortunate. The Indians having occupied the pass 
both above and below, the footmen had no chance of escape but in crossing 
the river and ascending a steep bluff on its opposite side. In attempting 
this several lost their lives. John McLain was killed about thirty yards 
from the brow of the hill, James Rolston when a little further up it, and 
Jnmes Crouch was wounded after having nearly reached its summit, yet 
he got safely off and returned to the Fort on the next day. John Nelson 
after crossing over attempted to escape down the river, but being there met 
by a stout warrior, he too was killed after a severe struggle. His shattered 
gun breech, the uptorn earth and the locks of Indian hair in his yet clenched 
hands showed that the victory over him had not been easily won. 

In this affair the Indians lay concealed in the mouth of a ravine, which 
puts down from the West about three miles above the mouth of Elk 

Jacob Warwick, one of the men on horseback it is said promised his 
horse, which was wounded, that if he would carry him safely away he 
need never work again. The horse did so and Warwick kept his promise. 

Soon after this the family of John Gibson were surprised at their 
sugar camp on a branch of the Valley River and made prisoners. Mrs. 
Gibson being incapable of supporting the fatigue of walking so far and 
fast was tomahawked and scalped in the presence of her children. 

West's Fort on Hacker 'si Creek, near where Jane Lew now stands, 
was also visited by the savages early in this year, 1780. 

The frequent incursions of the Indians into this settlement had caused 
the inhabitants in the year 1779 to desert their homes and shelter themselves 
in places of greater security, but being unwilling to give up the improve- 
ments they had made some few families returned during the winter and on 
the approach of Spring moved into the fort. They had not been long 
here before the savages made their appearance and continued to invest the 
fort for some time. Too weak to sally out and give them battle, and not 
Imowing when to expect relief, the inhabitants were almost reduced to dis- 
pair, when Jesse Hughes resolved at his own hazard to try to obtain assist- 
ance to drive off the enemy. Leaving the fort at night he broke by their 
sentinels and made his way with all speed to the fort at Buckhannon. Here 
he prevailed on a party of the men to accompany him back to West's Fort 


and relieve those who had been so long confined there. They arrived before 
day light and it was thought advisable to abandon the place once more and 
remove to Buckhannon. 

On their way the Indians used every artifice to separate the party, so 
as to gain an advantageous opportunity of attacking them, but in vain. 
They exercised so much caution and kept so well together that every strat- 
agem was frustrated, and they all reached the fort in safety. 


When the Hacker's Creek settlement was abandoned by the whites 
in 1779 the Indians burnt West's Fort, which stood on an eminence where 
the residence of Minor C. HaU was afterwards built. When the settlers 
again returned to the clearing a new fort was erected about one third of 
a mile from the old fort. It was in a flat about seventy-five yards east of 
the house built by the pioneer Henry McWhorter and later owned by 
Edward J Jackson. This fort was known locally as the Beech fort, from 
the fact that it was built of beech logs. 

Henry McWhorter was bom in Orange County, New York, Novem- 
ber 13, 1760. He was a soldier in the Eevolution from 1777 to its close. 
In 1784 he settled about two miles from West's Fort, three years later 
he moved nearer to the fort, and built the house of hewn logs mentioned 
in the description of West's fort, which is still in a good state of preser- 
vation. He died February 4, 1848. — Thwarte's New Edition of Border 

Two days after the settlers took refuge in the Buckhannon fort, as Jere- 
miah Curl, Henry Fink, Edmund West, Alexander West, Peter Outright and 
Simon Schoolcraft were returning to the fort with some of their neighbor's 
property, they were fired at by the Indians who were lying concealed along 
a run bank. Curl was slightly wounded under the chin but disdaining to 
flee without making a stand, he called to his companions "Stand your 
ground for we are able to whip them." At this instand a lusty warrior 
drew a tomahawk from his belt and rushed towards him. Nothing daunted 
by the danger which seemed to threaten him, Curl raised his gun, but the 
powder being dampened by the blood from his wound, it did not fire. He 
instantly picked up West's gun, which he had been carrying to relieve West 
of a part of his burden, and discharging it at his assailant brought him 
to the ground. 

The whites being by this time rid of their incumbrances, the Indians 
retreated in two parties and pursued different routes, not however with- 
out being pursued. Alexander West, being swift of foot, soon came near 
enough to fire, and brought down a second Indian, but having only 
wounded him and seeing the Indians spring behind trees he could not ad- 
vance to finish him, nor could he again shoot at him, the flint having fallen 
out when he first fired. Jackson, who was hunting sheep not far off, hearing 
the report of the guns, ran towards the spot and being in sight of the 
Indian when West shot, saw him fall and afterwards recover and hobble 
off. Simon Schoolcraft, following after West, came to him just after Jack- 
son, with his gun cocked, and asking where the Indians were was advised 


by Jackson to get behind a tree or they would soon let him know where 
they were. Instantly the report of a gun was heard and Schoolcraft let 
fall his arm. The ball had passed through it and striking a steel tobacco 
box in his waistcoat pocket, did him no further injury. Outright when 
one of the Indians saw another of them drop behind a log, changed his posi- 
tion and espying the Indian where the log was a little raised from the earth, 
with steady nerves drew upon him. The moaning cry of the savage as he 
sprang from the earth and moved haltingly away, convinced them that 
the shot had taken effect. The rest of the Indians continued behind trees, 
until they observed a reinforcement coming up to the aid of the whites, 
and they fled with the utmost precipitancy. Night soon coming on, those 
who followed them had to give over the pursuit. 

A company of fifteen men went early next morning to the battle 
ground, and taking the trail of the Indians and pursued it some distance 
came to where they had some horses, which they had stolen after the skirmish, 
hobbled out on a fork of Hacker's Creek. They then found the plunder 
which the savages had taken from neighboring houses, and supposing that 
their wounded warriors were near, the whites commenced looking for them, 
when a gun was fired at them from a laurel thicket by an Indian concealed 
there, which wounded John Outright. The whites then caught the stolen 
horses and returned with them and the plunder to the fort. 

For sometime after this nothing occurred to indicate the presence of 
Indians in the Buckhannon settlement, and some of those who were in the 
fort, hoping that they should not be again visited by them this season, 
determined on returning to their homes. Austin Schoolcraft was one of 
these, and being engaged in removing some of his property from the fort 
as he and his niece were passing through a swamp on their way to his home, 
they were shot at by some Indians. Mr. Schoolcraft was killed and his 
niece taken prisoner. 

In June 1780 John Owens, John Juggins and Owen Owens were 
attacked by some Indians as they were going to their cornfields on Booth's 
Creek and the two former were killed and scalped. Owen Owens being 
some distance behind them made his escape to the fort. John Owens, 
the younger, who had been to the pasture field for the plough horses, heard 
the guns, but not suspecting any danger to be near, rode forward towards 
the com field. As he was proceeding along the path by a fence side riding 
one and leading another horse he was fired at by several Indians, some of 
whom afterwards rushed forward and caught at the bridle reins, yet he 
escaped unhurt from them all. 

The savages likewise visited Cheat River during the Spring of this 
year. 1780, and coming to the house of John Sims, were discovered by a 
negro woman, who ran immediately to the door and alarmed the family. 

Bernard Sims, just recovering from the small pox, taking down his gun 
and going to the door was shot. The Indians perceived that he was affected 
with a disease of all others the most terrifying to them and not only did 
not perform the accustomed operation of scalping, but retreated with as 
much rapidity as if they had been pursued by an overwhelming force of 
armed men exclaiming as they ran "small pox, small pox." 

Early in March 1781 a party of Indians invaded the settlements on 


the upper branches of the Monongahela river, and on the night of the 5th 
of that month came to the house of Captain John Thomas near Booth's 

This gentleman was engaged in his accustomed evening devotions with 
his family around him when the savages approached his door, and as 
he was repeating the first lines of the hymn, "Go worship at Emanuel's 
feet" a gun was fired at him and he fell. The Indians immediately forced 
open the door and entered the house. 

The strokes of the tomahawk followed in quick succession until the 
mother and six children lay weltering in blood, by the side of the husband 
and father. "When all were down they proceeded to scalp the fallen, and 
plunder the house of what they readily could remove, threw the other things 
into the fire and departed taking with them one little boy a prisoner. 

Elizabeth Juggens, the daughter of John Juggens, who had been 
murdered in that vicinity the preceding year, was at the house of Captain 
Thomas when the Indians came to it, but as soon as she heard the report 
of the gun and saw Captain Thomas fall, she threw herself under the bed 
and escaped the observation of the savages. 

After they had completed the work of blood and left the house fearing 
that they might be lingering near, she remained in that situation until 
she observed the house to be in flames, when she crawled forth from her 
asylum. Mtrs. Thomas was still alive though unable to move. Upon seeing 
Miss Juggens about to leave the house, she exclaimed "Oh Betsey, do not 
leave us:" Still anxious for her own safety the girl rushed out, and taking 
refuge for the night between two logs in the morning early spread the 

When the scene of these cruelties was visited, Mrs. Thomas was found 
dead in the yard, and the house together with Captain Thomas and the 
children was a heap of ashes. 

The victims were buried a short distance from the house and the 
graves until recently were marked by the original rude headstones. 

In 1888, one hundred and seven years after the massacre the ground 
around where the house stood was ploughed, and among pieces of crockery 
ware, charred ears of Indian corn was a combination sun dial and pocket 
compass about two inches in diameter in a copper case, and notwithstanding 
its long burial the magnetic needle still pointed to the pole. Samuel R. 
Harrison, showed the writer the pocket compass, and told him of the other 
relics found. 

In April 1781, Mathis, Simon and Michael Schoolcraft left Buck- 
hannon fort and went to the head of Stone Coal Creek for the purpose of 
catching pigeons. On their return they were fired upon by the Indians 
and Mathias killed. The other two were taken captive. These were the 
last of the Schoolcraft family. Fifteen of them were killed or taken 
prisoners in the space of a few years. 

Of those who were carried into captivity none ever returned. They 
were supposed to have associated with the savages, and from the reports 
of those who were prisoners to the Indians, three of them used to accom- 
pany war parties in their incursions into the settlements. 

In the same month as some men were returning to Cheat River from 


Clarksburg where they had been to obtain certificates of settement rights 
to their lands from the commissioners appointed to adjust land claims in 
the counties of Ohio, Youghiogany and Monongalia, they after having 
crossed the Valley River were encountered by a large party of Indians, and 
John Manear, Daniel Cameron and a Mr. Cooper were killed, the others 
effected their escape with difficulty. 

The savages then moved on towards the Cheat Eiver, but meeting with 
James Brown and Stephen Radcliff and not being able to kill or take them, 
they changed their course and passing over to Leading in Tygart's Valley 
nearly destroyed the whole settlement. 

They there killed Alexander Rooney, Mrs. Dougherty, Mrs. Hornbeck 
and her children, Mrs. Buffington and her children and many others, and 
made prisoners of Mrs. Roney and her son and Daniel Dougherty, Jonathan 
Buffington and Benjamin Hornbeck succeeded in making their escape and 
carried the doleful tidings to Friend's and Wilson's forts. 

Colonel Wilson immediately raised a company of men and proceeding 
to Leading Creek found the settlement without inhabitants and the houses 
nearly all burned. He then pressed after the savages but not coming up 
with them as soon as was expected, the men became fearful of the conse- 
quences which might result to their own families by reason of this abstrac- 
tion of their defence provided other Indians were to attack them, and 
insisted on their returning. On the second day of the pursuit it was agreed 
that a majority of the company should decide whether they were to proceed 
further of not. Joseph Friend, Richard Kettle, Alexander West and 
Colonel Wilson were the only persons in favor of going on and they conse- 
quently returned. 

When the land claimants, who had been the first to encounter this party 
of Indians, escaped from them, they fled back to Clarksburg and gave the 
alarm. This was quickly communicated to other settlements, and spies 
were sent out to watch for the enemy. By some of these the savages were 
discovered on the West Fork near the mouth of Isaac's Creek, and intelli- 
gence was immediately carried to the forts. Colonel Lowther collected a 
company of men, and going in pursuit came in view of their encampment 
awhile before night on a branch of Hughes River ever since known as the 
Indian Creek. 

Jesse and Elias Hughes were left to watch the movements of the 
savages while the remainder retired a small distance to refresh themselves 
and prepare to attack them in the morning. 

Before daylight Colonel Lowther arranged his men so as to command 
the Indian Camp and when it became light at the signal being given a 
general fire was poured in upon them. Five of the savages fell dead and 
the others fled leaving at their fires all their shot bags and plunder, and 
all their guns except one. Upon going to their camp it was found that one 
of the prisoners, a son of Alexander Roney who had been killed in the 
Leading Creek massacre, was among the slain. Every care had been 
taken to guard against such an occurence and he was the only one of the 
captives who sustained any injury from the fire of the whites. 

In consequence of the information received from the prisoners who 
were rescued, among them being Mrs. Alexander Roney and Daniel Dough- 


erty, that a large party of Indians were expected hourly to come up, 
Colonel Lowther deemed it not prudent to go in pursuit of those who had 
fled, and collecting the plunder which the savages had left catching the 
horses, which they had stolen, and having buried young Roney, the party 
set out on its return and marched home, highly gratified at the success 
which had crowned their exertions to punish their savage foes. The fol- 
lowing incident is given in Thwaites' new edition of Border Warfare, and 
in History of Randolph County. 

In this affair as soon as the fire was opened upon the Indian camp, 
Mrs. Roney, one of the prisoners, ran towards the whites exclaiming, "I 
am Aleck Roney 's wife of the Valley, and a pretty little woman, too, if 
I was well dressed. ' ' She was then ignorant of the fate of her son who had 
just been killed by the whites. 

Another of the captives, Daniel Dougherty, being tied down to the 
ground and unable to move, one of the whites leveled his gun at him and 
demanded to know who he was. Being benumbed with cold and having a 
strong Irish accent he could scarcely make himself understood but finally 
managed to say, ' ' Lord Jasus, am I to be killed by white paple at last ? ' ' 

He was heard by Colonel Lowther and his life saved. Some short 
time after this, John Jackson and his son, George, on their way to Buck- 
hannon fort were fired on by a party of Indians but without effect. 

George Jackson fired at an Indian he saw peepiag from behind a tree 
but without effect, and they then rode off with the utmost speed. 

At the usual period of leaving the forts and returning to their farms 
the inhabitants withdrew from the Buckhannon fort and returned to their 
respective homes. Soon after a party of savages came to the house of 
Charles Furnash and made prisoners of Mrs. Furnash and her four chil- 
dren and despoiled thir dwelling. Mrs. Furnash being a delicate woman 
and unable to endure the fatigue of traveling far on foot, was murdered 
on Hughes River. Three of the children were afterwards redeemed and 
came back, the fourth was never heard of. 

In a few days after this occurence the husband and father returned 
from Winchester where he had been for salt, to find his home desolate and 
his family in the hands of the savages. 

On the 8th of February, 1782, while Henry Fink and his son John 
were engaged in sledding rails on their farm in the Buckhannon settle- 
ment several guns were fired at them, and before John had time to reply 
to his father's inquiry whether he was hurt, another gun was fired and he 
fell lifeless. Having unloosed the chain which fastened the horse to the 
sled, the elder Fink mounted and galloped away. He reached home safely 
and moved his family to the fort. On the next day it was discovered that 
at the first fire John had been wounded in the arm, and that the second 
had passed through his heart. 

The year 1782 was a sad and disastrous one to the settlers on the fron- 
tier of Virginia, Pennsylvania and Kentucky. 

The Hacker's Creek settlement had been abandoned three years be- 
fore and this year the Buckhannon settlers abandoned their improvements 
and moved elsewhere, being unable to hold their own with the savage foe. 

The expedition commanded by Colonel William Crawford of Western 


Pennsylvania against the Indian towns in Ohio met with a disastrous de- 
feat, their commander being captured and burned at the stake. 

Notwithstanding that the surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown 
had practically brought an end to the war of the Revolution, yet the savag- 
es still continued their murderous expeditions against the frontier settle- 
ments east of and along the Ohio River. 

It was seriously contemplated at one time that year of abandoning the 
Monongahela Valley and conducting the settlers east of the mountains as 
will be shown by letters between officials hereafter printed. 

The hardy pioneers discouraged by the inability of the authorities 
east of the mountains to render them any assistance and fearful of the de- 
struction of their children and families, it is not to be wondered at that 
they would be wearied by the continuous raids of the savages and conclude 
to move to a less distracted location. 

At this time, 1782, the present territory of Harrison County was com- 
prised in Monongalia County. Colonel John Evans was the County Lieu- 
tenant and Colonel Benjamin Wilson was commander of the Militia. 

The Indians commenced their depredations early this year and on the 
8th of March, 1782, as William White, Timothy Dorman and his wife were 
going to and in sight of Buckhannon fort, some guns were discharged at 
them and White, being shot through the hip, soon fell from his horse and 
was tomahawked and scalped. Dorman and his wife were taken prisoners. 
The people in the fort heard the firing and flew to arms, but the river 
being between, the savages cleared themselves while the whites were cross- 
ing over. 

After the killing of White one of the most active and vigilant scouts, 
and the capture of Dorman it was resolved to abandon Buckhannon Fort 
and seek elsewhere that security from the calamity that threatened to be- 
fall them if they remained. 

Dorman, who had been transported to this country for his offenses 
in England, was a man of a revengeful and quarrelsome disposition, and 
from his knowledge of the country it was believed that he would guide 
the Indians to the houses of the settlers with whom he was at emnity and 
encourage them in their cruel work. 

While some of the inhabitants of the Buckhannon settlement were 
engaged in moving their property to a fort in the Tygart's Valley, the 
others moving to Nutter's fort and to Clarksburg, they were fired upon 
by a party of savages and two of them, Michael Hagle and Elias Payn- 
ter, fell. The horse on which John Bush was riding was shot through, 
yet Bush succeeded in extricating himself from the falling animal and 
escaped though closely pursued by one of the savages. Several times the 
Indian pursuing him would cry out to him, "Stop and you shall not be 
hurt. If you do not, I shall shoot you," and once. Bush, nearly exhaust- 
ed and in despair of getting off, actually relaxed his pace for the purpose 
of yielding himself a prisoner, when, turning around, he saw the savage 
stop also and commence loading his gun. This inspired Bush with fear 
for the consequences and, renewing his flight, he made his escape. 

Edward Tanner, a mere youth, was soon taken prisoner, and as he 
was being carried to their towns met between twenty and thirty savages 


led by Timothy Dorman proceeding to attack Buckhannon fort. Learn- 
ing from him that the inhabitants were moving from it, and that it would 
be abandoned in a few days, the Indians pursued their journey with so 
much haste that Dorman had well nigh failed from fatigue. They arrived, 
however, too late for their bloody purpose. The settlement was deserted 
and the inhabitants safe within the walls of other fortresses. 

A few days after the evacuation of the fort some of its former in- 
mates went from Clarksburg to Buckhannon for grain which had been 
left there. When they came in sight they beheld a heap of ashes where 
the fort had been, and proceeding on they became convinced that the sav- 
ages were yet lurking in the neighborhood. They, however, continued to 
go from farm to farm collecting grain but with the utmost diligence and 
caution, and at night went to an outhouse near where the fort had stood. 
Here they found a paper with the name of Timothy Dorman attached 
to it, dated at the Indian towns and containing information of those who 
had been taken captive in that part of the country. 

In the morning as some of the men went from the house to the mill, 
they saw the savages crossing the river, Dorman being with them. Think- 
ing it best to impress them with the belief that they were able to en- 
counter them in open conflict, the men advanced towards them, calling 
to their companions in the house to come on. 

The Indians fled hastily to the woods and the whites, not so rash as 
to pursue them, returned to the house and secured themselves in it as 
well as they could. At night Captain George Jackson went privately 
forth from the house and at great hazard of being discovered by the sav- 
ages, proceeded to Clarksburg where he obtained such a reinforcement as 
enabled him to return openly and escort his former companions in 
danger, to a place of safety. 

Disappointed in their hopes of involving the inhabitants of the Buck- 
hannon settlements in destruction, this band of Indians went on to Tygart 's 
Valley. Here, between Westf all's and Wilson's forts they came upon 
John Bush and his wife, Jacob Stalnaker and his son, Adam. The two 
latter being on horseback and riding behind Bush and his wife, were fired 
at, and Adam fell. The old gentleman rode briskly on but some of the 
savages were before him and endeavored to catch the reins of his bridle 
and thus stop his flight. He, however, escaped them all. The horse from 
which Adam Stalnaker had fallen was caught by Bush and both he and 
]\Trs. Bush got safely away on him. 

August 22, 1908. 
Col. Henry Haymond, Clarksburg, W. Va. 
Deae Sir: — 

Yours of the 17th received and in reply give the following informa- 
tion, which is the most authentic I can gather: 

Bush's fort was about one mile and a half North East of the present 
site of Buckhannon near the Heavner Cemetery. William White, the old 
Indian fighter, was killed near that fort and buried there. Buckhannon 
fort was two miles and one-half west of the town near the little station on 
the B. & 0. Railroad, called Red Rock. 

The Bozarth family was killed by the Indians about a mile west of 


this fort (near the town of Lorentz) except the mother and younger son, 
Zadock, who were carried off captives, and two older sons, John and 
George, escaping to the fort. 

A man by the name of Fink was killed near where our Court House 
now stands, and was buried at Fort Bush. It was for him that Fink's 
Eun was named, which empties into the Buckhannon River along the 
Northern border of the town. This creek was called Jackson's Run be- 
fore Fink's death. 

This all happened the latter part of the 17th century. 
Yours truly, 

Thos. J. Farnsworth. 

The Indians then crossed the Allegheny mountains and, coming to 
the house of Mr. Gregg, Dorman's former master, made an attack on it, 
A daughter of that gentleman alone fell a victim to their thirst for blood. 
When taken prisoner she refused to go with them, and Dorman sunk him 
tomahawk into her head and then scalped her. She, however, lived sever- 
al days and related the circumstances above detailed. 

After the murder of Captain John Thomas and his family in 1781, 
the settlement on Booth's Creek was forsaken and its inhabitants went to 
Simpson's Creek for greater security. In the Spring of 1782 John Owens 
obtained the assistance of some young men about Simpson's Creek, and 
proceeded to Booth's Creek for the purpose of threshing some wheat at 
his farm there. "While on a stack throwing doMTi sheaves, several guns 
were fired at him by a party of twelve Indians concealed not far off. 
Owens leaped from the stack and the men caught up their guns. They 
could not, however, discover any one of the savages in their covert, and 
thought it best to retreat to Simpson's Creek, and strengthen their 
force before they ventured in pursuit of the enemy. They accordingly did 
did so and when they came again to Booth's Creek, the Indians had de- 
camped, taking with them the horses left at Owen's. The men, however, 
found their trail and followed it until night. Early the next morning, 
crossing the West Fork near where Shinnston now stands, they went on 
in pursuit and came within sight of the Indian camp, and seeing some of 
the savages lying near their fires, fired at them, but, as was believed, with- 
out effect. The Indians took to flight and as they were hastening on, one 
of them suddenly wheeled and fired upon his pursuers. The ball passed 
through the hunting shirt of one of the men, and Benjamin Coplin re- 
turning the shot, the Indian was seen to suddenly spring into a laurel 
thicket. Not supposing that Coplin 's ball had taken effect they followed 
the other savages some distance further, and as they returned got the 
horses and plunder left at the camp. Some time after, a gun was found 
in the thicket into which the Indian sprang and it was then believed that 
Coplin 's shot had done execution. 

In June some Indians came into the neighborhood of Clarksburg and 
not meeting with an opportunity of killing or making prisoners of any of 
the inhabitants without the town, one of them more venturesome than the 
rest, came so near as to shoot Charles Washburn, as he was chopping a 
log of wood in the lot, and then running up with the axe, severed his 


skull, scalped him and fled safely away. Three of Washburn's brothers 
had been previously murdered by the savages. 

According to tradition this occurrence took place on or near Lee 
Street, a short distance West of Fifth. 

In August, as Arnold and Paul Richards were returning to Rich- 
ard's Fort they were shot at by some Indians lying hid in a corn field ad- 
joining the fort and both fell from their horses. The Indians leaped over 
the fence and tomahwked and scalped them. 

These two men were murdered in full view of the fort and the firing 
drew its inmates to the gate to ascertain its cause. When they saw that 
the two Richards were down, they rightly judged that the Indians had 
done the deed, and Blias Hughes, ever bold and daring, taking down his 
gun, went out alone at the back gate and entered the corn field into which 
the savages had again retired, to see if he could not avenge on one of 
them the murder of his friends. Creeping softly along he came in view 
of them standing near the fence reloading their guns, and looking intent- 
ly at the people at the fort gate. Taking deliberate aim at one of them, 
he touched the trigger, his gun flashed in the pan and the Indians, 
alarmed, ran speedily away. 

In the Spring of 1782 a party of Indians made their appearance on 
Crooked Run in Monongalia County. Mr. Thomas Pindall having been 
one day at Harrison's Fort, at a time when a greater part of the neigh- 
borhood had gone there for safety, prevailed on three young men named 
Harrison, Crawford and Wright to return and spend the night with him. 
Sometime after they had been in bed, the female members of the house 
hold awakened Mr. Pindall and told him that they had several times 
heard a noise very much resembling the whistling on a charger, and in- 
sisted on going directly to the Fort. The men heard nothing, and being 
inclined to believe that the fears of the females had been aroused by the 
blowing of the wind causing the peculiar sound, insisted that there was 
no danger, and that it would be unpleasant to turn out then as the night 
was very dark. 

Hearing nothing after this for which they could not readily account, 
the men arose in the morning unapprehensive of interruption, and the 
women relieved of their fears of being molested by the savages during the 
night, continued in bed. Mr. Pindall walked forth to the woods to catch 
a horse, and the young men went to the spring hard by for the purpose 
of washing. While thus engaged, three guns were fired at them. Craw- 
ford and Wright were killed, but Harrison fled and got safely to the 

The females, alarmed at the report of the guns, sprang out of bed 
and hastened to the fort, pursued by the Indians. Mrs. Pindall was over- 
taken and killed, but Rachel Pindall, her sister-in-law, escaped safely to 
the Fort. 

It is a family tradition that Miss Pindall in her flight, came to a pool 
of water caused by the uprooting of a large tree, and, fearful of being 
overtaken plunged into the water leaving just enough of her face above 
the surface to prevent suffocation, and remained in that position until 
the savages had left the vicinity. 


While Ijang in the water she heard the Indians run by her in pur- 
suit of the men and heard the stroke of the tomahawk that ended the life 
of Mrs. Pindall. 

Thomas Pindall married as his second wife Julia Scott and was the 
father of the brilliant and eccentric James Pindall, a prominent Clarks- 
burg lawyer, who became a member of the Legislature and also of Con- 

His three sisters married in Clarksburg; Rachel to Thomas P. Moore, 
Jemima to George I. Davisson and Elizabeth to Forbes Britton, and 
their descendants still live there. 

In September of this year occurred the celebrated second attack on 
Fort Henry, where Wheeling now stands. The assault was made by a 
body of three hundred and fifty Indians and whites. The Indians were 
Shawnees and Delawares under the command of the renegade George 
Girty and a company of Canadians under a Captain Pratt. 

The Garrison made a most gallant defense against overwhelming 
odds, and the beseiging army after an effort extending through three 
days and failing to obtain possession of the fort became discouraged and 
withdrew to their villages after destroying all the houses and live stock 
they could reach. 

The condition of the country in this year, 1782, and the desperate 
straits which faced the settlers of the Monongahela Valley is shown by 
the following correspondence. 

Monongalia County, Virginia, March 9, 1782. 
His Excellency, Gov. Benjamin Harrison, Eichmond. 
Dear Sir : — 

The murders committed on our frontier at such a time of the year 
and the repeated application of our suffering inhabitants occasions me 
to trouble your Honor, praying that our situation may be taken under 
consideration as we are few in number and much exposed. 

Our frontiers are so extensive that the few inhabitants there settled 
are so scattered that the enemy murders one part before the others can 
be alarmed to come to their assistance. Since the State of Pennsylvania 
have taken peace the poor residue of Virginia are all frontiers. 

The prayer of the people is that a company or two of Militia may 
be ordered to their relief, otherwise' they will be under the necessity of 
vacating the country. Colonel Clark's expedition falling through and so 
many men falling in to the enemies hands, have encouraged them so that 
they are constantly in our country. 

The strength of our militia does not exceed three hundred and fifty 
and them settled at least eighty miles in length. 

I have forebore running the State to the expense of paying an express, 
and troubling your Honor, until I find it will do no longer. The murders 
committed were early in February when the people were under no appre- 
hension of the enemy's being in our country. 

The Express I hope may be paid for this trouble and expense as I 
was much put to it to get one, times being so precarious. 

I have the honor to be with due respect, etc. 

John Evans." 


Colonel Joseph Nevill writes to Governor Harrison from Hampshire 
County under date of March 21, 1782, as follows : 

"The inhabitants of part of Cheat River have petitioned me to send 
them a sergeant and fifteen men as a guard, and as it is out of my power 
without your excellency's approbation, I would be glad to know if I 
might suffer that number to go, provided they would go as volunteers. 

The inhabitants have engaged to find them in provisions upon which 
the executive requested the commissioner of war to order an ensign and 
twenty men from the County of Augusta to rendezvous at Tygart's Valley 
there to wait the orders of Colonel Evans of Monongahela, the men to 
take with them ten days provisions." 

On March 26, 1782, it was ordered by the Governor and his council 
that one Company of Militia from Hampshire County should report to 
Colonel Evans, the County Lieutenant of Monongalia County, to serve 
two months at a time on that frontier, to be relieved at the end of these 
services by the Militia of Rochingham and Augusta Counties. Each 
soldier to take with him ten days provisions but to be supplied after- 
wards by the neighboring counties. Should this means fail to protect the 
County, Colonel Evans was authorized to avail himself of the provisions 
of the invasion laws, etc. 

Colonel George Moffett, writing from Augusta County to Governor 
Harrison on M'ay 1, 1782, informs his Excellency of the disagreeable news 
of the savage enemy invading the frontiers, and that he has sent eighty 
militia exclusive of those sent to the Tygart's Valley to their defense, 
and should there be a real necessity to continue them unless orders are 
given to continue them out of the specific tax, thinks it a hard case that 
he should be called upon to send seventy men to defend Monongalia 
County while the frontiers of Augusta are so distressed by the enemy. 

Colonel Benjamin Wilson, whose fort was in Tygart's Valley below 
and near where Beverly now stands, wrote to the Governor of Virginia in 
the early summer of 1782 as follows : 

"Colonel Joseph Nevill of Hampshire County, has sent a part of his 
militia to their protection, but bringing no provisions he is not warranted 
in marching his men to the West Fork as ordered by Colonel Evans for 
the inhabitants of that place can hardly subsist themselves. The pro- 
visions should have been sent forward first under guard to their posts. 
There is no fort nor inhabitants for fifty-five computed miles, and several 
Indian paths to cross in that way. He now has the Militia divided among 
the different inhabitants at the different forts and in general borrows 
their subsistence until the provisions arrive. 

A demand upon the " specif ecks" of Rockingham County has been 
made and Colonel Harrison has been requested to have the provisions 
raised in his county escorted by his militia to Monongalia County. 

Since the first of April the Indians have made three attacks on the 
people of the Valley. 

Since the Buckhannon settlement broke up, the Indians have been 
more plentious and more bolder than usual in this valley. 

I humbly beg that I might be enabled to call on some of the adjacent 
Comity Lieutenants for an escort to guard us to the interior inhabitants. 


If necessary relief is not granted, the people in general inform me they 
will break up about harvest. 

My earnest desire is we might be enabled to keep our Country." 

Colonel Benjamin Wilson in a letter to Colonel William Davies of 
the War Office at Richmond, Va., under date of May 2, 1782, states that: 

"The Indians had made three incursions into that Country since the 
first of April. The Militia under Colonels Nevill and Evans were dis- 
tributed among the different forts and were fed by the people, as no pro- 
visions had come from Rockingham County as ordered. 

Pack horses with bags, with proper escort for protection against the 
Indians who had appeared forty miles East of that place, would be 
necessary to transport provisions for the troops. 

He had already twenty-two families in his fort and should like to 
stand his ground, but if he should break, the whole valley would follow 
his example. 

His situation has become very precarious since the breaking up of the 
Buckhannon settlement, the people in the fort under a panic, hoping the 
Militia who should come to their relief would bring their own provisions, 
inasmuch as the road had become too dangerous to go out in search of 

Colonel Wiliam Davies in a letter to Colonel Joseph Holmes at Win- 
chester, dated War Office, Richmond, May 14, 1782 : 

Informs him that a relief from Berkley, Frederick and Shenandoah 
to take the place of the men from Hampshire County, then serving in 
Monongalia had been ordered, and instructing him to furnish them with 
supplies by disposing of the public stores in his district. 

Monongalia County, Va., July 25, 1782. 
Hon. Benjamin Harrison, Governor, Richmond. 
Honored Sir : — 

Agreeable to your orders of the 22nd of May last, to me directed, I 
have called on General Irvine, and he informs me it is out of his power 
to give any assistance except in ammunition. 

The horrid barbarity of the enemy has struck the inhabitants of this 
County with such a panic that they are determined to quit the country 
unless your Honor will interfere and give them the necessary aid. The 
men you ordered to our assistance were obliged to be discharged before 
the expiration of their time for want of provisions. 

Colonel Wilson informs me he has repeatedly applied for provisions 
to Colonel Harrison of Rockingham, but has received but very trifling. 
The Militia from Berkley, Frederick and Shenandoah I expect will be 
here soon and no provisions for them and none to be had. I hope your 
Honor will take it under consideration and adopt some mode for our re- 
lief, particularly in that of provisions, and how and in what manner the 
men are to be supported. 

I could get beef and flour by impressing, but we have no salt, and 
that of taking people's property I am very loath to undertake could any 
other method be adopted. 

I have made the strictest inquiry concerning the murder committed 


on the Muskingham and find only one man that went from this comity, 
and since, he is dead. 

About the 20th of May last Colonel William Crawford with five hun- 
dred men went against Sandusky, and a few miles from the town the 
enemy met them, and from the best accounts our loss was not less than 
one hundred men. Colonel Crawford himself and Colonel William Har- 
rison with many others by a prisoner who was taken at the time and made 
his escape, informs me that he saw Colonel Crawford tied to a stake and 
burnt. Since that the enemy attacked Hannah's town in Westmorland 
County, killed a great number and burnt the town. Yesterday I was 
creditably informed that the enemy had burnt Fort Henry at the mouth 
of Wheeling, but I do not assert it, though I have reason to believe it is 

These instances cause our frontier to be very ticklish as we are so 
scattering, the small settlements so great a distance apart. 

I received a line from your Honor dated 9th May concerning men 
who, being enrolled, who lived in forts. I can assure your Honor that 
since I had had the honor to command the County such a practice has 
never been allowed. 

Upon the whole I submit to your Honor's superior judgment, hop- 
ing that this part of the State will not be allowed to fall a prey to so bar- 
barous an enemy as those savages, and am with great esteem your excel- 
lency's most obedient servant, 

John Evans. 

Colonel Charles Cameron in a letter to Colonel William Davies of 
the War Office, Kichmond, dated Staunton, September 9, 1782, states: 

He is grieved to hear of the distressed situation of Colonel Wilson 
and the people in that quarter. He has given them every assistance in 
his power and had instructed the commissioners of Eockingham County 
to reserve the " Specif ecks" raised in that County for the troops on the 
frontier under Colonel Evans or Colonel Wilson, and, although he had 
notified Colonel Armand of this, his wagons had several times been sup- 
plied upon their applying to Colonel Harrison for those very articles. 

For this reason Colonel Wilson's command is now suffering, and he 
has not the means of affording him any relief. 

He has no money with which to purchase salt ordered for him, and 
if he had it, could not afford transportation, as there is no such thing 
here as public credit. 

Colonel John Evans, in a letter dated in Monongalia County, Octo- 
ber 16, 1782, addressed to Colonel William Davies, War Office, Rich- 
mond, writes: 

"I am under the necessity of acquainting you in some measure in 
what manner your requisitions have been complied with in our getting 
the aid ordered for our defense." 

The few men who had gone out were without provisions. The fron- 
tiers are in a wavering condition and will undoubtedly break in the 
Spring if not time aided. 

Colonel Wilson, the bearer, would give further particulars as he was 
in command of the men sent, etc. 


Colonel Benjamin Wilson to Governor Harrison, dated December 
9th, 1782. 

Sir: — At this time duty obliges me to lay before your Honor this let- 
ter which contains a narrative of the present state of the County of Mo- 
nongalia together with my humble request. 

Notwithstanding your parental care of my county last Spring, be- 
fore aid came to its relief, the settlement of Buckhannon broke up and 
moved into the interior parts of the Country, which unhappy event 
caused about fourteen or fifteen families of the settlement of Tygart's 
Valley to leave the country. At this time Tygart's Valley is a frontier, 
also Horse Shoe, West Fork, Dunkard Bottom and about fifteen miles of 
Cheat River settlement, the Country as now inhabited is about one hun- 
dred and ten computed miles from North to South. 

There are about sixty-eight effective men in Tygart's Valley, 
eighteen at the Horse Shoe, eighty at West Fork, twenty-five at Dunkard 
Bottom, and about one hundred and sixty at Forks of Cheat River and 
Sandy Creek Glades, so that from the scattered condition of the Country 
the damages the people have already sustained by the frequent in- 
cursions of the Indians since the commencement of this war, will, I be- 
lieve (and from the voice of the people) cause the first four mentioned 
settlements, to break up and leave the country, should the Indians pur- 
sue the war with the vigor they did last Spring, unless timely relieved 
by your excellency's interposition. 

Colonel John Evans by a letter to Colonel William Davies dated Oc- 
tober 16, 1782, requests aid for his County by the first of February next, 
I could not wish to have men marched over the mountains at that season 
of the year unless absolutely needed, and humbly beg that instruction 
may be given at this time to Colonel Evans or myself, impowering one 
of us to call on some of the adjacent Counties for relief, upon the first 
incursion made or positive appearance of the Indians in the Spring. I 
believe aid of fifty men would be a number sufficient to keep the people 
together, until you could be informed of the true state of the case. I be- 
lieve provisions may be got in the County for fifty men for two months. 

I here insert the different incursions made by the Indians in my 
county this year until the Eleventh day of October, First incursion made 
February 7th next 10th day, next 12th day, next 20th day of March, 
next 22nd day, next 7th day of April, next 12th next 24th next 29th, 
day of May, next 12th day of August. I await your answer. 

Sir, from your most obedient and very humble servant, 

Benjamin Wilson. 

The capture of the British Army under Lord Cornwallis at York- 
town by General Washington, in October 1781, rendered the war un- 
popular in England, and in 1783 a treaty of peace was concluded be- 
tween that country and the United States, which terminated the war of 
the Revolution and acknowledged the independence of the latter. 

The close of hostilities between the two countries caused a partial 
cessation of the Indian raids on the Virginia frontier. The aid and en- 
couragement given them by the British Government being withdrawn, 


they were less able to carry on war against the border country and no 
large military expeditions were sent out. 

While small war parties continued for many years to harrass the 
settlement, yet they were more for the purpose of horse stealing and 
plundering, though they generally resulted in murders being committed 
and the inhabitants being carried into captivity. 

Yet the pioneers were encouraged, took heart and now determined to 
remain permanently in the Country. 

In 1783 there was an alarm of Indians on Simpson's Creek caused 
by a gun being discharged at Major Power, but the act was generally at- 
tributed to a white man and confidence was soon restored. 

In September 1784 a party of Indians came to the house of Henry 
Flesher where the town of Weston now is, and fired at him as he was 
returning from his labors on his clearing, wounding him in the arm. Two 
savages immediately ran towards him, and just as he was in the act of 
entering the door, one of them struck at him with the butt end of his 
gun. The breech came first in contact with the facing of the door, and 
descended on his head, threw him forward into the house, and his wife 
closing the door, no attempt was made by the savages to force it open. 

The family retreated safely to the Hacker's Creek settlement the 
next day. 

A few days after the attacks on Flesher as Daniel Radcliff was pro- 
ceeding to the Brushy Fork of Elk Creek on a hunting expedition he was 
shot perhaps by the same party of Indians, tomahawked and scalped. 

There was some suspicion that this murder had been committed by a 
white man. An arrest was made and an examining trial held before the 
County Court, but the party was discharged, the Court being satisfied 
that the deed had been committed by Indians. 

Extract from a letter from Colonel Benjamin Wilson to Governor 
Harrison, dated Harrison County, October 27, 1784. 

"By this express you are informed that on the 18th of this instant 
the Indians hath again renewed their wonted barbarities in the County 
by wounding one man, and on Thursday following killed and scalped an- 
other. Which unexpected incursion has much alarmed the good citizens 
of this County that they are longer to experience the hardships of a 
savage war, and what still more adds to their mortification is their be- 
holding their fellow citizens, who reside East of the mountains, enjoying 
themselves now in peace, and they neglected in securement of that happy 

Sir, as I believe Congress will not have a treaty with the Indians 
this fall, there is the greatest probability in my view of an early rupture 
in the ensuing spring. 

Therefore prays your Excellency may, by the bearer, Mr. John Jack- 
son, furnish the lieutenant of this County with authority to call on some 
of the adjacent Counties for a small portion of men and provisions in the 
Spring if absolutely needed. 



At a Comity Court held for the County of Harrison on September 
22, 1784. 

This day John Stackhouse, a Militia soldier came into Court and 
proved to the satisfaction of the same, that he was captivated at Colonel 
Archibald Lockree's defeat on the Ohio River in the year 1781, and that 
he was captivated on ye twenty-first day of August in sd year, and re- 
turned to the mouth of Grave Creek on the East side of the Ohio on the 
16th day of July, 1784. 

Colonel Lochry's command referred to in the above order, was com- 
posed of about one hundred Pennsylvanians on their way down the river 
to join General George Rogers Clark's contemplated expedition against 
Detroit. They had landed on a sand bar below the mouth of the Miami 
on what is now Indiana Territory, and were engaged in cooking a buffalo, 
when they were attacked by Indians and the entire party killed or cap- 

Harrison County was organized on July 20, 1784, and John P. Du- 
val was appointed Lieutenant. 

The County Lieutenant was the official through which all matter 
pertaining to Military aifairs were conducted by the War Department at 

He had charge of the public stores, arms and ammuition, and had 
authority to call out the militia in case of invasion or insurrection. 

In August, 1785, six Indians appeared on a farm occupied by Thom- 
as and Edward Cunningham on Bingamon Creek, a tributary of the 
West Fork, and now the dividing line, between Harrison and Marion 

At this time the two brothers were dwelling with their families in 
separate houses, but nearly adjoining though not in a direct line with 
each other. Thomas was then on a trading expedition East of the moun- 
tains, and his wife and four children were collected in their room for the 
purpose of eating dinner as was Edward with his family in their house. 
Suddenly a lusty savage entered where were Mrs. Thomas Cunningham 
and her children, but seeing that he would be exposed to a fire from the 
other house, and apprehending no danger from the women and children, 
he closed the door and seemed for a time only intent on the means of es- 

Edward Cunningham had seen the savage enter his brother's house, 
and fastened his own door, seized his gun and stepping to a small aper- 
ture in the wall next the house in which the Indian was, and which served 
as well for a port hole as for the admission of light, was ready to fire 
whenever the savage should make his appearance. But in the other house 
was a like aperature, and through it the Indian fired at Edward and 
shouted the yell of victory. It was answered by Edward. He had seen 
the aim of the savage only in time to avoid it. The bark from the log 
close to his head was knocked off by the ball and flew into his face. The 
Indian seeing he had missed his object and observing an adz in the room, 
deliberately commenced cutting an aperture in the back wall through 


which he might pass out without being exposed to a shot from the other 

Another of the Indians came into the yard just after the firing of 
his companion, but observing Edward's gun pointing through the port 
hole, he endeavored to retreat out of its range. He failed of his purpose. 
Just as he was about to spring over the fence, the gun was fired and he 
fell forward. The ball, however, only fractured the thigh bone, and he 
was yet able to hobble over the fence, and take shelter behind a coverlet 
suspended on it, before Edward could again load his gun. 

While the Indian was engaged in cutting a hole in the wall, Mrs. 
Cunningham made no attempt to get out. She was well aware that it 
would draw down upon her head the fury of the savage, and if she es- 
caped this she would most probably be killed by some of those who were 
watching around, before the other door could be opened for her admission. 
She knew too that it would be impossible for her to take the children 
vdth her, and could not brook the idea of leaving them in the hands of 
the savage monster. She even trusted to the hope that he would with- 
draw as soon as he could, without molesting any of them. A few minutes 
served to convince her of the fallacy of this expectatoin. When the 
opening had been made sufficiently large, he tomahawked one of the chil- 
dren, and, throwing the body into the back yard, ordered the mother to 
follow after. 

She obeyed the order, stepping over the dead body of one of her 
children, with an infant in her arms, and two others screaming from hor- 
ror at the sight, and clinging to her. 

When all were out, he scalped the murdered boy, and, setting fire to 
the house, retired to an eminence in the field where two of the savages 
were with their wounded companion. Leaving the other two to watch 
the opening of Edward Cunningham's door when the burning of the 
house should force the family from the shelter. They were disappointed 
in their expectation of that event by the exertions of Cunningham and 
his son. When the flame from one of the houses communicated to the 
roof of the other, they ascended to the loft, threw off the loose boards 
which covered it, and extinguished the fire, the savages shooting at them 
all the while, and their balls frequently striking close by. 

Dispairing of accomplishing further havoc and fearful of detection 
and pursuit, the Indians collected together and prepared to retreat. 

Mrs. Cunningham's eldest son was first tomahawked and scalped and 
next the little daughter, while the distracted mother stood motionless 
with grief, and in momentary expectation of having the same fate dealt 
to her and her infant. But no, she was doomed to captivity, and with 
her helpless babe in her arms, was led off from this scene of horror and 
of woe. The wounded savage was carried on a rough litter, and they all 
departed, crossing the ridge to Bingamon Creek, near which they found 
a cave that afforded them shelter and concealment. After night they re- 
turned to Edward Cunningham's house and finding no one, plundered 
and fired the house. 

When the savages withdrew in the evening, Cunningham went with 
his family into the woods where they remained all night, there being no 


settlement nearer than eight or ten miles. In the morning they proceed- 
ed to the nearest house and gave the alarm and a company of men was 
soon collected to go in pursuit of the Indians. When they came to Cun- 
ningham's and found both houses heaps of ashes they buried the bones 
which remained of the boy who was murdered in the house, with the 
bodies of his brother and little sister who were killed in the field, but so 
cautiously had the savages conducted their retreat that no traces of them 
could be discovered and the men returned to their homes. 

Some days after, circumstances induced the belief that the Indians 
were yet in the neighborhood and men were again assembled for the pur- 
pose of tracing them. They were now enabled to distinguish the trail 
and pursued it near to the cave, where from the number of rocks on the 
ground and the care which had been taken by the Indians to leave no 
vestige, they could no longer discover it. They, however, examined for 
it in every direction until night forced them to desist. In thinking over 
the incidents of the day, the cave occurred to the mind of Major Robinson, 
who was well acquainted with the woods, and he concluded that the 
savages must be concealed in it. It was examined early the next morning 
but they had left it the preceding night and departed for their towns. 

After her return from captivity, Mrs. Cunningham stated that at the 
time of the search on the day before, the Indians were in the cave, and 
that several times the whites approached so near that she could distinctly 
hear their voices, the savages standing with their guns ready to fire in 
case they were discovered, and forcing her to keep the infant to her 
breast lest its crying might point to their place of concealment. 

In consequence of their stay at this place on account of their wounded 
companion it was sometime before they arrived in their own country, and 
Mrs. Cunningham's suffering of body as well as mind were truly great. 
Fatigue and hunger oppressed her sorely, the infant in her arms wanting 
the nourishment derived from the due sustenance of the mother plied at 
the breast for milk in vain, and the Indians perceiving this, put a period 
to its sufferings with the tomahawk even while it was clinging to its 
mother's bosom. 

The anguish of this woman during the journey to the towns can only 
be properly estimated by a parent, her bodily sufferings may be inferred 
from the fact that for ten days her only sustenance consisted of the head 
of a wild turkey and three pawpaws, and from the circumstances that the 
skin and nails of her feet scalded by frequent wading of the streams came 
with her stockings when upon their arrival at a village of the Delawares, 
she was permitted to draw them off. Yet was she forced to continue on 
with them the next day. One of the Indians belonging to the village 
where they were, by an application of some sanative herbs very much 
relieved the pain which she endured. 

When she came to the town of those by whom she had been made 
prisoner, although receiving no barbarous or cruel usage, yet everything 
indicated to her that she was reserved for some painful torture. 

The wounded Indian had been left behind and she was delivered to 
his father. Her clothes were not changed as is the case when a prisoner 
is adopted by them, but she was compelled to wear them, dirty as they 


"were, a bad omen for a captive. She was, however, not long in apprehen- 
sion of a wretched fate. 

A conference was soon to take place between the Indians and whites 
preparatory to a treaty of peace, and witnessing an uncommon excitement 
in the village one evening upon inquiring learned that the great captain 
Simon Girty had arrived. She determined to prevail with him, if she 
could, to intercede for her liberation, and seeing him the next day passing 
on horseback she laid hold of his stirrup and implored his interference. 
For awhile he made light of her petition, telling her that she would be as 
well there as in her own country, and that if he was disposed to do her 
a kindness he could not, as his saddle bags were too small to conceal her; 
but her importunity at length prevailed, and he whose heart had long 
been steeled against every kindly feeling, every sympathetic impression 
was at length induced to perform an act of generous, disinterested benev- 

He paid her ransom, had her conveyed to the commissioners for 
negotiating with the Indians, and by them she was taken to a station 
on the South side of the Ohio River. Here she met with two gentlemen, 
Long and Denton, who had been at the treaty to obtain intelligence of 
their children, taken captives sometime before, but not being able to 
gain any information respecting them, they were then returning to the 
interior of Kentucky and kindly furnished her a horse. 

In consequence of the great danger attending a journey through the 
wilderness, which lay between the settlements in Kentucky and those 
on the Holstein river in South West Virginia, persons scarcely ever 
perform it except at certain periods of the year, and in large parties 
to better defend themselves against attacks of the savages. 

After some delays a party assembled to travel the forest route to the 
east. Mrs. Cunningham joined it and was furnished with a horse be- 
longing to a gentleman on the Holstein, which had escaped from him 
while on a buffalo hunt in Kentucky, and was found after his return, 
to carry her that far on her way home. Experiencing the many un- 
pleasant circumstances incident to such a journey, she reached the settle- 
ments on the Holstein, and proceeded by way of the Shenandoah valley to 
Harrison County. Here she was sadly disappointed in not meeting her 
husband, having understood that she had been ransomed and taken to 
Kentucky, he had sometime before gone in quest of her. 

Anxiety for his fate, alone and on a journey, which she well knew 
to be fraught with many dangers, she could not cheerily partake of the 
general joy excited by her return. In a few days, however, he came 
back. He had heard on the Holstein of her having passed there, and 
he retraced his steps. Arriving at his brother Edward's he again enjoyed 
the satisfaction of being with all that was then dear to him on earth. It 
was a delightful satisfaction, but presently dampened by the recollection 
of the fate of his luckless children. Time assauged the bitterness of the 
recollection, and blessed them with other and more fortunate children. 


Shinnston, W. Va., August 24, 1905. 
Henry Eaymond, Esq., Clarksburg, W. Va. 
Deae Sie: — 

The exact spot where the house occupied by Thomas and Edward 
Cunningham lived is now occupied by the residence of the late Wm. L. 
Eiehardson, in which his widow now resides. This is located on Cunning- 
ham's Run, a branch of Bingamon Creek, Eagle District, one mile above 
Peora and one-half mile below where I now reside. The rock under 
which Mrs. Cunningham and the Indians were said to be secreted is about 
two miles from the Cunningham residence and is on the land now owned 
by Luther W. Pigott, on the waters of Little Indian Run. In my boy- 
hood days there was a well beaten foot path leading from Cunningham's 
Run over the ridge to Little Indian Run. This path went close by this 
rock. I have often travelled this path. This was a large sand stone rock 
with a projecting roof, sufficient to give shelter to several persons. Other- 
wise there is no appearance of a cave in which a person might hide. 

The Harbert block house was on Jones' Run, about two miles above 
Lumberport, on lands owned and occupied for many years by Noah 
Harbert, afterwards sold to John M. Boggess and William H. Lucas, 
and now owned by their heirs. 

I am not familiar with the history of William Johnson or the 
Mclntire family. The Left Hand fork of our run was called in my 
boyhood days the "Oil Fork of Cunningham's Run." It took its name 
from a friendly Indian hunter, who had his camp in the bottom, near 
the forks of said run. Here he had troughs in which he kept his bear 
oil and hides. Once a year he would float his wares to Pittsburg. On 
one of his trips he was shot from the shore and fell dead in his canoe. 
I have heard my father tell of this often. 

On the end of a prominent point on the farm of E. M. Hess, just 
above the mouth of Cunningham's Run is an Indian graveyard, which 
is covered by pile of rock some twenty-five feet in diameter. I do 
not know that any excavation has ever been made. 

Very truly yours, 

F. W. Cunningham. 

Mrs. Cunningham stated that while in the cave an Indian stood over 
her with an uplifted tomahawk to prevent her from crying out to her 
friends. Professor Thwait in his new edition of Border Warfare pub- 
lishes the following : 

"Tradition states that the Indians remained in the cave a night and 
a day, and that just before they departed before daylight during the 
second night, Mrs. Cunningham says the wounded Indian was carried 
from the cave by his comrades and she saw him no more. Her opinion 
was that he was then dead and his body was sunk in a neighboring 

On the day before her capture a little bird came into Mrs. Cunning- 
ham's cabin and fluttered around the room. Even afterwards she grew 
frightened whenever a bird would enter her house. The fear that such 
an occurrence would bring bad luck to a household was an old and wide 


spread superstition. Mrs. Cunningham was three years a captive with 
the Indians." 

Colonel John P. Duval the County Lieutenant of Harrison County, 
in reporting this affair to Grovernor Patrick Henry under date of Clarks- 
burg, September 5, 1785, states that Mrs. Cunningham was killed, as such 
was the report at the time, but this fortunately turned out to be incorrect. 
He writes as follows : 

"The Indians have again repeated their barbarities in Harrison 
County on the 31st of August, by killing the wife and four children of 
Thomas Cunningham and burning his house and that of Edward Cun- 
ningham. The people are terrified. Expresses are arriving with intelli- 
gence of traces of Indians being near by. He would do all he could to 
keep the people together until succor should arrive, but the Militia were 
not organized, and amunition very scarce. He had sent out fifty men and 
six spies. The effective force in county being only about two hundred 
and fifteen men and about one hundred and thirty guns. He is about to 
send for the powder and lead agreeable to directions, but adds in case 
there are any rifles belonging to the State in any of the back magazines 
at Alexandria, Winchester or Fredericksburg should acknowledge it as a . 
singular favor to send an order for about two hundred of them." 

Colonel Benjamin Wilson wrote to Governor Edmund Kandolph on 
May 28, 1787, the following report : 

"Sir: — About the middle of April the Indians made an incursion 
in this County and took away eight horses, which incursion has put the 
inhabitants in much fear, as they lay exposed in a direct line opposite the 
enemy, and no endeavors in their view, made either by Congress or this 
State to effect a peace with them, I have ordered out six spies on the 
frontiers, although in my opinion, not less than eight would be a number 
sufficient. I can discover no warrant in the Militia laws for spies, or for 
their payment, and sure I am if spies are to be paid with audited certifi- 
cates, it will be difficult to get suitable men to engage in that business, 
and on good men alone depends the safety of the house-holders and 
provisions for their families. 

In the absence of the County Lieutenant and myself the Major 
applied to the Lieutenant of Hampshire County for aid and believes 
twenty-five of his Militia will be sent to the relief of Harrison. 

I am your very humble servant, 

Benjamin Wilson. 

In September 1787 a party of Indians were discovered in the act of 
catching some horses on the West Fork River above Clarksburg, and 
company led on by Captain William Lowther went immediately in pur- 
suit of them. On the third night the Indians and whites unknown to each 
other, encamped not far apart, and in the morning the fires of the latter 
being discovered by Elias Hughes the detachment which was accom- 
panying him fired upon the camp and one of the savages fell. The 
remainder taking to flight, one of them passed near to where Captain 
Lowther and other men were, and Lowther firing at him as he ran, the 
ball entered at his shoulder, perforated him and he fell. 


The horses and plunder, which had been taken by the savages were 
then collected by the whites and they commenced their return home in 
the confidence of false security. They had not proceeded far when two 
guns were fired at them, and John Bennett fell pierced through the body. 
He died before he reached home. 

The new edition to the Border Warfare by Thwait, says : 

"Alexander West was a member of this party, and after being up 
most of the night previous on sentry duty, he sat down with his back 
to a tree, with his rifle across his lap and fell asleep. On awakening he 
sprang to his feet and cried out "Boys look out, some of us will be killed 
to-day. I saw the old red doe in my dreams, that is the sign of death. I 
never knew it to fail." When Bennett fell it was considered in camp to 
be a verification of the red sign. 

Bennett was carried on a rude stretcher but died in four days. His 
body was placed in a cleft of rocks and the entrance securely closed." 

The Indians never thought the whites justifiable in resorting to arms 
to punish them for their horse thieving, and raids for the purpose of 
plunder. They claimed they were only taking rent for the use and occu- 
pancy of their lands by the settlers. 

The killing of the two Indians by Hughes and Lowther, mentioned 
above was soon followed by murderous expeditions on the frontier by 
Indians, it is supposed in retribution for this act. 

On the 5th. of December, 1787, a party of Indians and one white 
man, Leonard Schoolcraft, came into the settlement on Hacker's Creek, 
now in Lewis County, and meeting with a daughter of Jesse Hughes took 
her prisoner. Passing on they came upon Edmund West carrying some 
fodder to the stable and taking him likewise captive, carried him to where 
Hughes' daughter had been left in charge of some of their party. Here 
the old gentleman fell upon his knees and expressed a fervent wish that 
they would not deal harshly with him. His petition was answered by a 
stroke of the tomahawk and they then went to the house of 
Edmund West, Junior, where were Mrs. West and her sister, a girl of 
eleven years of age, daughter of John Hacker, and a boy of twelve, a 
brother of West. 

Forcing open the door Schoolcraft and two of the savages entered 
and one of them immediately tomahawked Mrs. West. The boy was 
taking some corn from under the bed and the tomahawk sunk twice into 
his head. The girl was standing behind the door. One of the savages 
aimed a blow at her, which she tried to evade, but it struck on the side of 
her neck though not with sufficient force to knock her down. She fell, 
however, and laid as if killed. Thinking their work of death accomplished 
here, they took from the press some milk, butter and bread, placed it 
on the table and deliberately sat down to eat, the little girl observing 
all that pased in silent stillness. When they had satisfied thier hunger 
they arose, scalped the woman and boy, plundered the house, even empty- 
ing the feathers to carry off the ticking, and departed dragging the little 
girl by the hair forty or fifty yards from the house. They then threw 
her over the fence and scalped her, but as she showed sjnnptoms of life, 
Schoolcraft observed "that is not enough" when immediately one of the 


savages thrust a knife into her side and they left her. Fortunately the 
point of the knife came in contact with a rib and did not injure her 

Old Mrs. West and her two daughters, who were alone when the old 
gentleman was taken, became uneasy that he did not return, and fearing 
that he had fallen into the hands of savages, as they could not otherwise 
account for his absence, they left the house and went to Alexander West's 
who was then on a hunting expedition with his brother, Edmund. They 
told of the absence of old Mr. West and their fears for his fate, and 
as there was no man here, they went over to Jesse Hughes, who was 
himself uneasy that his daughter did not come home. Upon hearing 
that West, too, was missing he did not doubt but that both had fallen 
into the hands of Indians, and knowing of the absence from home of 
Edmund West, Junior, he deemed it advisable to apprize his wife of 
danger and removed her to his house. For this purpose and accompanied 
by Mrs. West's two daughters, he went on. On entering the door the 
tale of destruction, which had been done there was soon told in part. 
Mrs. West and the boy lay weltering in their blood, but not yet dead. 
The sight overpowered the girls and Hughes had to carry them off. See- 
ing that the savages had but just left them, and aware of the danger 
which would attend any attempt to move out and give the alarm that 
night, Hughes guarded his own house until day when he spread the 
sorrowful intelligence, and a company was collected to ascertain the 
extent of the mischief, and to try to find those who were known to be 

Young West was found standing in the creek about half a mile from 
where he had been tomahawked. He survived in extreme suffering for 
three days. Old Mr. West was found in the field where he had been 
tomahawked. Mrs. West was in the house. She had probably lived but 
a few minutes after Hughes and her sisters-in-law had left there. 

The little girl. Hacker's daughter, was in bed at the house of old 
Mr. West. She related the history of the transaction at Edmund West's, 
Junior, and said she went to sleep when thrown over the fence and was 
awaked by the scalping. After she had been stabbed at the suggestion 
of Schoolcraft and left, she tried to recross the fence to the house, but 
as she was climbing up, she again went to sleep and fell back. She then 
walked into the woods, sheltered herself as well as she could in the top 
of a fallen tree and remained there until the cocks crew in the morning. 

Remembering that there was no person left alive at the house of 
her sister, awhile before day she proceeded to the house of old Mr. West. 
She found no person at home, the fire nearly out, but the hearth being 
warm she lay down on it. The heat produced a sickly feeling, which 
caused her to get up and go to the bed, in which she was found. She 
recovered, grew up, married, gave birth to ten children and died as 
was believed of an affection of the head, occassioned by the wound she 
received that night. 

Hughes' daughter was ransomed the next year by her father and 
lived for many years in sight of the theatre of those savage enormities. 
The Wests lived on Hacker's Creek, above Jane Lew. 


During the year 1788, the Monongahela Valley was not much dis- 
turbed by Indian raids. Numerous alarms ocurred, occasioned by 
predatory horse stealing bands, but not much serious mischief was done. 

It seems that the Indian tribes in Ohio were expecting an expedition 
against their villages by the whites, which may have had a tendency to 
keep them more at home. 

It seems from the following that such a movement was contemplated 
by the authorities. 

Colonel John P. Duval, County Lieutenant of Harrison County, 
writes to Governor Randolph under date of March 18, 1788. 

Sir: — At my return from the Assembly, I found the inhabitants 
on the frontier of this county much confused respecting the murders 
which were committed last fall, and some were determined to leave the 
country and them who had the fortitude enough to stand was also deter- 
mined to foot, but at the same time having some hopes of something 
being done by the Government for their relief waited my return, who 
with much diflfieulty had prevailed on them to stand their ground, and 
engage to defend them as much as was in my power, which engagement 
has induced me to order out the thirty Rangers, as I fully expect a visit 
from the savages early this spring, and the extensiveness of the County 
is such that the whole of them is not sufficient as we have to cover a part 
of Randolph County. 

I have agreeably to your excellencies directions called a council of 
Militia Officers of the County in order to make a choice of scouts, but 
they have construed the meaning of this order of the executive in a 
different point of view to what I do myself. 

The Council of officers have supposed the intention and meaning 
of the Executive was that four scouts consisted of eight men as two 
generally go together on a scout. 

I should be glad to find myself in the mistake, as I well know the 
necessity of having the eight, and hope they may be augmented to that 
number, in case my idea should be right. 

I have appointed a Captain to command the thirty men and await 
your instructions for the appointment of a Lieutenant or Ensign. 
Sir, I subscribe myself, your humble servant, 

John P. Duvall.'' 

John P. Duvall writes to Governor Randolph on May 14, 1788, as 
follows : 

Reiterates his letter of March 18th which is still unanswered, and 
states that he has this day received information that the savages have 
lately fell on the inhabitants of the Big Kanawha, and expects a visit 
from them every day, and continues, 

"The Rangers have been kept out since the first of March and I 
fear I shall be under the necessity to continue them out the whole season, 
as I am informed the Indians refuse to treat with the New Englanders 
as has been expected, and we are told they are disposed for war, but as 
a friend to the public treasury as well as to my county, shall discharge 


the Rangers or a part of them as soon as there is any appearance of 

safety. ' ' 

Asks that instructions be sent by the bearer Mr. Anderson. 

The New Englanders referred to in the above letter means the 
eastern colony that settled on the Ohio River at the mouth of the Musk- 
ingum in the early Spring of 1788 and founded the city of Marietta. 

Colonel William McCleery writes from Monongalia County, Decem- 
ber 12, 1788 to the Governor protesting at the instance of the inhabitants 
of Monongalia, Harrison and Randolph Counties against the recent order 
directing a certain number of the Militia of those Counties to hold them- 
selves in readiness to march to the Ohio River to report to General St. 

The families of the absent Militia would starve as they could make 
no crops, and besides be left helpless and unguarded. 

Suggests that the Militia required be taken from the counties 
between the Alleghenies and the Blue Ridge, as those counties are popu- 
lous and situated in perfect safety. 

Colonel John P. Duvall writes to Governor Beverly Randolph on 
December 29, 1788 : 

States that it is the opinion of the Delegates of the District of 
Monongalia, Ohio, Harrison and Randolph that Colonel George Jackson 
of Harrison and Major Zachariah Sprigg of Ohio, should command the 
Militia of the said District should they be called for. 

The Delegates in the Legislature from the Counties of Harrison and 
Randolph under date of Richmond, January 5, 1788, presented the follow- 
ing statement addressed to the Governor: 

That horseman would be of no use in those counties as they say their 
enemies in that part must be pursued in that still and quiet manner 
in which they came on their war against us. 

They think sixty rangers under two captains both under the orders 
of the County Lieutenant of Harrison County, would cover the frontier 
of both counties, as the distance from the Monongalia line along the 
back settlements of Harrison and including the exposed frontier of Ran- 
dolph is about seventy or eighty miles. 

Ten scouts or spies added would be necessary to watch the early 
movement of the Indians. 

Signed by, John P. Duvall, 

John Prunty, 
George Jackson. 

"William Lowther and Hezekiah Davisson of Harrison County ad- 
dressed the following communication to Governor Randolph and his 
council on December 31, 1788 : 

We beg leave to inform your honorable board that from that account 
we have had from our county, and also our own knowledge that the 
Militia ordered out of our county and State will be very injurious and 
disagreeable to the people in general, therefore we humbly request to 
have the draft countermanded or the number lessened. 

We observe that thirty men could scarcely be raised last year. 


In August, 1789, five Indians on their way to the settlements on the 
waters of the Monongahela, met with two men on Middle Island creek 
now Doddridge County, and killed them. Taking their horses they con- 
tinued on their route until they came to the house of William Johnson 
on Ten Mile Creek and made prisoners of Mrs. Johnson and some children, 
plundered the house, killed part of the stock, and taking with them one 
of Johnson's horses, returned towards the Ohio. 

When the Indians came to the house Johnson had gone to a lick 
not far off, and on his return in the morning, seeing what had been done 
and searching until he found the trail of the savages, and their prisoners 
ran to Clarksburg for assistance. A Company of men repaired with him 
immediately to where he had discovered the trail, and keeping it about a 
mile found four of the children lying dead in the woods. The savages 
had tomahawked and scalped them, and placed their heads close together, 
turned their bodies and feet straight out so as to represent a cross. The 
dead were buried and further pursuit given over. The letter of William 
Haymond printed elsewhere in this volume refers to the murder of the 
Johnson family, he being one of the party that went in pursuit. 

Clarksburg, W. Va., March 20, 1907. 
Colonel Henry Haymond. 

My Dear Sir: — Referring to the Johnson family who were massacred 
by the Indians in 1788, will say their home was on the north west side 
of Ten Mile Creek eight miles from Clarksburg, and opposite where now 
is the village of Sardis. The land where the house stood is now owned 
by Oliver Robinson. 

Mrs. Johnson and three children were taken to the top of the hill 
on land now owned by Mrs. Susan Robey and were all killed. I have 
visited the place many times, where the house stood and also where they 
were killed and their bodies buried. 

My grandfather Shinn had a pocketbook, which is now in my posses- 
sion, that was partly made from the skin of one of the Indians killed by 

Sincerely yours, 

R. S. Ogden. 

Another party of Indians about this time came to the house of 
John Mack, on a branch of Hacker's Creek, now in Lewis County. He 
being from home they killed all who were at the house. Two of the 
children who had been sent to the woods to hunt the cattle, returning 
saw a little sister lying in the yard scalped, and directly fled and gave 
the alarm. In the morning some men assembled, and went to ascertain 
the extent of the mischief. The house was not to be seen. The little girl 
who had been scalped in the yard was much burned and those who had 
been murdered in the house were consumed in it. 

Mrs. Mack had been taken some distance from the house and toma- 
hawked and scalped. The men wrapped their hunting shirts around her and 
carried her to a neighboring house. She lived a few days, gave birth 
to a child and died. 


Sometime after the murder of Mack's family, John Simms, living 
on a branch of Gnatty Creek, in what is now Elk District, seeing his 
horses come running up much affrighted, was led to believe that the 
Indians had been trying to catch them. In a few minutes the dogs 
began to bark furiously in the corn field adjoining, and he became satis- 
fied the savages were approaching. Knowing that he could offer no 
effectual resistance if they should attack his house, he contrived an artifice 
to deter them from approaching. 

Taking down his gun he walked around the house backward and 
forward and as if speaking to men in it called out "Be watchful they 
will soon be here, and as soon as you see them draw a fine bead." Mrs. 
Sims in a coarse tone of voice and with feigned resolution answering as 
she had been advised "Never fear, let them once show their yellow hides 
and we'll pepper them." He would then retire into the house, change 
his garments the better to support the deception, and again go forth 
to watch and give directions to those within. He pursued this plan until 
night, when he withdrew with his family to a place of safety. 

The Indians had actually been in the com field and near enough 
to have shot Simms, the place where they had been sitting being plainly 
discernable the next morning, and as they were retreating they fired the 
house of Jethro Thompson on Lost Creek. 

William McCleery writes to Governor Beverly Randolph, under date 
of April 25, 1789, from Morgantown stating: 

"I have been informed that it has been suggested to you that the 
settlements in Ohio and Harrison Counties sufficiently covers this 

I assure you this is not so. The lowest settlements in Ohio County 
of any account are on the Ohio River at Grave Creek, which lies to 
the North West from us, and the nighest settlement of Harrison County 
to that is fifty or sixty miles, and which lies nearly South from this 
place at a distance of thirty-five to forty miles leaving an uninhabited 
country of the above extent open to the savages. 

Richmond, May 7, 1789. 

The Lieutenant Governor laid before the Board, the letters of Colonel 
John Evans and William McCleery, one of the delegates in the Assembly 
from Monongalia County. 

Ordered that copies of said letters be sent to the President of the 
United States, and that a Lieutenant and twenty-five Rangers authorized 
to be ordered into service by Colonel Evans. 

Colonel Benjamin Wilson in a letter to Governor Beverly Randolph 
dated Harrison County, May 22, 1789, 

Acknowledges the letter and order in council of December 31, 1788, 
states the County Lieutenant being absent and if in the County is now 
living with his family on an island in the Ohio River opposite the mouth 
of the Muskingum River. 

The Indians have killed some people this Spring in our adjoining 
County. The reports from the Shawnees and the report that Indians 
have been seen in the County induced him to call together the Militia 
officers of the County on the subject of the letter and order in Council. 
Had ordered six scouts in the field. 


Colonel Wilson on September 27, 1789, gives the following list of 
mischief done by Indians in Harrison County. 

September 19, 1789, William Johnson's family, four killed and four 
captivated, horses taken, cattle, hogs and sheep killed and the house 

September 22, 1789. Mr. Stitzer's house burnt including his house- 
hold stuff, the family hardly escaping. 

September 22, 1789. Mr. Mack's wife and two children killed. Cattle 
killed and house burnt. 

September 23, 1789. Jethro Thompson's house burnt. 

September 26, 1789. John Sims' house burnt, and horses taken 

The above mischief done from the middle of the County and 

This evening had received information that two Indians were seen 
near the lower end of the County. 

Harrison County, Va., Sept. 28, 1789. 
His Excellency Governor Beverly Randolph, Richmond, Virginia. 

Sir: — I understand the protection of the State is now put into the 
hands of Governor St. Clair, who I believe is now absent from the station 
at the mouth of the Muskingum. 

The Indians are very troublesome in this County as will appear by 
the enclosed list of depredations. 

Our people are dispirited as they have soon felt the direful effects 
of an efficient treaty with the Indians, in which they had put some 

They presume if Congress knew the situation it would soon be other- 
wise for which purpose I earnestly request that the bearer, Major William 
Lowther, may be called before your Board and examined on oath as 
touching the late incursions in this county and a copy of his testimony 
sent to Congress, that they may be acquainted with the sufferings of their 
people and the ill effects of partial treaties. Sir I am your very humble 
servant, Benjamin Wilson. 

Mem. The above paper to be sent to the President of the United States. 

The Assembly having taken up the subject, nothing to be done by 
the Executive. 

Congress before the adoption of the Constitution took steps 
to occupy the territory West of the Ohio, and in 1785 a detach- 
ment of troops under Major John Doughty established a fort on the Ohio 
just below the mouth of the Muskingum River and named it Fort Harmar 
after an officer of the army. Colonel Josiah Harmar. 

When Marietta was founded by a party of soldiers of the Revolution 
from the New England States in April 1788, it was the principal Military 
post in that part of the Country, and was for many years an important 
Military Station. 

When Fort Harmar was built and garrisoned and Marrietta settled 
the pioneers on the Virginia side of the River felt encouraged and in some 


degree protected by the location of a body of soldiers and citizens between 
them and the Indian villages. 

By direction of the Virginia authorities a road was marked and cut 
out through the wilderness in 1788 between Minear's on the Valley River to 
Williamsport on the Ohio opposite Marietta. 

Virginia having ceded the territory west of the Ohio Eiver to the 
general government congress in 1787 by an act established that vast 
region as the North Western Territory and on the 5th. day of October 
in the same year appointed General Arthur St. Clair a distinguished 
Officer of the Revolutionary Army as its governor. 

At the new settlement of Marietta on the 15th July, 1788, with 
dignified and proper ceremonies participated in by the Military from 
Fort Harmar, Governor St. Clair was duly installed in office and thus 
was organized the first civil government West of the Ohio. 

Early in the year 1790 Henry Knox, Secretary of War in instruc- 
tions directed to Governor St. Clair and General Harmar, states that the 
President has received several applications for protection from the inhab- 
itants of the frontier counties of Virginia lying on the South Side of the 

These applications are founded on the depredations of small parties 
of Indians during the last year, who it seems have murdered many of 
the unguarded inhabitants, stolen their horses, burned their houses, etc. 

Until the last year an arrangement of the following existed at the 
expense of Virginia. The Lieutenants of the exposed counties under 
certain restrictions were permitted to call forth a number of active men 
as patrols or scouts as they are generally termed and Rangers. 

But the government of that state thought proper to discontinue this 
arrangement on the organization of the general government to which the 
inhabitants of said counties could apply for protection. All applications 
of this kind have been placed before Congress for their information. 
Authority was accordingly given to the officials of the Western territory 
to call out scouts and rangers from the frontier counties of Virginia in 
proportion to the danger threatening the exposed county, and to supply 
them with amunition. 

Instructions were also given by the President to extirpate these 
bandits, provided the same could be done without interfering with the 
general object of peace with the regular Indian tribes lying upon the 
Wabash and vicinity. 

Memorial addressed to the Governor of Virginia dated Richmond, 
October 27, 1790 by George Jackson, Abraham Claypool, Cornelius 
Begard, John Haymond, Delegates from Harrison and Randolph Coun- 
ties, state that they are informed that the claims from theii* counties for 
services performed in 1789 by four scouts are likely to be disallowed. 
These services were very essential and less than four would have been of 
no service. 

At the time they were ordered out by the commanding officers, the 
Indians had massacred and captured eleven persons in that country in 
about one week, besides killing the stock and burning the furniture of 
several poor people, pray these claims will be allowed. 


An expedition was organized at Fort "Washington, now Cincinnati, 
by General Harmar in September, 1790, and marched against the Indian 
villages on the Sciota and Miami Rivers, in order to strike them at home 
and break up thier raids upon the settlements. 

The troops fell into ambuscades and suffered severe loss, but suc- 
ceeded in destroying several towns and large fields of corn and other pro- 
visions, but in the end failed to bring on a general engagement, and were 
not entirely successful in the objects of the campaign. 

This hostile movement failed to secure the frontiers of Virginia and 
Ohio from the predatory forays of small parties of Indians, as they were 
infuriated at the destructions of their towns and crops, considered that 
they had repelled Harmar 's invasion and became more active than ever 
in the prosecution of hostilities. 

Memorial to Governor Beverly Randolph by Benjamin Biggs and 
John Henderson of Ohio County, John Evans, Jr., and William McCleery 
of ]\Ionongalia County, George Jackson and John Prunty of Harrison 
County, Cornelius Bogardus and Abraham Claypool of Randolph County 
and others of Greenbrier and Montgomery Counties, delegates to the 
Assembly from these several counties, dated November 1, 1790. 

Stating the defenceless condition of these counties forming a line of 
nearly four hundred miles along the Ohio River, exposed to the hostile 
invasion of the Indians and destitute of every support, is truly 
alarming. Notwithstanding all the regulations of the general 
government in that country they fear the consequences of the recent 
defeat of our army by the Indians ( Harmar 's defeat) on the late expe- 
dition, as they, flushed with victory, will doubtless fall on our frontiers 
as soon as the weather will permit. 

Prays the Governor to relieve them, and if he cannot to lay their 
complaints before the proper tribunal where they may be redressed. 

In the year 1790 the inhabitants of Harrison County were not greatly 
disturbed by Indian raids. 

In the Spring of this year the neighborhood of Clarksburg was 
visited by Indians in quest of plunder, and succeeded in stealing quite 
a number of horses. 

They were discovered and pursued to the Ohio River, when the 
pursuers being re-inforced, determined to follow on over into the Indian 

Crossing the river and ascending the Hock Hocking near to the falls 
they came upon the camp of the savages. The whites opened an unex- 
pected fire, which killing one and wounding another of the Indians caused 
the remainder to fiy, leaving their horses about the camp. These were 
caught, brought back and restored to their owners. 

In April 1790 as Samuel Hull was engaged in ploughing a field 
for Major Benjamin Robinson, now in Eagle District, he was discovered 
by a small party of Indians, shot, tomahawked and scalped. The murder 
•vas discovered by Mrs. Robinson. Surprised that Hull did not come to the 
house as usual, to feed the horses and get his own dinner, she went to the 
field to see what detained him. She found the horses some distance from 
where they had been recently at work, and going on presently saw Hull 


lying where he had been shot. The field in which this occurred was for 
many years known as the "Hull field." 

On the 24th April, 1791, John Bush, who lived on Freeman's Creek, 
now in Lewis County, having early in the morning sent two of his 
children to drive up the cows, became alarmed by their sci'eams and 
taking down his gun was proceeding to learn the cause of it when he 
was met at the door by an Indian, who caught hold of his gun, forced 
it from his grasp and shot him with it. Bush fell across the threshold 
and the savage drew his knife to scalp him with it. Mrs. Bush ran to the 
assistance of her husband and with an axe aimed a blow at the Indian 
with such force that it fastened itself in his shoulder, and when he jumped 
back his exertion pulled the handle from her hand. She then drew her 
husband into the house and secured the door. 

By this time other of the savages had come up, and after endeavoring 
in vain to force open the door, commenced shooting through it. Fortun- 
ately Mrs. Bush remained unhurt although eleven bullets passed through 
her clothing and some of them grazed the skin. One of the savages 
observing an aperture between the logs, thrust the muzzle of his gun 
through it. With another axe Mrs. Bush struck on the barrel so as to 
make it ring and the savage on drawing it back exclaimed, "Dern you." 
Still they were endeavoring to force an entrance into the house until 
they heard what they believed to be a party of whites coming to its 
relief. It was Adam Bush, who living close by and hearing the screams 
of the children and the firing of the guns, had set off to learn what had 
given rise to them, and taking with him his dogs the noise made by them 
in crossing the creek alarmed the savages and caused them to retreat, 
taking the two children as prisoners. 

A company of men was soon collected and went in pursuit of the 
Indians, but were unable to surprise them and regain the prisoners. 
They, however, came so nearly upon them on the Little Kanawha that 
they were forced to fly precipitately leaving the plunder and seven 
horses, which they had taken from the settlement, these were retaken 
and brought back. 

In May, 1791, as John Mclntire and his wife were returning to their 
home about two miles above the mouth of Bingamon Creek, in what is 
now Clay District, they passed through the yard of Uriah Ashcraft, 
and in a short time after Mr. Ashcraft startled by the sudden growling 
and springing up of one of his dogs, stepped quickly to the door to see 
what had aroused him. He had hardly reached the door when he espied 
an Indian on the outside with his gun presented. Closing and making 
fast the door, he ascended the stairs that he might better fire on the 
intruder, and after snapping his gun several times and discovering that 
there were other Indians in the yard he raised a loud shout to apprise 
those who were within the sound of his voice that he was surrounded by 
danger. Upon this the Indians moved off and three brothers of John 
Mclntire coming to his relief they all pursued the trail of the savages. 

About a mile from Ashcraft 's they came upon the body of John 
Mclntire tomahawked, stripped and scalped, and concluded that Mrs. 
Mclntire had been taken prisoner. They sent intelligence to Clarksburg 


of what had happened and requested assistance to follow the Indians 
and recover the prisoner from captivity. The desired assistance was im- 
mediately afforded and a company of men led on by John Haymond 
and George Jackson were in pursuit. 

Below the three forks of Middle Island Creek, now in Doddridge 
County, before they were aware of their proximity to the savages they 
were fired upon by them, and two of the party very narrowly escaped being 
shot. A ball passed through the handkerchief on the head of John Hay- 
mond, and another through the sleeve of George Jackson's shirt. The 
fire was promptly returned and the men rushed forward. The 
Indians, however, made good their retreat, though not without having 
experienced some injury, as was discovered by the blood, and the throw- 
ing down of some of the plunder which they had taken. 

It was here first ascertained that Mrs. Mclntire had been killed, her 
scalp being found among the things abandoned by the Indians. Her 
body was afterwards found a short distance from where that of her 
husband had been previously discovered. 

Shinnston, W. Va., April 10, '08. 
Mr. Henry Haymond, 

Dear Sir: — ^Yours received and contents noted and in reply will say 
that there was a Fort located on the old Mclntire farm, which is about 
two and one half miles North from Shinnston near Enterprise, on the 
west bank of the "West Fork River in Clay District. Charles Mclntire 
now owns the farm. It was about one mile North West of the Fort 
on a ravine that emptied into Bingamon Creek that John Mclntire and 
wife were killed, which is about two and one-half miles North of Shinns- 
ton. On the same day one Ashcraft was killed further up Bingamon 
Creek. I" believe his name was Uriah Ashcraft and about the same time 
one of the Cunningham's was captured by the Indians on Cunningham's 
Run. Respectfully, 

B A. Reeder. 

An account of this skirmish will be found in another part of this 
volume in a letter written by William Haymond, one of the participants. 
This fight occurred on the North Side of McElroy Creek, near the 
mouth of Elk Lick Run in McClelland District, Doddridge County, 
about ten miles from West Union on land now (1908) owned by W. 
Benton Allen. 

Some years afterwards a gun was found about 200 yards over the 
bluff North of the Battle ground by Christopher Ash, which had been 
thrown away by one of the wounded Indians. 

As an incident of this murder the County Court on June 17, 1793, 
entered the following order: 

"Ordered that Isaac Mclntire, son of John Mclntire, deceased be 
bound an apprentice to David Wamsley until he is twenty-one years old, 
he now being seven years old on October 15th, 1792." 

The family tradition connected with the murder of John Mclntire 
and his wife is that they were out hunting the cows and were attacked 


by a small party of Indians. Mclntire was killed at once but Mrs. 
Mclntire escaped into the woods, was overtaken and killed some distance 
from her husband. For two or three days it was supposed that she was 
captured until her scalp was found in the effects of the Indians when 
they were overtaken by the pursuing party of whites. A search was then 
instituted and her body found. 

It is supposed that it was the intention of the Indians to attack the 
Mclntire house, but as they approached they heard quite a disturbance 
inside and presuming there was a number of men there passed on. The 
noise was occasioned by the Mclntire children playing with a pet bear. 
The youngest of these children, Zadock, lived to take part in the war of 
1812, was captured at the battle of Lundy's Lane in Canada and was 
imprisoned on a ship in Halifax Harbor for more than a year. He lived 
to a good old age and was buried in Hepseby Church yard. 

In the month of September, 1791, Nicholas Carpenter set off from 
Clarksburg for Marietta with a drove of cattle to sell to the settlers in 
that vicinity and the soldiers of Fort Harmar, and after several days 
travel encamped near the Ohio River for the night. 

Early the next morning while breaking camp the drovers were fired 
upon by a party of Indians, killing one and wounding another of the 
party. The remainder endeavored to save themselves by flight but Carpen- 
ter being a cripple by reason of a wound received some years before, 
plunged into a pond of water, where he fondly hoped he would escape 
observation, but both he and his son, who had likewise sought security 
there, were discovered, tomahawked and scalped. 

George Leggett, one of the party, was never afterwards heard of, 
but Jesse Hughes succeeded in getting off though under disadvantageous 
circumstances. He wore long leggings and when the firing commenced 
at the camp they were fastened at the top of his belt but hanging loose 
below. Although an active runner he found that his pursuers were gain- 
ing and must ultimately overtake him if he did not rid himself of this 
incumbrance. For this purpose he halted somewhat, and stepping on 
the lower part of his leggings broke the string which tied them to his 
belt, but before he accomplished this, one of the savages approached and 
hurled a tomahawk at him. It barely grazed his head and he then again 
took to flight and soon got off. 

It was afterwards learned that the Indians by whom this mischief 
was effected had crossed the Ohio River near the mouth of the Little 
Kanawha, where they captured a negro belonging to Captain James Neal 
and continued on towards the settlements on the West Fork until they 
came upon the trail made by Carpenter's cattle. 

Supposing they belonged to families moving they followed on until 
they came upon the drovers and tying the negro boy to a sapling made 
an attack on them. The boy finding himself alone worked away at his 
fastening until he got loose and got safely away to Neal's Station. He 
told that the Indians danced and expressed great delight when they dis- 
covered Carpenter's trail and hurried on after him. 

At a County Court held for the County of Harrison on the 20th. 
day of November, 1820, the following order was entered: 


"It being this day proved to the satisfaction of the Court by the oath 
of David Carpenter, that Nicholas Carpenter was killed by the Indians 
on the 4th day of October in the year 1791, and that Nancy Carpenter, 
daughter of the said Nicholas Carpenter, was bom on the 15th. day of 
March 1792, and ordered that the same be certified." 

Colonel Benjamin Wilson to Colonel John P. Duvall, Harrison County, 
October 19, 1791. 

Discovering signs that the Indians who killed Carpenter and others, 
were going towards the West Fork River, and thus that the inhabitants 
of that region were in great danger, and believing that a few active and 
reliable scouts would make the best defense of the exposed people, he 
directed the Captains on the frontier to send out ten scouts for a few 
days, until the arrival of Colonel Duvall at Clarksburg. Hopes Colonel 
Duvall will apply to Government for their pay as scouts are so important 
to the defense of the exposed frontiers. 

A statement of expenses incurred for Harrison County, for its pro- 
tection, for the year 1791. 

1st. Rangers by order of the Executive of this State. I presume 
this expense has been paid by this State, I have no account of the 

2nd. Rangers by order of the General Government. This account 
has been paid by the General Government. I have no account of the 

£ S D 

3rd. Scouts service 238 days at 5 shillings per day 59 10 

Rations 238 days at 6d. each 5 19 

May 17th Total 65 29 

Colonel Benjamin Wilson to Governor Henry Lee, 

Sir: — The above mentioned service of scouts was occasioned by an 
incursion made in this County last October, and the continued appearance 
of eminent danger for some time. The Lieutenant of the County informed 
me he had made you acquainted therewith, and by virtue of your letter 
dated 3rd of January, 1792, I am applying to the General Government, 
May 6, 1792, for payment. I know of no other expenses but those above 

John P. Duvall, County Lieutenant of Harrison County to the Gov- 
ernor of Virginia. 

Richmond, November 27, 1791. 

Sir: — The exposed situation and the frequent depredations which 
are committed in the County of Harrison by the savages constrains me 
to lay before your excellency the distressed situation of the frontiers of 
said County. 

On the 4th of last month a party of Indians fired on a party of men, 
who were driving a drove of cattle to the Muskingum settlements and 
within five or six miles thereof, they killed four persons, took one prisoner 
and wounded one. One of the party only escaped, and he had several balls 
through his clothes. 

A few days before they fell on this party they killed a man near 


Hock-Hocking, and took a negro boy from the Little Kanawha, who at 
the time of the attack on the drovers made his escape. 

Sir, We have frequent information of hostilities being committed on 
some part of the Ohio or other. No protection is to be had from the 
Federal Government, they supposing the present expedition (St. Clair's) 
to be a protection to us, which is a mistaken idea, as I consider it as an 
injury rather than a protection at this time, as no doubt but they may 
suppose we are off our guard depending on the success of the campaign, 
which is truly the case. 

There are at this time a number of scouts out, although without my 
authority, but your excellency will see the necessity of the measure by the 
enclosed papers. 

I must beg leave further to inform you that in February 1790, I was 
called on by the frontiers of the county for protection, as there appeared 
to be great danger at that time, and for my own justification I called 
a council of the officers of Militia, whose result was that I should order out 
eight (8) scouts, which I accordingly did, and at the same time the council 
requested of me to go in person to the President at New York, which I 
also did, but received no instructions from the Board of War until the 
2ncl of May, therefore can receive no pay from the United States prior 
to that date for the said scouts. So that there is from the 1st of March 
until the 2nd of May, which I could wish your interference in order to 
get them paid, which favor will be greatly acknowledged by. Sir, Your 
Excellencies Most obedient and humble servant, 

John P. Duvall. 

Richmond, Va., December 8, 1791. 
To His Excellency the Governor of Virginia, 

Sir: — The late murder which was committed by the Savages on the 
4th of October last near to Muskingum, as well as the frequent depre- 
dations on the western frontiers, and in particular the County or Harri- 
son, and also the defeat of General St. Clair, which will encourage them 
to persist in their cruelty, I do therefore in behalf of my constituents 
take the liberty to request of your Excellency to grant for the protection 
of said County of Harrison a sufficient number of men, which may be 
thought necessary for to answer the purpose. 

Sir, as to the ideas held out that the Federal troops are a protection 
to us is but a mere shadow mthout substance, and I am sure that your 
own knowledge and experience of a military life is sufficient to satisfy 
you that it is the case. 

I should suppose that a company of men from the County would 
be sufficient, and I would wish to be called on by the Executive for fur- 
ther information. 

I conceive also, that the counties of Ohio and Kanawha are in extreme 
danger, those three counties well defended I think will cover the whole. 
I hope your Excellency will take our distress under consideration and 
give us such relief as may appear to be right. 

And have Sir the honor to be Your Excellency's most obedient 
servant, John P. Duvall. 


John P. Duvall, County Lieutenant of Harrison County to Governor 
Henry Lee, December 20, 1791. 

Sir : — I could wish to have about twenty of the men to be raised 
for the defence of Harrison County, stationed on the Ohio, ten at 
Neal's Station, the Little Kanawha, and ten at or near the mouth of the 

I could also wish your excellency to appoint some person to employ 
a person to prepare the arms belonging to the State in the Counties of 
Ohio, Monongalia, Harrison and Randolph, as they are much out of 
repair, and also wish you to appoint Colonel Benjamin Wilson to muster 
the men for the Counties of Harrison and Randolph. 

And am Sir, Your Excellency's most obedient, humble servant, 

John P. Duvall. 

The depredations of small parties of Indians on the settlements of 
Ohio, Virginia and Kentucky still continued and the pathetic appeals 
from the inhabitants for protection to the General Government at last 
had the effect of arousing Congress to placing adequate means in the 
hands of the President for the purpose of sending troops against these 
Indians and destroying them in their homes. 

The troops were assembled in the Fall of 1791 at Fort Washington, 
now Cincinnati, and under the command of General Arthur St. Clair 
marched against the Indian villages. 

Early on the morning of November 4, 1791, when the army was near 
the great Miami villages, it was attacked by a large body of Indians and 
completely defeated, suffering a loss in killed and missing of thirty- 
seven officers and five hundred and ninety-three privates, and in wound- 
ed of thirty-one officers and two hundred and fifty-two privates. 

General St. Clair was an experienced officer of many years service 
on the frontier in Indian warfare, and great hopes were entertained of 
his conducting a successful campaign, and his disastrous defeat was re- 
ceived with consternation and alarm all along the western frontier, and 
brought sorrow and mourning in many an humble cabin for the unre- 
turning brave. 

It is said that President Washington had particularly cautioned 
General St. Clair against a surprise, and when the report of the terrible 
calamity that had befallen the army reached him, that great man is said 
to have lost his temper and railled long and loud at the incompetency 
and neglect of its commander. 

The defeat of General St. Clair encouraged and elated the Indians so 
much that they refused to make peace, and continued on the war path. 

These reverses weighed heavily on the mind of President Washington 
and he decided to intrust the service of subduing the Western Indians to 
General Anthony Wayne, and early in the year 1792 he was appointed 
commander in chief of the Army. This appointment inspired the public 
with confidence which subsequent events proved not to be misplaced. 

George Jackson to Governor Lee. 


Harrison County, May 5, 1792. 
To Mis Excellency Henry Lee, 

I received your Excellency's letter some time in the last of February 
past, also the inclosures, which I immediately attended to, though at some 
expense as Captain McMachan lives some distance near about 120 miles. 

I observed you have given orders to Captain Lowther or at least to 
McMachan to order out two scouts for our county. 

I wish the executive could have agreed to indulge our frontier counties 
with more scouts, as we have already experienced a troublesome spring by 
the savages, and by good information they are now on our frontiers. The 
Indians have committed hostilities on all four counties this season already, 
that is Ohio, Monongalia and Eandolph. 

I wrote to your Excellency last February respecting of my furnish- 
ing the provision to the Rangers of these four counties and paid a man to 
go by express to let you know in what situation I stood in, and from your 
Excellency's answer I did not conceive myself fully justified to augment 
the price of a ration from eight cents, though I am afraid I shall be under 
the necessity of doing it, for I can't get any person who will furnish them. 

I submitted the matter to Captain Lowther and he once thought of 
discontinuing the Rangers from some of the Posts, but on consideration 
agreed not and had to give himself as security to pay the 7^4 per ration to 
have them found. There is another circumstance that did not appear to 
me when I accepted the appointment, viz : the Companies are distributed 
at different posts throughout our frontier for the safety of the County, and 
the undertakers have to pack the provisions to the posts as yet, though this 
is complained of so much, that if pay is not allowed or some other measure 
adopted, they will utterly refuse, the consequence I dread. 

I can assure you that I have not for all the trouble I have been at, 
offered to ask anything for my trouble, and tell them they shall have what 
I am to receive. I hope that your Excellency will write me specially on 
the occasion. 

And believe me to be with due respect. 

Your most obedient and very humble servant, 

George Jackson. 

Colonel William Lowther writes to the Governor from Clarksburg 
under date of May 5th. 1792, accepting the Military Commission forward- 
ed to him, and stating that he had organized his company, but is afraid 
that on account of the low rate of pay allowed them and the difficulty of 
procuring provisions, he will have to discharge them. 

He further says : ' ' We have every reason to expect a very troublesome 
summer. There has been frequent discoveries already made of the ap- 
proach of the enemy and much mischief done in the neighboring counties. ' * 

He reports that two men have been killed in the limits of the County. 

An Account of the Attack on the Waggoner Family, May 1792. 

About the middle of May a party of savages came upon Jesse's Run, 
a branch of Hackers Creek and approached John Waggoner's cabin late 


in the evening and found him seated on a log in his clearing. In this party 
of Indians was the afterwards celebrated chief Tecumseh, who was de- 
tailed to shoot Waggoner. Placing his gun on a rail of the fence, he fired 
but missed, the ball passing through the sleeve of his shirt. Waggoner fled 
and got safely away. 

In the meantime the rest of the party approached the cabin, killed a 
small boy in the yard, and made prisoners of Mrs. Waggoner and her six 
children and departed immediately with them. A party of whites followed 
on their trail, and about a mile from the house found the body of one of 
the children, a short distance further on lay Mrs. Waggoner and two 
others of her children. 

The savages avoided pursuit and reached their towns in safety with 
the remaining prisoners — two girls and a boy. 

The elder of the two girls soon escaped to the neighborhood of Detroit 
and remained there until Wayne's treaty in 1795. Her sister was retained 
with the Indians until the close of the war — and the boy, Peter, until the 
war of 1812, when he was recognized by one of his former neighbors and 
his father notified, who visited him, and with great difficulty persuaded 
him to return to the whites. Peter had an Indian wife and children, and 
left them with the greatest reluctance, promising to return. 

Upon his return to his people, they, by kind treatment, induced him 
to remain until he married, had a family of children, and abandoned his 
savage life — but at times his heart yearned towards his children in the 
forest, and he seemed to regret that he had forsaken them. 

At a County Court held on May 19, 1795 for Harrison County John 
Hacker, Jacob Cozad and John Wagoner came into Court and on motion 
informed that on the 20th of this instant, they intend to take their journey 
to the treaty to be held by General Wayne in June next, and that their in- 
tentions were to apply for certain persons captivated by the Indians in this 
County, and prays that as they are unknown to General Wayne and his 
principal officers, that the Court would lend their aid to assist them in the 
aforesaid application. 

Ordered that the Clerk certify that the said Hacker, Cozad and Wag- 
oner reside in this County and that they are gentlemen of good character 
in whom General Wayne may confide as touching the said business. 

General Anthony Wayne had defeated the Indian tribes who had 
scourged the Virginia Border on the 20th of August, 1794 on the Miami 
in Northern Ohio with such disastrous results that they agreed to come in 
to his camp at Greenville during the following June, hold a council and 
conclude a treaty of Peace, which was finally signed on August 7, 1795. 

Before the assembling of the Council the various tribes were directed 
to bring in and surrender all white captives in their possession to General 

There is a pathos about this simple order of the Court, in it there is 
a touch of human nature that makes all the world akin. It certifies to the 
character of these fathers who, drawn by natural affections, were going on 
a long and dangerous journey through the Avilderness in search of their 
children who were held in captivity by the savages. 


Tradition states that this party carried blankets trinkets and other ar- 
ticles with them to exchange for the captives. 

Some of the Cozad and Waggoner children were recovered at this time 
and others afterwards. One of them had a gold ring as an ornament, in 
his nose. 

It is not known whether Hacker went for the purpose of rescuing his 
own or some other captive children. 

In the summer of this year a party of Indians stole a number of horses 
from the waters of the West Fork and got them safely over the Ohio River. 
They were pursued over into the Indian country by a detachment of the 
State Rangers stationed at the mouth of the Little Kanawha under Lieu- 
tenant Coburn and the horses re-captured. 

In the Fall of 1792 as Henry Neal, William Triplett and Daniel 
Powell were ascending the Little Kanawha from Neal's Station to the 
mouth of Burning Spring Run for the purpose of hunting buffalo, they 
were fired upon by Indians, killing Neal and Triplett, who fell from their 
canoes into the river. 

Powell was missed, but he plunged into the river and swam to the op- 
posite shore and escaped uninjured, the Indians shooting at him as he 

In June 1792 the Governor of Virginia sent Hon. James Wood prob- 
ably Lieutenant Governor to the frontier to investigate and report to him 
the condition of affairs. 

He called a meeting of the County Lieutenants and Militia officers of 
Harrison, Monongalia and Randolph Counties to assemble at Morgantown 
and issued the following circular : 

''Morgantown, June 7, 1792. 

James Woods has the honor of presenting his respectful compliments 
to the County Lieutenants and field officers of Monongalia, Harrison and 
Randolph now assembled. 

He thanks them for their politeness and attention in attending agree- 
ably to his request. 

Previous to their meeting in council today he begs they will be pre- 
pared to give him information on the following points : 

The strength of the Militia of their respective Counties. Condition of 
Arms and ammunition, both public and private. 

How the public property has been disposed of and what amount is on 
hand for public use ? 

Number of Scouts employed and by whom appointed? 

How the Rangers are posted? 

Are they amenable to the County Lieutenants or Captain Lowther? 

How are the Rangers supplied and have the contractors entered into 

Report of Strength of Militia. 

Benjamin Wilson reports strength of Harrison County Militia at 400. 
Jacob Westfall reports strength of Randolph County Militia at 174 or 

John Evans reports strength of Monongalia County Militia at 730. 


Colonel Benjamin Wilson to The President of the United States. 

Harrison County, Va. Feby. 29, 1792. 

Sir : — It would be intruding on you for me to call to your attention the 
disposition of the Indians when fired with conquest, or their dastardly way 
of war. Particularly their lying in wait about houses to take the advan- 
tage of helpless and defenseless women and children, their ambuscading 
roads, robberies, etc. It may suffice only to mention the situation of the 
exposed frontier and the present fears of the people. 

Ohio County covers a part of Monongalia County and Harrison a part 
of Randolph County, and in my observations since the year 1774 Ohio and 
Harrison have stood on a similar footing in point of danger. The lament- 
able catastrophe that befell the Federal Army last fall has with fear so im- 
pressed the minds of the exposed people that it is pitable to hear their com- 
plaints, and sure I am that many of them would move from the exterior 
settlements was not their consolation a full confidence in your granting ex- 
tensive temporary relief, as well as to pursue the reduction of the Indians 
upon a more extensive scale than has been heretofore done. I wish not to 
trespass on your time or patience, but conceive it my duty to mention my 
adjoining Counties, viz: That Randolph may be favored with an addition 
of four scouts, and Monongalia four, Ohio I learn is by your Excellency 
provided for, with an additional number of those allowed by this State. 

Sir, I am your humble and devoted servant, 

Benj. Wilson. 

Sir : — If you condescend to answer the above, the way by Winchester 
is the swiftest and surest conveyance. B. W. 

Harrison County, Feby. 29, 1792. 

Sir: — Yesterday a General Council of the Militia officers of this 
County was held in order to take into view the state of our frontiers most 
exposed to the incursions of the hostile Indians, the protection granted by 
your State government and what additional protection might be necessary 
in order to secure the inhabitants from the impending danger of the sav- 
ages, who consequently are much elated with their late success over the 
Federal army. "By the council unanimously ordered, that the presiding 
officers of this council make immediate application to the President of the 
United States for an additional number of eight scouts, and as many of the 
Militia to be called into active service as will, in addition to those already 
directed to be raised by our State Government, complete one Captain's 
Company, and the same is ordered accordingly. 

Teste: John Haymond, Clk. 

Clarksburg, May 1, 1792. 
To the Governor of Virginia, 

Sir : — I have thought proper to accept of the Commission you were 
pleased to honor me with, viz : Captain of the Company of Rangers for the 
Counties of Harrison and Randolph and have accordingly enlisted the full 
complement of men. But the scarceness and consequently the dearness of 


provisions, I really fear will oblige me to discharge them. I perceive they 
camiot be found at any rate for the 8 cents. I have agreeably to your di- 
rections fixed at the mouth of the Little Kanawha 12 men and there was 
no alternative but either bringing them back or promise Tj/^ pence per ra- 
tion at my own risque, the latter I venture to do, hoping your Excellency's 
influence will reimburse me. To dismiss the Company would, in my 
opinion, expose the Country to horrid devastations and ravages, for the 
savages have not discovered more evident signs of hostile intentions this 
several years, than they have already this spring. Therefor I hope you will 
take our case into your serious deliberation and grant us all the aid the 
powers vested in you will justify. I doubt not you will receive letters from 
all the Counties that are exposed to the same purport. 

I am, sir, with due respect. Your Excellency's most obedient humble 
servant, William Lowther. 

Philadelphia War Department, 7th. April, 1792. 
Col. Benjamin Wilson, 

Sir : — I am directed by the President of the United States to acknowl- 
edge the receipt of yours to him of the 29th February, 1792, and to inform 
you that his excellency, the Governor of Virginia, was authorized in behalf 
of the President of the United States to add as many scouts as he should 
judge expedient, at the general expense to to any part of the exposed not 
exceeding eight in number to any one County. 

It is the disposition of the President of the United States that the 
most entire protection should be afforded the exposed Counties, that 
the nature of the case may require. The executive of Virginia must 
be presumed to be competent to judge of this matter, and they have made 
an arrangement upon this subject, but as some inconvenience may result 
from waiting for an application from the governor of Virginia, the counties 
of Eandolph and Monongalia will be permitted the four scouts requested 
by your letter of the 27th February, together with such a sufficient num- 
ber of rangers upon the continental establishment as a temporary arrange- 
ment as shall be deemed indispensably necessary, not exceeding the Com- 
pany mentioned in your letter, until the executive of Virginia may make 
an application confirmative of the same for the season. 

I am your humble servant, H. Knox. 

Harrison County, May 6th. 1792. 
To the Governor of Virginia. 

Sir: — In compliance to your instructions dated January 3, 1792, you 
have here enclosed a statement of the expenses which accrued for the 
defence of this County for the year 1791 as far as I am able to ascertain 
them. The County Lieutenant is about or has removed out of this County, 
and has put a number of imperfect papers in my hands, so that I can 
not render a full satisfaction to your excellency's requisition. I view it 
my duty and shall now take the liberty to give you an account of the 
state of the frontier of this County. 

The depredations committed by the Indians and our present protection. 
The frontiers is much exposed, in great fear and daily looking for a heavy 


stroke from the savages. We had two men killed on the Little Kanawha 
Eiver (as my acount in writing). The Indians have killed and cap- 
tivated eleven persons in Monongalia County near the Harrison County 
line, the number not yet certified to me, and all done last month, our 
protection is by your commission to Capt. William Lowther forty privates 
and two scouts with an addition of two scouts from the Secretary of War 
or yourself, which protection in itself is great, though very far from 
being a full security to the exposed inhabitants, when taking into view the 
great extent of our frontier the number of hills and mountains to search 
for the lurking places of the enemy, that lays between the Ohio Eiver, 
and our West Fork settlements. I have been repeatedly applied to for 
two more scouts. I have not yet granted them, although I believe them to 
be absolutely necessary. 

I wait your instructions in this matter and hope your direction for 
their appointment. 

I am Sir, your most obedient servant, at command. 

Benj. Wilson. 

General James Woods, 

Dear Sir : — Agreeable to your request as to my part as far as relates 
to my conduct, I will endeavor to give you as near as my memory will 
serve at present, which is as followeth, to- wit: 

I have under by command from the Executive (in Harrison County) 
one Ensign, two sergeants, two corporals, and forty privates. I was also 
authorized to appoint two scouts by the executive, which I have complied 
with and by a letter received from Captain McMachan of Ohio County 
was to appoint one more in addition to the two Captains. McMachan 
also appointed one in conjunction with the one I appointed by his orders, 
which four scouts is now under my command, two of which I have at the 
mouth of the Little Kanawha, the other two on the frontier of the West 
Fork settlement. The Rangers I thought proper to submit the distribution 
of to a council of officers of Harrison, who advised me to station them in 
three detachments, which I have done along the West Fork settle- 
ments about forty miles with a small deviation, to-wit: The 
Little Kanawha being an exposed part of the County, and a small station 
near the mouth. I sent a sergeant and eleven men with the two spies 
or scouts, as above mentioned. In Randolph County I have under my 
command a Lieutenant, two sergeants, two corporals and twenty-five 
privates, the distribution of which I also left to a council of the Randolph 
County Officers, which they have done as followeth : The Lieutenant and 
fifteen privates, including the sergeant and corporal in the upper end of 
the valley, and sergeant and eleven men at Buckhannon settlement. The 
two scouts I was authorized to appoint for that County I have also made, 
and is now under my command, with the rest of the rangers of that place 

I have the honor to be sir. Your most obedient and humble servant. 

William Lowther. 


Colonel Benj. Wilson to Hon, James Woods. 

MORGANTOWN, June 7th. 1792. 

In complying to the requisition of the Honorable James Wood the 
following return is made. 

1st. The strength of the Militia I cannot ascertain, the County Lieu- 
tenant having recently resigned and has put no official papers into my 
hand to enable me to answer, but believes about the number of 400 
effective men. 

2nd. The private arms and ammunition, the property of the Militia 
are good, a number of arms are still wanting. 

3rd. Public arms and ammunition have been received for the use of 
the County, but believes some lack in the quantity of powder. To this 
requisition I cannot fully answer for the reason aforesaid. 

4th. The arms that fell into my hands hath been put into the hands 
of the poor Militia on the frontier, a part of the powder and lead have 
been distributed to the respective Captains with orders to preserve arms 
and ammunition and ready to render when called upon, unless expended 
in the public service. The flints were received and divided. 

For want of papers from home I cannot state the full quantity 
of arms and ammunition received. Some powder was delivered to Captain 
Lowther by order of Colonel Duvall. Two scouts were appointed by 
orders of General James "Wood. 

James Wood to Gov. H. Lee. 

Clarksburg, May 10, 1792. 

Sir : — On Monday last a party of Indians made an incursion into this 
neighborhood. They passed through a settlement generally supposed to be 
the most exposed, without any mischief and afterwards made an attack 

upon one "Waggoner, who was ploughing in his field. They 

fired on him but he escaped and endeavored to get to the house, which he 
found surrounded by the enemy. A party of volunteers were soon col- 
lected, who found Waggoner's wife and three of the eldest children killed 
and scalped, and the other three taken prisoners. The party endeavored 
to follow their trail but without effect as they took no horses and appeared 
to be remarkably cautious. I am inclined to think they are still con- 
cealed in the mountains; will make another stroke and provide themselves 
with horses before they take their final departure, as they took from 
Waggoner pewter and many other heavy articles. 

From the report of the scouts I am in constant expectation that a 
severe stroke will be made somewhere on the frontier. Where it will 
fall is uncertain as the last attack was made where least expected, and 
where the unfortunate people thought themselves in perfect safety. I 
have been along the frontier of this County and Eandolph, have mustered 
the volunteer Militia and determine to see every man in service and to 
visit every exposed settlement in the district before I return, which will 
be about the 10th. of June. 

I am your obedient servant, 

James Wood. 


Harrison County, July 21, 1792. 
Sir: — Please accept my sincere thanks for your singular care and 
attention to tlie protection of our exposed frontier, and in particular 
for your sending one of your own body to view our situation and his 
being so able to make the necessary arangements. Since General Wood 
left this part of our country no person has been killed. They have stolen 
about twenty horse creatures. They were pursued each time but could 
not be overtaken. They have broke up some of the frontier people in 
taking of their horses, which must dispirit them. Should the Indians 
meet with no check this Fall, I am convinced many of our people will not 
expose their lives and property any longer on the frontier. 
I am sir, your obedient servant, 

Benjamin Wilson. 

To the Governor, Kichmond. 

Pay abstracts for scouts ordered into servicf under instructions from 
the Executive in the year, 1792. 

Commencement Time when 
Counties. Names. of Services. 
Harrison — Elias Hughes March 15 

Robert Lowther March 15 

David Carpenter March 15 

Jonathan Coburn March 29 

John Hall May 28 

Thomas Harbert May 28 

Watson Clark June 22 

William Haymond June 22 

Christopher Carpenter June 10 

Obediah Davisson June 20 

Randolph — Valentine Stalnaker March 15 

Charles Powers March 15 

George Westfall March 27 

John Jackson March 27 

Wm. Gibson June 12 

Wm. Westfall June 12 

Thos. Caney Sept. 19 

Monongalia — Edwin Pindall June 16 

Morgan Morgan June 16 

Dec. 1 

No. of Days. 

Dec. 1 


Dec 1 


Dec. 1 


Dec. 1 


Dec. 1 


Dec. 1 


Dec. 1 


Dec. 1 


Dec. 1 


Dec. 1 


Dec. 1 


Dec. 1 


Sept. 1st 


Dec. 1st 


Dec. 1st 


Dec. 1st 


Nov. 30 


Nov. 30 


Pay: 5 Shillings a day. 3755 

In the spring of 1793 a party of warriors proceeding towards the head 
waters of the Monongahela River, discovered a marked way leading in a 
direction they did not know was inhabited by the whites. 

It led to a settlement which had been recently made on Elk Eiver 
by Jeremiah and Benjamin Carpenter and a few others from Bath County, 
who had been particularly careful to make any path which might lead to 
their discovery. But one of the settlers incautiously blazed the trees and 
the Indians found their way to the house of Benjamin Carpenter, whom 
they found alone and killed, having previously killed Mrs. Carpenter, who 
was a short distance from the house. 

The remaining inhabitants of the neighborhood, remote from any 
populous settlement to which they could withdraw for safety, retired to 


the mountains and remained for several days concealed in a cave. They 
then removed their families to the West Fork, and in the meantime the 
Indians burned the houses and furniture and killed all the stock. 

Benjamin Wilson to Governor Henry Lee. 

Clarksburg, March 22, 1793. 

Sir: — I had the happiness to arrive safe home with the charge of 
money I brought from the Treasury. When I arrived home Colonel Low- 
ther was out in pursuit of the party of Indians, which had been doing 
mischief on our frontier, a detail of the affair is useless as Colonel Lowther 
will go minutely into it. 

I shall only bring to your view the present alarming views of our 
expired people, to-wit: First that the Indians being disappointed last 
fall in their expectations of a campaign which kept them at home in a 
state of suspense and activity. 

2nd. That they appear by their early approach to wish to make up 
that time. 

3rd. The reports they have of parties of Indians crossing the Ohio 

4th. Their not having a sufficient defense on the frontier. 

5th. The want of confidence in the Federal Army, and 

6th. That faith cannot be put in treaties made with the Indian tribes 
previous to the communication being cut off with the British Posts. 
I am sir. Yours with esteem, 

Benj. Wilson. 

Captain Bogard to Captain William Lowther, 

HimRisoN County, Oct. 3, 1793. 
Neal's Station. 

Reports the Indians have been near Neal's Station and taken three 
horses. They crossed the river at Devil's Hole and we followed them to 
Raccoon Creek, which is about 60 miles, but did not overtake them. Spies 
report of a line of Indians were seen going up big Elk River and wishes 
the people in the head of the Valley notified. 

Colonel James Wood to Captain William Lowther. 

May 29, 1793. 

Instructions as to station of troops, Lieut. Willis detacht. of Captain 
Bogard 's Company at Holliday's Cove, Mingo Bottom and at mouth of 
Shoal Creek. Captain McCullough with his company will occupy posts 
on the West Bank of the Ohio, above the mouth of Wheeling Creek, 
opposite the mouth of Grave Creek : mouth of Fish Creek, and at Martin 's 
Station at the mouth of Fishing Creek. Would like to station men at 
mouth of Middle Island, but as there are no inhabitants cannot subsist 

Will station 25 men at mouth of Little Kanawha, either commanded 
by Captain Bogard or Ensigns Cobun or Jenkins. 


In your quarter (Lowther's) with the scouts already appointed with 
thirty men to be divided as follows: Mouth of Freeman's Creek, Salem 
or at the mouth of Ten Mile to be posted immediately. 

A Sergeant and 10 men at the upper end of Tygart's Valley and the 
same number in the Buckhannon settlement. 

I have nominated Jonathan Coburn and Bartholomew Jenkins to 
succeed Brown and Davidson. They have raised their quota of men, which 
will enable you to make the dispositions as soon as possible. 

The detachment of your Company commanded by Ensign Evans to 
be posted in the most advantageous manner for the protection of Monon- 
galia County. 

Ensign Morgan with his detachment is to join Captain McCullough's 
Company on the Ohio where he will receive his instructions. Order them 
to march at once. 

To you as Senior officer on this frontier will be confided the command 
and direction of all the posts in the district of the Monongalia, and the 
Junior officers will be directed to make reports to you. 

You are to take station at the point that will answer the interest of 
your command. Report to "Winchester, and the Post Master there will 
forward to the Governor, or to Pittsburg, thence by regular post, via 
Philadelphia to Richmond. 

Avoid the use of Expresses except in urgent cases. 

Captain Wm. Lov^her to Governor. 

Haerison County, Sept. 15, 1793. 

Reports that since last of July the Indians have not made any incursions 
in Randolph or upper parts of Monongalia Comity. 

Between the middle of June and last of July three (3) incursions 
were made, took 22 horses but no lives. A party of my men stationed 
on the Ohio overtook this last party of Indians, wounded one (1) re-took 
six (6) horses all they had. 

A few days afterwards they captivated one man, who has since 
escaped, before they got to the towns. He says they intended to bum 

I keep strict look-out and hope if they break in past my Rangers and 
scouts that they shall meet the deserved. 

Sir : — Your kindness and uncommon attention to our frontiers by send- 
ing out General Wood has much spirited our destroyed frontiers, and his 
arrangements give satisfaction to every quarter. 

Captain Wm. Lowther under date of January 25, 1793, accepts com- 
mission as Captain by hands of Hezekiah Davisson. 

Speaks of complaints being made against him and Lieut. Whitman 
were threatened by one of the Scouts, whom they turned out and docked. 

Captain Lowther. 

Clarksburg, Jany. 26, 1793. 
Asks an allowance of 7 pence half penny per ration for troops 
stationed at Mouth of Little Kanawha, 75 miles away. 


Lieutenant Levi Morgan to the Governor. 

March 26th. 1793. 

Eeports the situation as alarming. The inhabitants are preparing to 
move away. Has employed two more spies. 

Has just returned from over the river and saw several trails of 
Indians and asks for reinforcements. 

Captain Wm. Lowther to the Governor. 

March 26th. 1793. 

Thinks the Indians will give trouble during the approaching season. 
Has accounts of a great number of Indians crossing the Ohio and antici- 
pates a blow struck on the frontiers of Harrison or Eandolph. Indian 
signs discovered in lower end of Harrison. They have also paid us 
a visit as you will discover by my former letter, to the proof of which 
I have sent you the skin of one of their heads. 

Thinks that General "Wayne's army nor the talk of peace can be of 
any safety to him. 

Captain William Lowther to Governor. 

March 22, 1793. 

Reports on the 3rd. day of this instant a party of Indians stole 6 
horses within about 7 miles of Clarksburg. I quickly raised a party of 16 
men exclusive of myself and pursued on horseback near to the Ohio 
Eiver: there left our horses and got a reinforcement of 5 men and went 
by water from Williams Station down the river to about four miles below 
Belleville then took the trail and followed fifty miles in the Indian coun- 
try and came up with a part of them at their camp in the day time. 
One we killed and the other got much wounded. He dropped his gun in 
the pursuit, which we got, but unfortunately for us he got into the thick 
bushy woods and we lost him. We re-took four of the horses, before we 
got up a party of Indians had left the camp and took off two of the 
horses. My men were so fatigued and our provisions exhausted that I 
pursued no further. 

In following the different windings taken by the Indians our journey 
down the river and the distance we marched in the Indian country, we 
computed on a moderate scale to be 186 miles. Then nearly the same 
distance to return took up fourteen days. We have all returned home 
safe but much fatigued, with only the loss of one valuable horse of Captain 
John Haymond, who was along himself in company. One other horse 
strayed from us in the woods. Him we expect to get. 

I refer you to a letter of Colonel B. Wilson in which he mentions the 
fears of our frontier people. 

Captain William Lowther, under date of October 28, 1893. 

Reports visiting posts in Ohio County, and that no mischief had been 
done in that county. 

Has received late returns from posts on the Ohio River. Some of the 
men are unfit for duty by bad colds. 

Will visit station at the mouth of the Kanawha next week. 


In March 1894, a party of Indians crossed the Ohio River, and as 
they were advancing towards the settlements on the upper branches of the 
Monongahela met with Joseph Cox, then on his way to the month of 
Leading Creek on the Little Kanawha for a load of furs and skins, which 
he had left there at the close of his hunt the preceding fall. 

Cox very unexpectedly met them in a narrow pass, and instantly 
wheeled his horse to ride off. The animal became stubborn and refused 
to move, and Cox was forced to dismount and seek safety on foot. Seeing 
that he was being rapidly overtaken he turned to face his purfsuers, but 
his gun missing fire he became a prisoner. 

He was taken to their towns and detained some time in captivity, but 
at length made his escape and returned to the settlements. 

In the 24th. of July, 1794, six Indians visited the West Fork River 
and at the mouth of Freeman's Creek, now Lewis County, met with and 
made prisoner of a daughter of John Runyon. She was taken off by two 
of the party and put to death. The four Indians who remained proceeded 
on down the river and the next day came to the house of William Carder 
below the mouth of Hacker's Creek. Mr. Carder discovered them ap- 
proaching in time to fasten his door, but in the confusion shut out two of 
his children, who, however, ran off and arrived safely at the house of a 

Mr. Joseph Chevuront, who lived near by, hearing the shouts of 
Carder came to his assistance, and helped him remove his family to a place 
of safety. 

On the next day a party of men assembled, but the trail of the 
Indians could not be found and pursuit was abandoned. 

Two days afterwards when it was believed that the Indians had left 
the neighborhood, they came on to Hacker's Creek, near to the farm of 
Jacob Cozad, and finding four of his boys in bathing took three of them 
prisoners and killed the fourth. 

The three boys taken prisoners were at once taken to their "villages 
in the Ohio Country, and kept in captivity until the treaty of Greenville 
in 1795. Two of them were then delivered up to their father, who 
attended to inquire for them. The third one was not heard from for 
some time after, but was at length found at Sandusky by his elder brother 
and brought home. 

Note : The capture of the Cozad boys took place on Hacker 's Creek 
at the mouth of Lawson Run near the present town of Berlin. 

After the disastrous defeat of the Indians by General Wayne on 
August 20, 1794, one of the Cozad boys was condemned to be burned at 
the stake in revenge for the losses sustained in the battle, but was saved 
by the kindly disposition of some of his Master's family. 

Since 1782 the inhabitants of Tygart's Valley, now Randolph County, 
had been exampt from invasion and thus had become less vigilant than 
formerly, and upon an alarm they would collect at some particular house 
instead of going to a fort. In consequence of the reports which reached 
them of the occurrences at Cozad 's and other places on the West Fork 
several families had gathered at the house of Joseph Kinnan for mutual 


safety, and while utterly unprepared and off their guard were attacked 
by a party of Indians. 

Mr, Kinnan was shot dead. A young man named Ralston, who was 
in the house, struck the murderer over the head with a drawing knife 
inflicting a severe injury, and escaped by running though fired at repeat- 
edly as he fled. 

Several others in the house escaped. Three children were killed and 
Mrs. Kinnan made prisoner. 

The wound inflicted on the head of the Indian by Ralston caused the 
war party to lay for several days on the head of the Middle Pork, until 
he was able to travel, but such was their caution that their presence was 
not suspected by the whites. 

Mrs. Kinnan remained with the Indians until after Wayne's victory 
and was redeemed from captivity by a brother from New Jersey. 

The Border Warfare in giving an account of this affair spells the 
name "Canaan" and puts the date in 1794. 

Maxwell's history of Randolph County spells the name as "Kinnan" 
and puts the date as 1791. The last name is probably correct as it is taken 
from the Court records, though the spelling of names at that day was 
conducted in a very careless manner. 

The paste adhering to the underside of the Four corners of the follow- 
ing copy of a paper found in the County Clerk's office indicates that it 
had been posted up. 

Harrison County, October, 1794. 

If the officers and all other inhabitants especially those most exposed, 
would please to meet and make choice of proper persons to command the 
troops, which may be granted for the protection of our frontiers the 
ensuing year, and make such arrangement in the case as they shall deem 
proper, the same would be thankfully received and solicited for by the 

Most obedient and very humble servant, 

John Haymond. 

N. B. — It is suggested that at November Court (next) will be a 
proper time for the above meeting, as Thos. Wilson, Esq. will then be 
here on his way to Richmond when the said proceedings can be sent to 
Richmond by him. 

Wm. McCleary to Lt. Gov. Wood. 

Feby. 21, 1794. 

I am requested by Lt. Lewis Morgan to inform you that the five 
Indian prisoners that he took last Fall on expedition he and his men made 
to the Indian town are yet in his custody, and he knows not what govern- 
ment means to do with them. The expense in maintaining them hath yet 
been defrayed by him. He prays instruction how to dispose of them and 
how the expense of their maintenance is to be paid be sent him by the 
bearer, Joshua Wayman. 

One of the women offers to go home this spring and to return with 
an equal number of white persons to exchange for the Indians left. 


Captain Wm. Lowther to the Governor. 

July 16, 1794. 

States tliat he is making arrangements for the prompt compliance 
with orders as to the station of troops on the Ohio River. 

Although orders direct troops to be stationed between Holliday's 
Cove and Little Kanawha has ventured to direct Captain Bogard to take 
his stand at the mouth of Great Hock Hocking. 

Men are uneasy because their pay is so long delayed. Has been 
informed that three men of Capt. McCullough's command had been killed 
on the West Side of the River at the mouth of Cross Creek. 

Captain Cornelius Bogard to Governor. 

Randolph County, August 16, 1794. 
On receiving your orders I raised a company of Volunteers for the 
defense of the Monongalia District. On the 17th March last I received 
orders from Captain William Lowther to station the troops raised in this 
County at the head of the Tygart's Valley and Buckhannon Rivers. I 
acted agreeably to his instructions and kept the troops stationed at these 
points until I received another letter from Captain Lowther with orders 
to march the troops under my care to the mouth of the Great Hock Hock- 
ing, or a little settlement about four miles above Hock Hocking I received 
said orders on the 8th of July. On consideration of the distance I had 
to march I thought it would be impractable to march before the first 
Monday in August, but on the 29th of July I had an express from Buck- 
hannon, giving the intelligence that the Indians had taken a young woman 
prisoner from the West Fork. I immediately marched part of my Com- 
pany to the place where the mischief was done, but did not overtake the 
enemy. I got back to the Valley the 10th August where I found the 
people much alarmed. I think it my duty to try to detect the enemy if 
they be in the settlement before I march to the Ohio. Says the vacancy 
on the Ohio River between Belleville and the mouth of the Big Kanawha 
he thinks is the worst inlet to the Indians he knows of. 

Captain Wm. Lowther to the Governor. 

Harrison County, September 8, 1794. 
States that the people of this County have discerned no disposition 
to aid or abet the lawless Pennsylvanians. The Posts on the river are not 
all fixed. Captain Bogard has been ordered to march to Newberry a few 
miles above the mouth of Great Hock Hocking, but he has not complied 
owing he supposed to alarms in his own County, Randolph. However, I 
learn he is now on his way. I had appointed the mouth of Middle Island 
for Ensign Coburn's station. He marched but the place being uninhab- 
ited and he destitute of camp kettles was under the necessity of returning, 
and is now stationed in a very exposed part of the country. Asks for 
instructions as to furnish implements to erect a garrison. Thinks he can- 
not impress them. 


The upper settlement of the West Fork in this County is the only- 
part that has suffered this season, and in order to prevent the people 
from abandoning their habitations, I have been under the necessity of 
granting them a guard of ten men, and left them two scouts. 

During the absence of Cobum and his men, the Indians made 
different attacks on the settlement above alluded to, took prisoner a young 
woman at one place, at another killed a lad, and took three prisoners, 
attacked a third house were repulsed and returned after taking a number 
of cattle etc., taking horses and observing the greatest caution in their 

The party that attempted to pursue them could not. I immediately 
sent an express to Ensign Jenkins at the mouth of the Little Kanawha, 
who discerned where they crossed the river below Belleville, pursued, 
overtook two Indians, killed one and wounded the other, and recovered 
the scalp of the young woman mentioned above to have been taken. 

I have lately visited all the stations already fixed on the Ohio, and to 
my great satisfaction found no defect either in spirit, discipline, pro- 
visions or anything else, but believe the men do their duty like alert 

The bearer Elias Stilwell is duly empowered by me to receive the 
money due this County for 1793. 

Captain Wm. Lowther to Lt. Gov. Jas. Wood. 

Claksburg, Nov. 19, 1794. 

In performance of your orders, Capt. Bogard with his detachment, 
took his post at Newberry 12 miles below the Little Kanawha, and as he 
informs me the community failing to supply provisions, was under the 
disagreeable necessity of leaving it ; he returned a few days since. Ensign 
Jenkins remains at Neal's Station, Lt. Morgan at the mouth of Fishing 
Creek and Lt. Evans was posted at Fish Creek, but as I understood has 
left it and discharged his men. Ensign Hedges continues at the mouth 
of Grave Creek, Captain McCullough at the mouth of Short Creek and Lt. 
Wells opposite the Mingo Bottom. 

The savages have made no incursions on our frontiers since my last. 
I yesterday was informed by Mr. Williams a gentleman of reputation 
that a few days ago he saw Lt. Morgan on his return from an incursion 
into the Indian country. 

He with 30 men went near 200 miles up the Muskingum, destroyed 
a small town, took one scalp and brought in 5 prisoners, viz: 
3 squaws and 2 children. 

I purpose in a few days to take a tour around the different posts and 
if anything worthy of communication occurs you shall have it by first 

In the summer of 1795 the trail of a large party of Indians was dis- 
covered on Leading Creek, heading towards the settlements on the West 
Fork or on Buckhannon or in Tygart's Valley. 

Messengers were hurridly dispatched to these settlements warning 
them of the approach of danger, but as was so often the case they neg- 


lected to take necessary precautions as they had so long been exempt 
from attacks that they were lulled into a false security. 

As John Bozart and his sons, George and John, were engaged in 
hauling grain from the fields to the bam near the present town of 
Buckhannon, the agonizing shrieks of the family at the house rent the 
air around them, and they hastened to ascertain the cause. The elasticity 
of youth enabled George to approach the house a few paces in advance 
of his father, but the practiced eye of the old gentleman first discovered 
an Indian only a short distance from his son with his gun raised to fire 
upon him. He called out "See George, an Indian is going to shoot you." 
Young Bozart was too near the Indian to think of escaping by flight. 
He looked at him steadily, or as he afterwards expressed it "watched 
the crook of his elbow' and at the moment he supposed the trigger 
would be pressed he dropped to the ground and the ball whistled by him. 
Thinking the ball had taken effect the Indian passed by him and pressed 
on after the father. 

The old gentleman proved a good runner and the Indian dispairing 
of overtaking him threw his tomahawk at him, which passed harmlessly 
by and he got safely off. 

When George Bozart fell as the Indian fired he lay still as if dead, 
and supposed the scalping knife would be next applied to his head, 
determined on seizing the savage by the leg as he would stoop over him 
and endeavor to bring him to the ground, when he hoped to be able to 
conquer him. 

Seeing the Indian pass on in pursuit of his father, he arose and took 
to flight also. On his way he overtook a younger brother, who was slowly 
hobbling along on a sore foot. George gave him every aid in his power 
to facilitate his flight until he discovered another of the savages was pur- 
suing and pressing close upon them. Knowing that if he remained with 
his brother both must inevitably perish, he was reluctantly forced to 
leave him to his fate. Running rapidly he soon overtook his father, who 
hearing some one behind him supposed it was an Indian, and seizing a 
heavy stick he turned to face his pursuer, and to his astonishment saw 
it was his son, and broke out with an exclamation "Why George I thought 
you were dead" and manifested even in that sorrowful moment a joyful 
feeling at his mistake. 

The Indians at the house after killing two or three small children 
took Mrs. Bozart and two boys prisoners. With these they made their 
way to their towns in time to turn their prisoners over to General 

Letter from John Dawson to Governor Robert Brooke. 

Harrison Court House, Va., Aug. 17, 1795. 
Some time since I did myself the honor of informing your Excellency 
in a private letter that some murders had been committed on Buckhannon, 
in the County of Randolph, by Indians. On the last evening I arrived 
at this place and this being the Court day, I have collected information 
from this and Randolph Counties. There remains not a doubt but there 
are several parties in the settlement. 


On Buckhannon they murdered the family of one Bowzier and des- 
troyed the whole of his property. They have frequently been 
seen in that quarter since, and have committed a number of robberies. 

About one-third of the inhabitants have moved off, and the rest have 
forted. Colonel Edward Jackson, who lives on Buckhannon, has ordered 
out two scouts, the payment of which will no doubt be authorized by the 

On Wednesday last they destroyed the house and property of a 
man by the name of Carpenter on Big Elk, and were seen seven in 
number about its ruin. On Friday morning Capt. Tanner, with twenty 
volunteers, marched in pursuit of them, and it is expected will give a 
pretty good acount of them. Since then other trails have been seen in 
different parts of this and Randolph Counties, and the people are unan- 
imous in declaring that they apprehend more danger than for many 

I believe their apprehensions well founded, and most heartily join 
Colonel Jackson and Lowther in recommending that the latter may be 
empowered to call out a Lieutenant and Ensign's command until the 
danger is over, which will be either increased or diminished by the treaty, 
the event of which, from what we learn is very doubtful. 

On application from Colonel Lowther, I have recommended to him 
to continue the two scouts in Randolph and if on going into that county, 
which I shall do in a few days, I find an increase necessary, I shall order 
it, well knowing how highly the lives of our fellow-citizens are estimated 
by every member of the Executive. 

The persons to whom money is due as rangers, are exceedingly 
anxious to receive it and think it very hard that the payments to them 
should be delayed by the negligence of the paymaster. 

If he has not come down it really seems right that some other mode 
should be adopted for the conveyance of the money. 

With much respect, I have &c. 

John Dawson. 

Letter from John Dawson to Governor Robert Brooke. 

Harrison Court House, Va., Aug. 22, 1795. 

In a letter which I had the honor to address to your Excellency 
from this place, I informed you of the situation of the County. 

The return of Capt. Tanner without effecting the object of his scout 
has confirmed the apprehensions of danger from the Indians, he having 
discovered undoubted signs of many being in this and Randolph Counties. 
Two days since Colonel Lowther with several of his officers met at this 
place and resolved merely I think to call out a full company to be com- 
manded by Capt. Haymond. They meet here today and in the morning 
march for Buckhannon in the Valley; for a more full account of the 
proceedings and the existing danger of the country I refer you to Col. 
Jackson, who will do me the honor to deliver this letter, and who is 
perfectly informed. 

On application from Col. Lowther and many citizens, I recommend 
to him to call out an additional spy in this County for the security of 


the people at Vienna; the payment will, I am persuaded, be really made 
by the Executive. 

This afternoon I shall set out for Randolph Court House, where I 
expect to be by the morning. The inhabitants of that County are no 
doubt making similar exertions to this, as they are the most exposed. 
How I shall get from thence to Kanawha I cannot say; the path is bad, 
long and dangerous. 

I cannot fail to mention again the great anxiety of the people 
to receive the money long since due to them as rangers &c. The neg- 
lect of the paymaster surely ought not to withhold from them what is 
justly due Colonel Jackson, who has their entire confidence, has offered to 
take on himself the care of bringing it up. No person can be more proper, 
and should General Tate not have received it, I presume that can be no 
objection to entrusting it to him. 

With much respect, I have etc. John Dawson. 

As an incident of the march of Capt. Tanner's company in })ursuit 
of the Indians who had murdered the Carpenter family referred to in the 
above letters of John Dawson, Thomas Haymond, who was a member of 
the Company told that they were four days with scarcely anything to eat, 
and that one day all hands turned out to hunt, and that he was the only 
one who met with any success, having killed a small deer. He carried it 
into camp and it was at once cut up into small pieces and divided among 
the party, his share being about half the size of his hand. 

The murder of the Bozart family was the last mischief committed by 
the Indians in the Monongahela Valley. 

For twenty long years no settler could step from his cabin door with 
the assurance that he would not be met by the bullet of a savage and for 
all that long period they had bravely endured all the horrors of savage 
warfare, and the woes that spring from the vindictive passions of un- 
curbed barbarians. 

The victory of General Wayne over the combined Ohio tribes on the 
Miami at the battle of "Fallen Timbers" broke the power of the Indians 
of the North West and the treaty concluded at Greenville in August 1795 
brought peace to a long suffering and distracted country. 

After the defeat of General St. Clair in November 1791, and the ap- 
pointment of Major General Anthony Wayne (Mad Anthony) to the 
command of the army, and while he was actively engaged in organizing 
and recruiting troops for the campaign against the tribes North and West 
of the Ohio, President Washington spared no pains to negotiate a treaty 
of peace with the Indians. 

Discreet commissioners were selected and frequent councils were 
held with their principal men, but elated by their victory over St. Clair, 
they demanded that the Ohio River should be the dividing line between 
the territory of the Indian and the white man. 

The patience of the President was at last exhausted. All negotiations 
were declared off and General Wayne was ordered to advance into the 
Indian country and inflict such punishment upon them as would forever 
prohibit them from raiding the settlements. 


The army moved from Fort "Washington in October 1793, and ad- 
vanced slowly and cautiously and in December had occupied the position 
of General St. Clair when defeated on November 4, 1791, and established 
a fortified camp called "Fort Eecovery." In August 1794 the army ad- 
vanced and took up a position on the Miami of the Lakes at the mouth of 
the Au Glaize, right in the heart of the Indian country, whose villages 
and cornfields extended for miles along these rivers and named the camp 
"Fort Defiance." 

After declining General "Wayne's overtures of peace, he advanced 
upon the Indians' position in a thick woods near the British Military 
Post called Fort Miami, and on the 20th day of August, 1794, gained a 
complete victory over them, thus breaking the power of the Northwestern 
tribes, and discouraging them from remaining at war with the whites. 

At this time the British had not yet withdrawn their occupancy 
from American Territory under the pretext that the boundary line agreed 
upon at the conclusion of the war of the Revolution had not been ac- 
curately defined. 

After many tedious delays and frequent councils a treaty of peace 
was finally concluded with the combined Indian tribes on the 3rd of 
August, 1795 at the fortified camp of Greenville, the following named 
tribes agreeing and subscribing to the treaty: 








Eeel Rivers 





By the terms of the treaty all the prisoners in the hands of the In- 
dians were to be delivered up in ninety days. The Indian prisoners were 
to be released at once. 

Numbers of persons from the frontier visited the army looking after 
their children and friends, who were captives in the hands of the In- 
dians. Many pathetic scenes occurred at the meeting of those long separat- 
ed under such heartrending circumstances. 

Some of the white prisoners were so attached to the savage life that 
it was with great difiiculty they were pursuaded to return to their friends 
and a life of civilization. 

On the 9th. of September 1795, a party of Shawnees, numbering 
sixty or seventy, arrived at Greenville with four prisoners, three of them 
being of the Bozart family captured in July at the Buckhannon settle- 
ment, and surrendered them to General Wayne. 

On the 11th of September the General gave them audience, when 
Puck-se-kaw (or Jumper) spoke as follows: 

* ' My Father : I have been in the woods a long time. I was not ac- 
quainted with the good works which were transacting at this place by 
you and all our great chiefs. 

Last Spring when we were hunting peaceably, our camp on the Sci- 
ota was robbed. "We are very poor and the mischief that has since been 
done was in retaliation for the injuries we then sustained. 

As soon as I received this belt, which you sent me by Blue Jacket, 
one of our great chiefs, and as soon as I was informed by him that the 


good work of peace was finished, I arose to come and see you and brought 
with me these four prisoners. I now surrender them to you, my father, 
and promise that we will do no more mischief. 

I hope that for the future we shall be permitted to live and 
hunt in peace and quietness. We were poor and ignorant children, astray 
in the woods, who knew not that our nation and all other tribes of In- 
dians had come in and made peace with you. I thank the Great Spirit 
for at last opening our eyes. 

Father, we beg you will forgive and receive your repentant children. 
These people whom I now deliver to you must plead our forgiveness and 
vouch our conduct for the future." 

Thp Shawmef^ tribe, to which this chief belonged, had been par- 
particularly hostile to the whites and had committed many depredations 
and cruelties on the Virginia frontier. 

The above speech indicates that the speaker was nervous and uncer- 
tain as to his reception. And while his hands were only recently imbued 
with the blood of innocent children, he shows the wily cunning of the 
savage by claiming that his raid on the frontier had been made in retali- 
ation for his camp being robbed, and that he did not know that a treaty 
of peace was being negotiated. 

Neither of these statements is probably true. Certainly it must have 
been known to every Indian at war with the whites that efforts were be- 
ing made to establish peace and had been since the victory of General 
"Wayne in August 1794, nearly twelve months before. 

The entire country regarded the campaign of General Wayne with 
the greatest solicitude, and when the glad tidings of his great victory 
came, it was received with the greatest joy, but to the frontier it gave 
promise of a peace that secured life and liberty and was the sweetest 
music to the pioneer that had ever floated around their forest homes. 


Incidents Connected With Indian Wars. 

It is estimated that from the French and Indian War of 1754 to 
General Wayne's victory at Maumee Eapids in 1794, a period of forty 
years, at least 5000 white people were killed or captured west of the 

Eleven organized military expeditions had been conducted against 
the western Indians prior to the war of 1812, the greater portion being 

The number of murders of whites by the Indians within the present 
limits of Harrison County was about forty. 

The number carried away in captivity was less than the number 
killed, as frequently the Indians did not care to be burdened by prison- 
ers, as the possession of them was always sure to invite a vigorous pur- 
suit by the whites. 

Colonel Boquet's Expedition. 

The following account is given in Hill's History of Licking County, 
Ohio; of the surrender of prisoners to Colonel Henry Bouquet, who 
marched into the Ohio Country from Fort Pitt in 1764 with a large force 
and at a conference with the principal men of the hostile tribes, demand- 
ed that all of the white captives held by them should be surrendered to 
him within twelve days. Overawed and humbled by his stern manner 
and display of force, they at once commenced to comply with the demand, 
and from day to day prisoners were brought in, men, women and chil- 
dren, and delivered to their friends. 

"Many were the touching scenes enacted during this time. The 
separated husband and wife met, the latter often carrying a child born 
in captivity. Brothers and sisters, separated in youth, met; lovers rushed 
into each others arms; children found their parents, mothers their sons, 
fathers their daughters and neighbors, those from whom they had been 
separated many years. Yet there were many distressing scenes. Some 
looked in vain for long lost relatives and friends that never would return. 
Others who had been captured in their infancy would not leave their sav- 
age friends, and w^hen force was used some of them fled away. One 
mother looked in vain for a child she had lost years before. Day by day 
she anxiously watched, but no daughter's voice reached her ears. One 
clad in savage attire was brought before her. It could not be her daugh- 
ter, she was grown. So was the maiden before her. Cannot you remem- 
ber some mark, asked Colonel Bouquet, whose sympathies were aroused in 
this case. There is none, said the anxious and sorrowful mother. Sing a 
song you sang over her cradle, she may remember, suggested the com- 
mander. One is sung by the mother. As the song of childhood floats out 


among the trees, the maiden stops and listens, then approaches. The long 
lost chords of mystic memory are touched. Yes, she remembers the long 
unheard song of childhood. Mother and daughter are reunited and held in 
close embrace, and the stern soldier Bouquet drops a tear at the pathetic 
scene. ' ' 

The following incident was told by Major William Powers, one of 
Harrison County's most respected citizen to Benjamin F. Shuttleworth 
of Clarksburg. 

An Englishman during the early settlement of North West Virginia 
was traveling on horseback from Clarksburg to Marietta, lost his way in 
the woods, and after night came on saw a light in the distance and, upon 
approaching, found it to be from an Indian camp. A state of war exist- 
ing at the time, he was apprehensive of his safety, but was protected by 
the leader of the party, who gave him food and a blanket to sleep on, and 
the next morning guided him to the Marietta trail and gave directions 
to enable him to reach his journey's end in safety. 

Many years afterwards a showman had engaged a party of North 
American Indians and taken them to England to exhibit them in their 
native costumes, to the people of that country. 

One evening while the party was entertaining a large audience in a 
London Theatre with their dances, war songs and other customs of their 
people, a gentleman present raised a great outcry, attracting the atten- 
tion of the house. Upon investigating it was discovered that he had 
recognized in one of the Indians performing on the stage, the very one 
who years before in the Virginia forest had rescued him from his perilous 
condition and acted towards him the part of a good Samaritan. 

Billy Dragoo. 

In the fall of 1786 while Mrs. Dragoo and her son Billy, a lad of ten 
or twelve years of age, were engaged in gathering beans in a corn field 
on Buffalo Creek, Monongalia County, they were captured by a party of 
Indians and started in the direction of the Ohio River. On the third day 
and before reaching the river, Mrs. Dragoo, having fallen from the horse 
upon which her captors had placed her, and severely injured herself, she 
was murdered so as not to delay the journey. 

Young Dragoo was adopted into the Ottawa tribe, married one of 
them, had four children born to him and became a thorough Indian in 
habits, customs and inclinations, and was renowned for his skill as a 

About the year 1808 one of his brothers who had moved to the Ohio 
Country having heard of him, paid him a visit and induced him to go to 
see his father, who still lived in Monongalia County. 

More than twenty years had elapsed since his captivity and though 
there was but a little remnant of civilization about him, and he had sus- 
pended from his nose a half moon silver ornament, wore large rings in 
his ears, and his dress was largely after the Indian custom, yet the meet- 
ing between the father and his long lost son was extremely pathetic and 


Two years after his visit to his father, "Billy" resolved to abandon 
his Indian life and spend the remainder of his days with civilized people. 
Taking two of his half Indian children with him he returned to West 
Virginia and lived five years with his father and brothers. These two 
children subsequently returned to their mother. 

Dragoo married again in 1815 and raised another family of children, 
and moved to Licking County, Ohio, where he died about 1850. 

He never wholly abandoned his Indian habits and mode of life, but 
spent most of his time hunting and fishing. He was a quiet peaceable 
man and was esteemed for his excellent qualities. 

Governor Hamilton, "The Hair Buyer." 

George Rogers Clark in his expedition to Yincennes captured Henry 
Hamilton, the commander of Detroit in 1779, and sent him a prisoner to 
Virginia where he was confined in Chesterfield County. 

He was accused of sending out parties of Indians to murder the 
settlers on the Virginia and Kentucky frontiers, and offering a reward 
for scalps, and was known throughout the frontier as the hair buyer and 
was bitterly hated by the frontier people. 

While a prisoner he was carefully guarded for fear some one would 
take his life. 

The following instructions from the British War Office, and letter 
of Governor Thomas Jefferson are of great interest in this connection : 

Instructions From Lrord George Germain to Guy Carleton Commanding 

at Quebec. 

Sir: — In the consideration of the measures proper to be pursued in 
the next campaign, the making of a diversion on the frontiers of Vir- 
ginia and Pennsylvania by parties of Indians conducted by proper lead- 
ers as proposed by Lieut. Governor Hamilton has been maturely weighed. 

That officer, in his letter to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated at Detroit 
the 2nd of September last, that he had with him Deputies from the 
Ottawas, Chippewas, AVyandottes, Shawnees, Senecas, Delawares, Chero- 
kees and Powattomies. 

That their inclination was for war, and that it was with much 
difficulty he had restrained them from hostilities, which he thought it 
was his duty to do. 

"It is the King's command that you should direct Lieut. Governor 
Hamilton to assemble as many of the Indians of his district as he con- 
veniently can, and place proper persons at their head to conduct their 
parties and restrain them from committing violence on the well affected 
and inoffensive inhabitants, employ them in making a diversion and ex- 
citing an alarm upon the frontiers of Virginia and Pennsylvania." 

Governor Jefferson in his letter to the Governor of Detroit dated 
July 22, 1779, then Sir Guy Carleton, in reply to one from him com- 
plaining of the treatment of Governor Henry Hamilton then a prisoner 
(at Chesterfield) speaks of his conduct while Governor of Detroit in se- 
vere terms: 


"He who employs another to do a deed makes the deed his own. If 
he calls in the assassin or murderer himself becomes the assassin or mur- 
derer. The known rule of warfare with the Indian savages is an indis- 
criminate butchery of men, women and children. These savages under 
this well known character are employed by the British Nation as allies 
in the war against the Americans. Governor Hamilton undertakes to be 
the conductor of the war. 

Governor Hamilton then is himself the butcher of men, women and 
children. ' ' 

It appears from the calendar of Virginia State papers that Lieuten- 
ant Governor Henry Hamilton commanding the British forces at De- 
troit, acknowledged himself a prisoner of war, and signed a parole that he 
would do nothing to the prejudice of the United States until "I shall be 
enlarged from my captivity." Dated at Chesterfield, Virginia, Oct. 10, 

Waddell's History of Augusta County states that a company of 
Militia from the County commanded by Captain William Kincaid and 
Lieutenant James Steele, marched from Staunton in March 1777 to a 
Block House on the West Fork of the Monongahela River. 

By the same authority a Company of Militia from the same County 
in April 1779 commanded by Captain James Trimble, marched to Ty- 
gart's Valley and remained in service three months. 

Alexander Hamilton, one of the privates, states in his declaration 
that he was in several scouts but did not participate in any battles. 

Elias Hickman, who lived to a great age, said that the last depreda- 
tion committed by the Indians in the present limits of Harrison County 
was the capture of a girl by the name of Eunyon on Davisson's Run. She 
went to the Spring for water and was never heard of afterwards. From 
signs it was discovered that a party of Indians had been in the neighbor- 
hood, and it was supposed she was taken prisoner by them. 

He also said that he had never seen a notice of this affair in any 
book or history. 

Indian Nomenclature. 

The fact that the pioneer settlers of Harrison County were nearly 
always at war with the Indians who frequented this region, and had 
little or no friendly intercourse with them, prevented their learning the 
names the aboriginees had bestowed on the mountains, streams and other 
natural objects, which is very much to be regretted. 

The word Monongahela is said to signify "the river of sliding 
banks," which comes from the peculiarity of the river in washing under 
its banks and causing them to slide into the water. 

The word Pinnickinnick, which is given to the high hill near Clarks- 
burg, is presumed to be of Indian origin but its meaning is not known. 

There is a tradition that the West Fork was called "Muddy River" 
by the Indians. 

The June number 1892, of the Southern Historical Magazine, in a 
sketch of Adam O'Brien states: 

"Clarksburg was a small village much exposed, and the children 


were kept within very narrow limits, lest the savages should chance to 
fall upon them. The little urchins, however, then as now, sometimes broke 
their bounds. 

One evening, when a squad of them had wandered too far, they dis- 
covered an Indian, who was creeping up to surprise them. They set off 
for home at full speed and the Indian, finding himself discovered, pur- 
sued them fiercely with his tomahawk. 

The larger children were ahead, but one little feUow, though he ran 
his best, fell into the rear, and the savage was gaining on him. At last 
the boy got so far that his pursuer stopped, poised his tomahawk and 
threw it at him, but missed, on which the child, looking back, exclaimed: 
"Aha, you missed me though, you Eed Devil." 

Clarksburg, Sept. 20, 1909. 
Col. Henry Hatmond, 

Dear Sir: — At your request I will give you the tradition of my 
grandfather, Barnes Allen's adventure with the Indians as I heard it 
from my father, Stephen C. Allen. 

Joshua Allen and his son, Barnes Allen, came from Scotland to Vir- 
ginia, from there to Fort Pitt, thence up the river to what is now ]<nown 
as Hepzibah, or the Allen farm, five miles from Clarksburg. 

Joshua Allen entered a large tract of land, and his son, Barnes, 
planted and matured four (4) hills of com, which gave him a settlement 
right to 400 acres, built a log cabin on his land and went to Fort Pitt, 
and was married to a German woman named Eve Swiger, and returned 
to his cabin in the wilderness, and started to establish a home and clear 
out a farm. 

To this union six children were bom, four boys, John. Joshua, Israel 
and Stephen and two girls, Catherine and Rebecca. Rebecca was bom 
in 1784, married Starling Bartlett, lived ninety-six years, died and was 
buried in Hepzibah church yard, all on or in the close vicinity of the 
original Allen farm. 

Sometime in the early 80 's while Barnes Allen was away from home 
watching a deer lick, his wife, who was alone became alarmed at the con- 
tinual barking of their dog, and, going to the door to see what was the 
matter, discovered a small party of Indians approaching the cabin. She 
hurried out the back door and through the thick underbrush until she 
reached a large beech tree with low spreading branches which stood near 
the Spring. She climbed this tree and hid herself in the heavy foLsge. 

As a boy, I well remember seeing this tree. It was known as Grand- 
mother's tree. My father never allowed it to be disturbed and it was 
left standing until it wasted away. 

The Indians entered the cabin and after taldng everything they 
could carry, set it on fire, and while it was burning stood under the beech 
tree in which Grandmother was hidden. 

From the hill back of where Hepzibah church now stands. Grand- 
father saw the light of his burning cabin, and hastened towards it to 
find what little he possessed, in ruins, and his wife gone. He supposed 
that she had been killed, but lingered about the place hoping to find some 


trace of her, and after some time, hearing a peculiar bird call, which he 
recognized as a signal agreed upon between himself and wdfe in time of 
danger, answered the call and his wife came down out of the tree, 

He took her to the house of a settler, near the Maulsby Bridge, I 
think by the name of Shinn. The next morning he and Shinn started to 
Power's Fort, near Bridgeport, to give the alarm. 

On the way, and opposite the brick house built by William Smith, 
on Simpson's Creek, three Indians came out from some overhanging 
rocks, and fired at them. 

The sudden starting of Allen's horse caused him to drop his gun in 
the sand. Shinn fired at the Indians, and they galloped on to the fort 
which they reached about noon. 

A party was at once made up to pursue the Indians and on reaching 
the place where the two had been fired upon, it was discovered that the 
Indians had encamped the previous night under the rocks spoken of, and 
that they had left a belt, a knife, Allen's gun and two white scalps. 

The men took up the trail, and discovered that one of the Indians 
had been wounded by Shinn 's shot, and that he was hidden in a swamp 
on the farm afterwards owned by Jefferson Smith. He was finally dis- 
covered, shot and scalped. Further pursuit was then abandoned. 
Very respectfully, 

James F. Allen. 


The Revolution. 

At the commencement of the War of the Revolution the territory- 
West of the mountains was not organized into Counties but was known 
as the District of West Augusta. 

Owing to the hostility of the Indians caused by what was known as 
Dunmore's War breaking out in 1774, the inhabitants of this region had 
all they could possibly do to protect themselves, and consequently but 
few of them were engaged in the Army conducting operations against the 
British in the East. 

After the flight of Dunmore during what was called the ''Interre- 
gnum, affairs were conducted by a convention which appointed a central 
committee, which in turn appointed a committee of safety in each County. 

The Virginia Convention in July 1775 passed an ordinance direct- 
ing that troops be at once recruited for the better protection and defense 
of the inhabitants, of the frontier of the colony, and that one company 
be stationed under the command of Captain John Nevill at Fort Pitt 
(now Pittsburgh) a detachment of twenty-five men mider a Lieutenant 
at Fort Fincastle afterwards Fort Henry now Wheeling, and that two 
companies be stationed at the mouth of the Big Kanawha, now Point 

Afterwards the mouth of the Little Kanawha, now Parkersburg, 
was made a military station. 

It is doubtful if these ordinances were fully executed as it was not 
only difficult to enlist men, but to subsist them in the wilderness, at such 
a distance from the base of supplies, was almost an impossibility with 
the means at the command of the government. 

The 8tb Pennsylvania Regiment commanded by Lieutenant Colonel 
Samuel Bayard was mostly recruited in western Pennsylvania for ser- 
vice on the frontier but quite a number of West Augusta men were in 
this Regiment. 

A detachment of about two himdred men from this command in 
1777 was permitted to march East of the mountains and join General 
Daniel Morgan's rifle corps and took part in the battle of Saratoga and 
other battles under that distinguished commander. 

Edward Haymond, whose home was in Monongalia County between 
Morgantown and Fairmont, served with this detachment. He afterwards 
was a pensioner. 

Colonel William Crawford, a native of Westmoreland County, Vir- 
ginia, a trusted friend of Washington's, who moved West at an early 
date, and was burned by the Indians in 1782, was authorized to recruit 
a regiment known as the 13th Virginia from West Augusta. It is stated 


in a sketch of his life that he collected two hundred men and joined 
Washington with them near Philadelphia in 1777. 

It is not likely that all of these men came from the upper waters of 
the Monongahela, but were probably gathered in what is now "Western 

Thus it will be seen that though they left home under distressing 
circumstances, leaving their families and relatives exposed to a savage 
foe, yet their patriotism was strong enough to induce some of them to 
do so, which conduct entitles them to the highest honor and praise. 

In May 1777 an act was passed requiring that all free born male in- 
habitants of Virginia over sixteen years of age should take an oath re- 
nouncing all allegiance to George the third. King of Great Britain, and 
swearing to bear true allegiance to the commonwealth of Virginia, and 
to report any treason or traiterous conspiracies coming to their know- 
ledge, against Virginia or any of the United States of America. 

After the close of the war, many of those who had served as soldiers 
east their lot with and pitched their tents in the settlements West of the 

When pensions were granted by Congress in 1818, to the soldiers of 
the Revolution, they were required to prove their service and identify 
themselves before the County Courts of their respective counties. From 
these petitions on file in the County Clerk's Office of Harrison County 
the following interesting and valuable information is obtained: 

Mathias Hite. Aged 70 years. Petition not dated. Entered service 
as Lieutenant 1775 in 8th Regt. Virginia Line. 

John Latham. Enlisted in Stafford County, Va., in Capt. Johnson's 
Company. Regiment commanded by Col. Ludamy for the term of 3 

Was at surrender of Lord Comwallis at Yorktown. 
Robert Wadsworth, aged 70. Enlisted in 8th Regt. Va. Line Capt. 
Abel Westfall about year 1776. Was in the Battle of Charles Town. 
Brandywine, Germantown. Served 3 years and 11 months. 

A considerable part of the time was attached to General Washing- 
ton's Body Guard. 

Walter Linsey aged 61 years. Enlisted in January, 1776, Chester 
County, Penna. Capt. Frederick Vamams Co. 5th Regt. Penna. Line. 
Served until January, 1781. Battles Brandywine, Germantown, 

Anthony Haley, aged 60 years. Enlisted 1778, Capt. Catlett's Co. 
Col. Abraham Buford's Regt. Virginia Line, Battle of Hanging Rock. 
Served until end of war. 

John Stackhouse, aged 70. Enlisted in 1771 in Capt. David Scott's 
Co. Col. John Gibson's Regt. Virginia Line. Served 3 years. 

James Cochran, aged 70 years. Enlisted as Ensign in October 1776 
13tb Regt. Va. Infty. Col. Russell Capt. David Scott's Co. Resigned 
Sept. 1777 at Pittsburgh. 

Joseph White, aged 65, enlisted 1780, Maryland Line, Capt. Revelie 
and Capt. Thomas Price Companies, Col. Adams, Maryland Line. Served 
3 years. Was at Lord Comwallis' surrender. 


Joseph Britton enlisted in Wincliester, Va., in Capt. Chapman's Co. 
Col. Crockett's Regt. Served two years. 

Marched to Albermarl Co., Va. to guard the prisoners, thence to 
Pittsburg and under Gen'l Clark to the falls of the Ohio where he was 
discharged. No battles. 

Adam Hickman. Enlisted about the year 1775, Capt. Nagles' Com- 
pany. Believes the Colonel to have been named "Utry" Pennsylvania 
Line. Original application made May 18, 1818. 

Thomas Smith. Petition dated July 17, 1820. Enlisted 1775 for 
one year Capt. "Wm. Enlee's Comp. in 2d. Regt. Col. White, New Jersey 
Line. Continental Establishment, Battle of Long Island. Discharged 
at Bergen Point. 

William Shingleton, aged 66. Enlisted in 1778. Capt. John Rob- 
erts' Company. Col. Taylor Va. Line, Continental Establishment. 
Served 20 months, guarded Hessian Prisoners. 

James Taylor. Enlisted under Capt. Smith in 1777 Col. Williams 
and Howard and served until the end of the war. Battles Monmouth, 

Jonathan Adams aged 63. Enlisted in 1778 Capt. Plunkett's Com- 
pany, 4th Troop, 4th Regt. Dragoons Col. Milan Penna. Line in Tren- 
ton, N. J. Again enlisted in 1781 Capt. Herd, Col. Bland Penna. troops 
for during the war. Served until end of war. Was at the capture of 

John Greathouse aged 60. Enlisted in Bedford County, Penna. in 
Capt. Kelgrin's Compy. 8th Penna. Regt. of Regulars in 1777. Col. 
Broadhead. Served 3 years. Discharged at Pittsburg in March, 1780. 


Valentine Clepper, aged 72. Enlisted in Maryland for one year and 
served out his time. Then enlisted in Capt. Prices' Compy. in the 2nd. 
Regiment, Col. John Stewart Maryland Line under General Greene. 
Served until end of war. Discharged at Annapolis. Battle of Eutaw 
Springs, where he was wounded. 

John Bonnell. Petition dated May 19, 1818, aged 57. Enlisted in 
Capt. Matchen's Compy. Col. John Lamb N. Y. Artillery Continental Es- 
tablishment in the month of March 1782. Discharged at Albany at close 
of war. 

Humphrey Mounts. See order County Court July 20, 1818. Claim 

Enlisted in the Legion commanded by General Pulaski, on account 
of his health, received a furlough and was absent from the army when 
General Pulaski was killed at the battle of the Short Hills. That he after- 
wards joined the army and served under Capt. Bedkin of the said Legion 
of horse, and continued in the service for nine months. Discharged at the 
Pengwood furnaces while under the command of Lord Sterling. 

"The name of H. Mounts does not appear on the rolls. 
Thomas Karney, Auditor State Md." 

Rejected J. L. Edwards 

War Dep. 


Henry Farnenee aged 57 years. Enlisted at Frederick-town, Mary- 
land, Capt. Boyes of the German Regiment. Served six years until close 
of the war. Battles Monmouth and Trenton. 

Joseph Hall. Enlisted in Augusta Co. in 1776 8th Regiment com- 
manded by Col. Mulenburg. Capt. David Stephenson's Compy. Vir- 
ginia Line. Served 2 years. 

Michael Carey aged 64. Enlisted 1778 for the term of three years 
or during the war, Captain Beates, Col. Gumby, Col. Quinly, 7th Regt. 
Regulars Maryland Line. Served until close of w^ar. Discharged at 
Annapolis. Battles, Camden, Eutaw Springs and Cowpens. 

Henry Berkhammer. Enlisted in Philadelphia, Capt. Church's 
Company. Served 4 years. Battles Germantown, "Woodbridge, Straw- 
berry Hill, Trenton and Fox chase. Served until close of war. Dis- 
charged at a place called the Trap about fifteen miles this side of 

Dabney Ford. Served three years in Capt. Thomas Porter's Compy. 
Col. Taylor's Regt. of Virginia Continental troops enlisted in 1778. 
Discharged at Winehesetr in 1781. Siege of York and capture of 

Stephen Fluharty aged 74. In 1775 enlisted for the term during 
the war, 1st Maryland Regiment, Col. Smallwood Capt. George Striek- 
er's Company Maryland line. Served until close of war. Discharged at 
Annapolis in 1782. Battle of Long Island, "White Plains, Trenton, 
Princeton, Germantown, IMonmouth, Camden, Guilford, Eutaw Springs, 
Cowpens and Siege of '96. 

James Devers aged 78. Petition dated May 16, 1820. Enlisted 1780. 
Capt. Dennis Ramsey's Compy. Col. Gilpen's Regt. of Virginia. Served 
until 1781. Discharged at Richmond. Battles, Cowpens and Eutaw 
Springs and was taken prisoner on board the ship Tempest, which ship 
was taken by the British then under the command of Arnold and Phil- 
lips that at this time he was under the command of Charles Little. 

John Obut, aged 69. Enlisted in 1775 1st Jersey Regiment Capt. 
John Conaway, Jersey line Continental Troops. 

John Byrnes, aged 70. Enlisted in 1775 6th. Va. Regt. Capt. Caseby 
Virginia Line. 

John Jarvis. Enlisted for 3 years on St. Patrick's day the year not 
remembered in Maryland, in Capt. Mathew's crew of the galley Defense. 
He served 18 months when he was discharged, having procured a 

William Pepper aged 59. Cannot remember the year of enlistment 
or discharge. Thinks he served 15 months in Kirkwood's Company 
Delaware Line Continental Establishment. 

Jacob Keyser. Enlisted Feb'y. 15, 1779 at Fredericktown, Md. 
Capt. Baltzer, German Battalion, Col. "Weltner, Guests Brigade 2d. 
Regiment Col. Adams. Discharged February 1782 in Pon Pan South. 

That he was in several battles between Wyoming and Niagara in 
Penna. Served in Southern Army under Genl. Green. Was at the 
capture of Comwallis. 


Aaron Lockhart Enlisted in 1776 or 1777 (the same year that 
Montgomery was killed) Capt. Lacy 4th Regt. Penna. Line. Served 
4 years. Discharged by Gen'l. St. Clair. 

Samuel B. Beall age 55. Enlisted 1781. Lieutenant in Capt. 
Reverelee's Compy. 1st Regt. Maryland Line served until Army was 
disbanded. Was at capture of Cornwallis. 

Silas Reed, aged 69. Enlisted in 1776 in 3rd Jersey Regt. Capt. 
Patterson Col. Dayton, N. J. Line. 

Jacob Nay. Entered Capt. Lamb's Compy. at Culpepper Co., Va. 
Col. Gaston's Regt. under command of Gen'l. Steuben. Transferred to 
a cavalry corps commanded by Col. White under Capt. Gunn. Served in 
cavalry 20 months then rejoined old regt. under Maj. Findley. Dis- 
charged by Gen'l. Scott at Cumberland C. H. Virginia. 

Was in skirmish at Jones' Island where Col. Lawrence was killed 
and on the Wappoo gut. 

Richard Jones. Enlisted 1775 1st regt. Guards. Capt. Hops, Col. 
Hankly Penna Line. Served three years. Battles Brandywine, German- 
town and Paoli. 

William Hitchcock. Enlisted 1780 Capt. Henry Heath's Compy. 
9th Va. Col. John Gibson. Continental Establishment, Served until 
1781 when he was taken prisoner by the Indians and was severely 
wounded, that he remained a prisoner four years and eight months before 
he was set at liberty. 

David Maxwell. Lieutenant in Capt. Shillington 's Company. Col. 
Patterson's Battalion of Delaware Regulars in 1776. Served 18 months. 
Discharged at Morristown, N. J., April 1777. Afterwards served as Lt. 
in Capt. Colwell's Compy. of Regulars, commissioned to repel invasion 
of the British on the shores of Delaware and served out the time of his 
engagement. Battles Staten Island and White Plains. 

David Harrison. Enlisted in Regular Army in Va. Capt. Stewart 
Col. Wadsworth for one year. Was discharged at end of war at Chester- 
field, Connecticut. Battle of Powel's Hook. 

George Pritchard age 84. Enlisted in Culpepper Co. Va. in 1776. 
Captain John Thornton 3rd Virginia Regt. Regulars for 3 years. Dis- 
charged in Philadelphia for disability March 15, 1777. Battles Trenton 
and Queen's Island. 

Anthony Coon. Enlisted for three years Capt. David Scott's 
Compy. of Va. Regulars, Col. John Gibson in Monongalia Co., Va. served 
3 years and discharged at Fort Pitt. 

Joseph Kilbreth, 70 years. Enlisted in New Orleans province. 
Dragoons. Served until end of war. Discharged at Winchester, Va. 
Battles "Skirmish of taking the Negro Corps near Dorchester, South 
Carolina. ' ' 

Anthony Fox, aged 70. Enlisted in Regular service in Fauquire 
Co., Va. Captain Fleebecker Continental Establishment. Discharged 
at end of war on James River, above Richmond. Fleebecker was promoted 
to command of Regt. Battles Brandywine, Capture of Corwallis. 

John R. Miloy, aged 58 years. Enlisted in 1776 in New Jersey 
Captain Flowers 3rd Regt. Masachusetts Regulars, Col. Graton for S 


years. Discharged 1779 at Peekskill Hollow, N. Y. Battle of Stilwater. 

Joseph Kilbreth, 70 years. Enlisted in New Orleans province 
Louisiana in the Marine Compy. commanded by Captain Wm. Pickles 
U. S. Navy. Served in the Dane Frigate of Boston, and the ship Morris 
of Philadelphia about two years. Discharged at Boston, Mass. 

Enlisted in Boston in Captain Lamed 's Compy. U. S. Army served 
25^ years until end of war. Discharged in N. Y. Battles Kingsbridge, 
N. Y. 

John Westfall, aged 60. Enlisted in 1780 Hampshire County in 
Capt. Wallace's Company Virginia Line 7th. Regt. Served until the close 
of the war. 

John Sharp, aged 64. Enlisted 1776 for 2 years. Capt. James 
Taylor's Compy. Col. A. Wayne Pennsylvania Line. 

James Hanlon. Enlisted Capt. Schultz Compy. 2nd. N. J. Regulars 
on Continental Establishment in 1775 for one year. Discharged at Port 
George, Canada in November 1776. Again enlisted in the Spring of 1777, 
at Martinsburg, Virginia, Captain Wells 4th. Virginia Regiment U. S. 
Regulars, Col. Lawson for three years. Served his full time. Discharged 
at Petersburg, Va. 1780. Battles Germantown, Brandy\\dne, Powles Hook 
and Stony Point. 

Jonathan Cobun. Entered as Captain of 13th. Va. Regulars, Colonel 
Thomas Gibson in Monongalia Co. Va. Served from August 1777 to Sep- 
tember 26, 1779. Discharged at Pittsurg. In skirmishes and engagements 
with the Indians. 

Jacob Thompson. Enlisted 1782 Captain Morris 1st. Regt. Virginia 
Dragoons. Served until end of war. Discharged at Winchester Va. Bat- 
tles "Skirmish of taking the Negro Corps near Dorchester, South Caro- 
lina. ' ' 

John Townsend. Enlisted 1775 1st. Regt. New Jersey Regulars 
Captain Piatt for and during the war. Battles of Springfield where he was 
wounded and sent to Hospital. 

After recovery he was sent to Wyoming, where he was taken prisoner 
by the Indians and kept a prisoner until the restoration of peace. Battle 
of Germantown. 

Moses Rollins. Enlisted in Culpepper County, Virginia, 1780. 
Captain Smith, Colonel Buford, Regular Service served until close of the 
war. Battle of Guilford C. H. was wounded and from disease incurred 
in service has since been compelled to have both his legs amputated. 

John Taylor 1718. Enlisted in the year of the Battle of Monmouth 
with Captain William Riley, 4th. Maryland Regiment. Served a part of 
the time under Colonel Samuel Smith, now a Representative in Congress 
from Maryland. 

Battles of Monmouth and Camden where he was taken prisoner and 
held for sixteen months, that he escaped from the prison ship and con- 
tinued in the service until peace. 

Caleb Stout, aged 73. Petition dated July 20th. 1818, Enlisted 1775. 
Regular service Captain Breaily 2nd. N. J. Regt. Colonel Maxwell, Jersey 
Line, Enlisted for one year. Expedition against Quebec under Arnold, 
was captured and remained a prisoner nearly two years when he escaped. 


Jacob Thomas, 60 years. Enlisted 1782 1st. Regt. Dragoons Captain 
Morrow Virginia Line. 

Valentine Clapper 74 years. Enlisted early part of the war. Captain 
Price's or Benson's Compy. Colonel John Stewart 2nd. Regiment Mary- 
land Line. 

John Roe, aged 61. Enlisted 1779 3rd. Jersey Regt. Colonel Dayton, 
Captain Richard Cox Jersey Line Maxwell's Brigade. 

John Cottrill. Date of return December 21, 1827, aged 63. Enlisted 
for two years day and year not remembered, in the County of Hampshire. 
Regiment and officers forgotten. Marched to Fredericksburg and 
Richmond, thence South and was assigned to Colonel Washington's Regt. 
of Cavalry. Term of service expired, again enlisted in Continental Service, 
Captain William McGuire's Compy, of Artillery Col. Harmon's Regt. 
Marched North and joined Army of Gen. Putnam and returned to 
Virginia. Discharged after Yorktown, having served three years and nine 

Battles Cowpens, Eutaw Springs, Pine Tree. Mud Island Fort 
Surrender of Comwallis. 

Joseph Silman. Date of petition May 19, 1830. Aged 80 years. 
Enlisted 1776 for three years 1st. Regt. Virginia Continental Establish- 
ment. Captain John Lee, Colonel Gibson. Marched to Valley Forge was 
then put under command of Captain Hefler in a regiment commanded by 
Colonel Feebecker, Gen'l. Washington's Army. Remained in that regiment 
for more than a year, when he was transferred to another Regiment 
commanded by Colonel Posey in General Wayne's command, that he 
served the remainder of his three years enlistment and was discharged 
at Philadelphia. 

He again enlisted for one year and served in the Army in the South, 
making a service of four years. 

At a County Court held on the 22nd. day of September 1784. This 
day John Stackhouse a Militia Soldier came into Court and proved to the 
satisfaction of the same that he was captivated at Col. Archibald Lockrees 
defeat on the Ohio River in the year 1781, and that he was captivated on 
the first day of August in said year, and returned to the mouth of grave 
creek on the east side of the Ohio on the 16th. day of July 1784. 

The command of Col. Archibald Loughry referred to in the above 
order consisted of one hundred men from Westmoreland County, Pennsyl- 
vania, on their way down the Ohio River to the Falls, now Louisville, to 
join Col. George R. Clark to take part in his proposed expedition against 
the British at Detroit in the summer of 1781. 

They traveled in flatboats but having landed on a sand bar to butcher 
a Buffalo was surprised by a large body of British and Indians and were 
all killed or captured with small loss to their assailants. Many of the 
prisoners, including Col. Loughry himself, were afterwards murdered in 
cold blood by the Indians. 

This occurred about ten miles below the mouth of the great Miami in 
what is now the State of Indiana. 


Affidavit of Christopher Nutter made on October 21, 1833, before D. 
Davisson, Clerk of the Comity Court. 

That in the Spring of the year 1781 Captain George Jackson proceeded 
in virtue as affiant understood of a commission from the Governor of 
Virginia appointing said Jackson Captain to raise a Company of volun- 
teers, that affiant joined said Company at Buckhannon in what is now 
the County of Lewis in tliis State : that volunteers were raised to join 
an expedition under the command of General or Colonel George Eogers 
Clark: that in the Company so raised and commanded by said Jackson 
William White was First Lieutenant, Jacob Westfall was second Lieu- 
tenant and Hezekiah Davisson was Ensign and quarter master. That said 
Company mustered under the command of said Jackson and joined the 
expedition about fourteen miles above Fort Pitt. That said Company 
proceeded under the command of said Jackson with the residue of the 
troops, the whole commanded by said George Rogers Clark down the 
Ohio River and arrived at the Falls of the Ohio River on the 19th. day 
of August 1781. 

When the troops reached the Falls the Company commanded by 
Captain Jackson numbered one hundred and four rank and file : that they 
remained under the command of said Clark until late in the fall of the 
same year of 1781. The Company was then discharged and marched back 
to the place where they volunteered by their said Captain George Jackson. 

Affidavits in support of George Jackson's application for a pension. 

Affidavits of Alexander West, Christopher Nutter, who were members 
of Jackson's Company and William Powers who saw the Company at 
Clarksburg made October 21, 1833. 

That in the Spring of 1781 by authority of the Governor of Virginia 
a Company of one hundred and four men was raised near Clarksburg to 
join General George Rogers Clark's expedition against the British and 
Indians west of the Ohio River. 

The officers were as follows: 

Captain, George Jackson. 

First Lieutenant, William White. 

Second Lieutenant, Jacob Westfall. 

Ensign and Quarter Master, Hezekiah Davisson. 

That the Company marched from Clarksburg under the command 
of Jackson and joined the expedition under command of General George 
Rogers Clark about fourteen miles above Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh), 

That said Company proceeded with the troops under General Clark 
down the Ohio River and arrived at the Falls of the Ohio Louisville, 
August 19, 1781. 

That the Company remained there until the Fall of the same year, 
1781, and were then discharged from service and were marched by Captain 
Jackson to the place where they volunteered. 



A tory was one who was loyal to the King and opposed to the 
separation of the colonies from the mother country. The patriots or those 
who were in favor of the Revolution were sometimes called whigs. 

There were but few tories in the Monongahela Valley, but there has 
always been vague rumors of a tory uprising in favor of the King, but 
little is known of it. The Border Warfare in referring to the attack on 
Fort McHenry at Wheeling in 1777 states, 

"At the time of the happening of these occurrences the belief was 
general that the army which had been led to Wheeling by Girty had been 
ordered for the purpose of conducting the tories from the settlements to 
Detroit, and that detachments from that Army continued to hover about 
the frontiers for some time to effect that object. There was then unfortun- 
ately for the repose and tranquility of many neighborhoods a considerable 
number of those misguided and deluded wretches who disaffected to the 
cause of the Colonies were mlling to advance the interest of Britain by 
the sacrifice of every social relation and the abandonment of every consid- 
eration save that of loyalty to the King. So far did their opposition to 
those who espoused the cause of American liberty blunt every finer and 
more noble feeling, that many of them were willing to imbue their hands 
in the blood of their neighbors in the most sly and secret manner and in 
the hour of midnight darkness for no offense but attachment to the 
independence of the Colonies. 

A conspiracy for the murder of the whigs and for accepting the terms 
offered by the Governor of Canada to those who would renounce their 
allegiance to the United States, and repair to Detroit by the relenting of 
one individual was prevented being carried into effect, and many were 
consequently saved from horrors equalling if not transcending in enormity 
the outrages of the savages themselves. 

Scenes of licentiousness and fury followed upon the discovery of the 
plot. Exasperated at its heinousnes and under the influence of resentful 
feelings, the whigs retaliated upon the tories some of the evils which these 
had conspired to inflict upon them. 

In the infuriated state of their minds and the little restraint at that 
time imposed upon the passions by the operation of the laws, it is really 
a matter of admiration that they did not proceed further and requite upon 
those deluded wretches, the full measure of their premeditated wrongs. 
The head only of this fiendish league lost his life, but many depre- 
dations were committed on the property of its members. 

A Court for the trial of the conspirators was held at Redstone Old 
Fort, Bro-wnsville, Pennsylvania, and many of them were arraigned at 
its bar, but as their object had been defeated by its discovery, and as no 
further danger was apprehended from them they were released, after 
being required to take the oath of allegiance to the United States and to 
bear with the injuries which had been done their property. 

Those who were suspected for the murder of the chief conspirator 
were likewise arraigned for that offense, but were acquitted." 


This is a very indefinite statement as to what really occurred as no 
names are given and all is mere tradition. 

"Wiley in his history of Monongalia County refers to this plot and to 
the tradition that several persons were arrested and taken to Richmond 
for trial, and also that one prisoner while guarded by three of the Morgans 
under orders for Richmond, was drowned in Cheat River near the Dunkard 
Bottom by the upsetting of the boat, and that inquiry was never made 
whether the upsetting was accidental or otherwise, as the settlers did not 
want to spare three good men from the frontier while the Indians were 
hostile to guard one man to the East. 

But whatever took place it is certain that the movement was considered 
important enough to receive the attention of both Congress and the 
Virginia Assembly, as the latter body in October 1777 passed an act 
reciting that Samuel Washington, Gabriel Jones and Joseph Reed had 
been appointed Commissioners by the United States Congress to repair to 
Fort Pitt in order to investigate the rise, progress and extent of the 
disaffection in that quarter, and authorized the said commissioners to 
apprehend such inhabitants of the Counties of Ohio, Monongalia and 
Yohogania as shall appear to said commissioners to have been concerned 
in any conspiracy or plot against the said States or any of them and to 
deliver the offenders to the proper officers to be prosecuted according to 

What action this commission took, if any, is not known, as no report 
of its proceedings is known to exist. 

The laws of Virginia enacted during the war of the Revolution, 
against the tories, or those who announced their allegiance to. or gave aid 
and comfort to the soldiers of King George, were drastic and severe, and 
inflicted fines, imprisonment confiscation of property, banishment through 
the enemies' lines or trial by Court Martial, for treason to the Common- 
wealth. It was a penal offense to drink to the health of the 
King, and in the excitement of the times the lot of the tory was 
not a pleasant one. Thousands of them left the Countrj'- and 
sought protection under the flag of Great Britain. 

All male inhabitants were required to take the oath of allegiance to 
the Commonwealth of Virginia. 

For many years after the Revolution the name of "Tory" was a word 
of reproach. 

In October 1777 a law was passed directing a draft of soldiers to be 
made in Virginia to fill up the ranks of her depleted regiments then in the 
Continental Service, and the quota from Augusta County, which at that 
time included the territory of Harrison County was fixed at ninety-seven 

In October 1780 another draft was made and the quota of Monongalia 
County was fixed at 30 men. The territory of Harrison County was by 
an act of the same session transferred from Augusta to Monongalia. 

Pay Roll of Captain William Haymond's Company of Monongahela 
County Militia in active service during the war of the Revolution in 1777. 



William Haymond Captain 

MMorgan Morgan Lieutenant 

James Johnston Ensign 

Zarah Ozban Sergeant 

Amos Ashcraf t Private 

John Doherty Private 

Edmond Chaney Private 

Jeremiah Chaney Private 

David Morgan Private 

Thomas Haymond Private 

Amos Pettyjohn Private 

William Pettyjohn Private 

Robert Campbell Private 

John Ice Private 

Frederick Ice Private 

Henry Hank Private 

Peter Propeno Private 

Levy Carter Private 

John Carter Private 

Frederick Huckleberry Private 

Jarvis Brumagen Private 

Jeremiah Simson Private 

Valentine Kennett Private 

Evan Morgan Private 

Reuben Boner Private 

James Morgan, Sr Private 

John Lemasters Private 

James Morgan, Jr Private 


Formation of Counties. 

The House of Burgesses of Virginia in the year 1634, in the reign 
of King Charles the I divided the colony into eight shires to be governed 
as the shires in England were and named them as follows. 

James City, Henrico, Charles City, Elizabeth City, "Warwick River 
changed to Warwick, Warrosquoyacke, changed to Isle of Wight, Charles 
River, changed to York, and Accawmack. 

This was the first attempt to organize the colony into counties and 
included the territory up the James River as far as the present site 
of Richmond. Other counties were formed as the settlements moved 
Westerly towards the Blue Ridge. 

In 1734 when Orange County was created from Spottsylvania, its 
boundaries were described as extending westerly to the "utmost limits 
of Virginia." 

In November 1738, in the reign of King George the II, that portion 
of the County of Orange lying beyond the Blue Ridge, to the "Western 
limits of Virginia," was separated from the rest of the County and erected 
into two distinct counties ; to be divided by a line to be run from the head 
spring of Hedgeman river to the Head Spring of the Potomac river and 
that part of said territory lying to the North East of the said line, beyond 
the top of the Blue Ridge was called the county of Frederick, and the rest 
of the said territory lying on the other side of the said line beyond the top 
of the Blue Ridge was called the county of Augusta. 

That portion of the county of Augusta lying west of the Allegheny 
Mountains was known as the "District of West Augusta." This was 
probably designated as such by the County Court as no act of the Legis- 
lature can be found referring to this being a district of Augusta County, 
or giving its boundaries for many years after the formation of the County. 

Augusta County it is presumed attempted to exercise some jurisdiction 
over this vast region which will be referred to hereafter. 

The Virginia Convention held at Richmond in July 1775, adopted an 
ordinance, defining the manner of representation by the several counties, 
in all general conventions which shall be held within the State hereafter, 
provided that the "Land Holders of the 'District of West Augusta' shall 
be considered as a distinct county, and have the liberty of sending two 
delegates to represent them in general convention as aforesaid. ' ' 

The constitution adopted in May 1776 authorized the District of 
West Augusta to send two delegates to the General Assembly. 

The reign of the King now ceases and the rule of the Commonwealth 


In October 1776 the General Assembly of Virginia in the first year 
of the Commonwealth passed an Act entitled "An Act for ascertaining 
the boundary between the County of Augusta and the District of West 
Augusta, and for dividing the said district into three distinct counties." 
The act is partly as follows: 

"That the boundary between the said district and County shall be 
as follows, to wit: Beginning on the Allegheny Mountain between the 
heads of Potowmack, Cheat and Greenbriar rivers ; thence along the ridge 
of mountains which divides the waters of Cheat Eiver from those of Green- 
briar, and that branch of the Monongahela river called Tygar't Valley 
Eiver, to the Monongahela river; thence up the said river and the West 
Fork thereof to Bingerman's Creek on the North West side of the said 
West Fork; thence up the said creek to the head thereof, thence in a 
direct course to the head of Middle Island Creek, a branch of the Ohio and 
thence to the Ohio including all the waters of the said creek in the afore- 
said district of West Augusta; all that territory lying to the Northward 
of the aforesaid boundary, and to the Westward of the States of Pennsyl- 
vania and ]\Iaryland, shall be deemed and is hereby declared to be within 
the District of West Augusta." 

The act then further proceeds to divide the territory above described 
as being within said District into three Counties, called Ohio, Monongalia 
and Yohogania. 

When by the extension of Masons and Dixons line Westward it was 
discovered that the greater part of Yohogania County lay within the limits 
of Pennsylvania, and that portion on the Virginia side of the line was 
in 1785 added to the County of Ohio and Yohogania became extinct and 
is known as the "lost County." 

The District of West Augusta being abolished by the formation of 
the three counties mentioned above, this left the present territory of Harri- 
son County within the boundaries of Augusta County. 

The Northern boundary'- of Greenbrier County when it was created in 
1777, was described as follows: 

Beginning on the top of the ridge which divides the Eastern from the 
Western waters where the line between Augusta and Bottetourt crosses 
the same, and the same course continued North fifty-five degrees West to 
the Ohio River. 

In May 1779 the mountainous region in Augusta County lying on the 
head waters of the Elk, Tygarts Valley, and Cheat Eivers and along 
the ridge dividing the waters of Cheat from the waters of the Potowmack 
river was added to Monongalia County. 

It is supposed that this territory was intended to have been included 
in Monongalia County at the time of its formation in 1776, but from an 
imperfect knowledge of the country, or error, was omitted, and was cor- 
rected by the act of 1779. 

In October 1780 an Act was passed to the effect "That all that part 
of the county of Augusta North West of the Line that divides Augusta 
from Green-Brier, on the top of the ridge, that divides the waters of Green- 
Brier from those of Elk and Tygarts Valley, and with that ridge to the 
ridge that divides the waters of Potowmack from those of Cheat, and with 


the same to the line that divides Augusta and Rockingham, shall be and 
the same is hereby added to and made part of the county of Monongalia." 

Provision is made in this act, that the Court of Augusta County 
shall try and determine all suits which shall be pending before it, and that 
the Sheriff shall be authorized to collect any public dues for Officers fees 
which shall remain unpaid by the inhabitants at the time of the passage of 
this act. 

This would indicate that Augusta had exercised some jurisdiction 
over her territory lying West of the mountains. 

To substantiate this claim the following order is found in the Harrison 
County Court order book entered February 21, 1786. 

"Ordered that a bridle road be opened from Conoly's Lick, agree- 
able to a former order of Augusta County Court, from said lick to the top 
of the Allegheny Mountains, and the petitioners are to aid and assist 
John Warwick, who is appointed overseer to open said way." 

Mr. Jos. A. Waddell the historian of Augusta County in response to 
an inquiry writes as follows: 

"I have never encountered in the records of Augusta County Court 
anything relating to taxes, roads, mills etc., in the trans- Allegheny region 
referred to. " 

In May 1784 the General Assembly passed an Act entitled "An Act 
for dividing the County of Monongalia. ' ' 

I. Be it enacted by the General Assembly That from and after the 
twentieth day of July next, the County of Monongalia shall be divided 
into two distinct Counties, by a line to begin on the Maryland line, at the 
Fork Ford on the land of John Goff, thence a direct course to the 
head waters of Big Sandy Creek, thence down the said creek to Tygarts 
Valley fork of Monongahela river, thence down the same to the mouth of 
West Fork River, thence up the same to the mouth of Biggerman's Creek, 
thence up the said creek to the line of Ohio County; and that part of 
the said County lying South of the said line shall be called and known 
by the name of Harrison, and all the residue of the said county shall 
retain the name of Monongalia; that a Court for the said County of 
Harrison shall be held by the Justices thereof on the third Tuesday in 
every month after such division shall take place, in such manner as is 
provided by law for other Counties, and shall be by their commissions 
directed; that the justices to be named in the commission of the peace 
for the said County of Harrison, shall meet at the house of George Jackson, 
at Bush's old Fort, on Buckhannon River, in said County, upon the first 
court day after the said division shall take place, and having taken the oath 
prescribed by law and administered the oath of office to, and taken bond 
of the Sheriff, according to law, proceed to appoint and qualify a Clerk, 
and fix upon a place for holding Courts in the said County, at or as near 
the center thereof as the situation and convenience will admit of; and 
thenceforth the said Court, shall proceed to erect the necessary public 
buildings at such place ; and until such buildings be completed, to appoint 
any place for holding courts as they shall think proper. Provided always, 
That the appointment of a place for holding courts, and of a clerk shall 
not be made unless a majority of the justices of the said County be present ; 


where such majority shall have been prevented from attending by bad 
weather, or their being at the time out of the county, in such cases the 
appointment shall be postponed until some Court day, when a majority 
shall be present; that the Governor with the advice of the council shall 
appoint a person to be first sheriff of the said county, who shall continue 
in office during the term, and upon the same conditions as is by law 
appointed for other Sheriffs. 

II. Provided always, and be it further enacted, That it shall be lawful 
for the sheriff of the said county of Monongalia, to collect and make dis- 
tress for any public dues or officers fees, which shall remain unpaid by 
the inhabitants thereof, at the time such division shall take place, and 
shall be accounted for the same in like manner, as if this act had not been 
made ; and that the court of the county of Monongalia, shall have jurisdic- 
tions of all actions and suits in law or equity which shall be depending 
before them at the time of the said di^asion, and shall try and determine 
the same, and issue process and award execution thereon. 

III. And be it further enacted, That the Court of the said County 
of Monongalia, shall account for and pay to the said County of Harrison, 
all such sums of money as shall or may be paid by the inhabitants of the 
said County of Harrison, towards defraying the expense of erecting 
a Court House, and other public buildings, in the said County of Monon- 
galia. That in all elections of a senator the said County of Harrison shall 
be of the same district with the said County of Monongalia. 

The original boundaries of Harrison County, as near as can be ascer- 
tained included either wholly or partially the following named Counties: 

Randolph .... 

. . . .formed 

in 1787 
" 1843 
" 1842 
" 1851 
" 1831 
" 1856 
" 1836 
" 1821 
" 1816 


formed ; 

n 1856 
' 1844 




' 1798 




' 1848 



Gilmer .... 

<< < 

' 1845 



Upshur .... 


' 1851 


Webster . . . 


' 1860 


. . . . " 

Ritchie .... 


' 1843 


By an Act of the Legislature passed January 1, 1800, the follo^ang 
ing described portion of Ohio County was added to Harrison County. 

Beginning at the mouth of the West Fork River, thence running a 
North West course until it strikes Buffalo Creek, Thence up the said creek 
to the main fork thereof; thence with the ridge that divides the waters of 
the said fork to the line of Ohio County, and with that line to the line of 
Harrison County. 

A portion of this territory if not all, was afterwards included in 
Marion County and Bingamon Creek again made the line of Harrison 

By an Act of the Legislature passed December 22, 1804, the follow- 
ing described portion of Ohio County was added to Harrison County, 

Beginning at the top of the main dividing ridge that divides Ohio 
and Harrison Counties, where the dividing ridge puts up that divides the 
waters of Middle Island and Fishing Creek, and running along the top of 


the ridge between the waters of Middle Island and Fishing Creek until it 
gets opposite the mouth of Arnold's Creek, and thence running a direct 
line to the mouth of said creek; thence up the channel of said creek to the 
mouth of the first large run on the West Side thereof above where the 
State road crosses; thence up the said run to the top of the ridge, and 
thence to the most Easterly corner of the Wood County line. 

A good portion of this territory was afterwards included in Dodd- 
ridge County. 

Thus it will be seen that the present territory of Harrison has at vari- 
ous times been included in Orange, Augusta, District of West Augusta and 
Monongalia Counties. 

During the four years that Harrison Comity was included in Monon- 
galia, Courts were held at Morgantown, taxes collected, roads and mills es- 
tablished, suits brought and all legal jurisdiction exercised over it. 

In the year 1796 the Monongalia Court House was destroyed by fire 
with all the County records except those of the Surveyor's office, and all 
proceedings of the County Courts referring to the territory of Harrison 
were destroyed, which is much to be regretted. 


Land Laws. 

The first settlers in North Western Virginia located their homesteads 
and built their cabins on any land that suited them without troubling 
themselves about procuring a legal title to their lands from the King or 
Colonial Government. They had a rude custom known as the tomahawk 
right, which consisted of deadening trees near a spring and cutting names 
or initials on trees to indicate that a location of that particular tract had 
been made, and among themselves these rights were generally respected 
and often sold to others. But as emigration became more numerous it was 
seen that to prevent confusion and disputes as to owTiership of lands it 
was necessary to enact laws to secure to claimants the rightful possession 
of their homesteads and with this object in view several laws were passed, 
the substance of which are here given : 

An Act of the General Assembly passed October 1777, provided that 
all persons who on or before the 24th day of June 1776 had settled on the 
western waters should be allowed four hundred acres of land for every 

That any settler requiring a greater quantity of land should by paying 
the consideration money be entitled to the preemption of any greater 
quantity of land adjoining his settlement right not exceeding one thou- 
sand acres. 

In 1779 the homestead law was changed to require the settler to live 
one year on and raise a crop of com to entitle him to his four hundred 

In the above year an act was passed appointing a commission known 
as the "Commissioners of Unpatented Lands" who were authorized to 
hold sessions at various places in their respective districts and settle all 
disputes as to land entries and determine the right of all persons claiming 
any unappropriated lands and were required to grant certificates giving 
quantity and location of the tract with the cause of preemption and pat- 
ents were issued upon these certificates. 

In 1779 a land office was established at Richmond and all matters re- 
lating to land were transacted through the Register of the, land office. 

The purchase price of lands were fixed at forty pounds for every hun- 
dred acres. 

In 1819 the price of land warrants were fixed at two dollars per hun- 
dred acres and could be located upon any vacant land not claimed by an- 

This system led to many vexatious law suits, as sometimes several 
persons would locate upon the same tract, and it was many years before 
land titles were permanently settled. 


Cession of the North West Territory. 

Under the charter granted by King James, Virginia claimed that her 
territory extended across the continent to the Pacific Ocean. 

In the treaty of Paris in 1763 between Great Britain and France, the 
country west of the Mississippi River was conceded to France, this limited 
the Western boundary of the colony of Virginia to that river. 

After the war of the Revolution when the colonies had thrown off the 
yoke of Great Britain and Virginia had been organized into a separate 
State, it was realized by her public men that she could not exercise civil 
jurisdiction over such an immense territory and in the interests of all the 
states, and for the general good of the country proposed to grant all of her 
holdings North West of the River Ohio to the United States, subject to 
certain conditions set forth in the several acts of Assembly relative 

These acts were passed on January 2, 1781, December 20, 1783 and 
the deed of cession was made on March 1, 1784. 

The Acts of the United States Congress passed September 13, 1783, 
July 7, 1786 and July 13, 1787 accepted the cession of the said territory 
under conditions therein specified, which were ratified and approved by 
the Act of the General Assembly of Virginia passed December 30, 1788. 

The conditions of the compact required that the territory so ceded 
should be laid out and formed into not less than three nor more than five 
states, to be republican in form and to be admitted into the Federal Union 
on an equal footing with the original States in all respects whatsoever: 
That the inhabitants of the said territory shall have their possessions and 
titles confirmed to them and be protected in the enforcement of their rights 
and liberties. That a quantity not exceeding one hundred and fifty thou- 
sand acres of land promised by Virginia should be granted to General 
George Rogers Clark and to the officers and soldiers of his regiment, who 
marched with him when the post of Kaskaskies and St. Vincent were re- 
duced, and to the officers and soldiers that have been since incorporated 
into the said regiment. 

It was also provided that if the lands reserved by law on the East side 
of the Ohio River for the Virginia troops upon continental establishment 
prove insufficient for their legal bounties the deficiency should be made up 
to the said troops in good lands between the rivers Sciota and Little Mi- 
ami on the North West side of the River Ohio. 

The great States of Ohio, Indiana. Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan 
and part of Minnesota have since been carved out of the territory above 


The Mason and Dixon Line. 

A dispute having arisen as to the correct division line between the 
heirs of William Penn the proprietor of Pennsylvania, and those of Lord 
Baltimore, the proprietor of Maryland, two eminent surveyors from Lon- 
don, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon were sent out to establish the 
line between the two colonies in the summer of 1763. 

After various calculations and astronomical observations they deter- 
mined the starting point on the Delaware river, and thence with a circular 
line to the point where the States of Pennsylvania, Delaware and Mary- 
land now join and from thence ran the division line westward. 

The work was slowly continued from year to year until in 1767 the 
surveyors reached a point near Mount Morris, now in Greene County, 
Pennsylvania, where they were ordered to stop by the Indians, and work 
was not resumed again in the field for seventeen years. 

The intention of the commissioners was, after passing the Western 
limit of Maryland, to find the western boundary of Pennsylvania, five de- 
grees of longitude from the Delaware River. 

As long as the territory of the western country was a wilderness no 
attention was given to the boundary line between Pennsylvania and Vir- 
ginia, but when settlers began to locate in the country a bitter contro- 
versy arose as to what authority would exercise jurisdiction over the 

Augusta County, Virginia, claimed that South West Pennsylvania, 
including the site of Fort Pitt was in her boundary, which claim was de- 
nied by the latter colony. 

In the year 1774 Lord Dunmore, the Eoyal Governor of Virginia, di- 
rected a county court to be held for Augusta County at Fort Pitt, and the 
first Court was actually held there in February 1775 and proceeded to ex- 
ercise jurisdiction over the surrounding settlements. 

This was vigorously resisted by the Pennsylvania authorities and re- 
sulted in their being two sets of laws and two sets of officials to enforce 

The Virginia officers arrested and imprisoned the Pennsylvania offic- 
ers and the latter retaliated by doing likewise, and so intense did the con- 
troversy become that a resort to arms was imminent. 

But the breaking out of the war of the Revolution caused an end to 
the dispute and all parties agreed to sink their local differences and unite 
in a patriotic cause against the common enemy. 

When the war was drawing to a close and the two colonies had been 
elevated to the dignity of independent states it was amicably agreed that 
the Mason and Dixon line should be extended to the West. 


Commissioners were appointed and after many delays caused by hos- 
tile Indians, lack of rations and other difficulties incident to the wilder- 
ness, the long contest was at last satisfactorily adjusted as will be shown 
by the following official agreement: 

"Agreement of Commissioners for Southern and Western Boundary 
of Pennsylvania. 

Baltimore, 31st. August 1779. 
We, James Madison and Robert Andrews, commissioners for the 
State of Virginia and George Bryan, John Ewing and David Rittenhouse, 
commissioners for the State of Pennsylvania, do hereby mutually in behalf 
of our respective states ratify and coniirm the following agreement, viz: 

To extend Mason's and Dixon's line due West five degrees of longi- 
tude to be computed from the River Delaware for the Southern boundary 
of Pennsylvania, and that a meridian drawn from the Western extremity 
thereof to the northern limit of the said state be the western boundary of 
Pennsylvania forever. 

In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands this thirty-first 
day of August in the year of our Lord 1779. 

James Madison, George Bryan, 

Robert Andrews. John Ewing, 

David Rittenhouse. 

Pursuant to this agreement the commissioners of the two States as- 
sembled in 1784 at the point which the survey had been discontinued and 
extended the line to the termination of the said five degrees of longitude 
from the Delaware river, which marked the Southern boundary of the 
State of Pennsylvania. 

The line was marked by cutting a vista through the forest and at in- 
tervals planting posts marked with the letters P and V, each letter facing 
the State of which it was the initial. At the extremity of the line which 
was the South West Corner of Pennsylvania a square unlettered White 
Oak Post was planted around whose base there was raised a pile of stones. 

The advanced season of the year forced the commission to suspend 
operations until the following spring. The report of their operations is 
dated in Washington County, Pennsylvania, November 18, 1784 and is 
signed by John Ewing, David Rittenhouse, Thomas Hutchins, Robert An- 
drews and Andrew Ellicott. 

The following year 1785 the commissioners met at the South West 
corner of Pennsylvania and ran the line due North to the Ohio River thus 
establishing the line between Pennsylvania and the Pan Handle Counties 
of Virginia. 

This boundary line between the states mentioned took the name of the 
two original surveyors. Mason and Dixon, and in after years became fam- 
ous in the political history of the country, as being the dividing line be- 
tween the free and slave states. 


The Great Woods. 

In the Spring of the year the primitive forest of West Virginia was 
dotted with the bloom of many trees and bushes, which with the fresh 
green foliage added color and beauty to the landscape. 

There was to be seen the white bloom of the service trees along the 

The beautiful, large, sunflower-like blossoms of the dogwood ; the small 
feather-like bloom of the locust and the delicate one of the wild cherry; 
the large, beautiful, golden, vase-like blossom of the poplar or tulip tree; 
the long, featherly, light brown bloom of the chestnut tree ; the bright red 
Shumate and burning bush with its flaming blossoms; the crab apple with 
its crimson covering and delicate perfume ; and the different varieties of 
the Haw, all contributed to the attractive appearance of the mighty forest. 

On nature's vast sward which stretched beneath the great woods on 
the Bosom of Mother Earth were strewn along the streams, gentle bluffs 
and hillsides, many beautiful natural flowers more modest than their tall 
compatriots above them. 

There was the Wild Rose, Honeysuckle, Spring Beauty, May Apple, 
the Laurel, Johnny-jump-ups, Liver Leaf, Dandelion, Wind Flower, Vio- 
lets, Pinks. Sweet William, Trailing Arbutus, Jack in the Pulpit, Lady 
Slippers, the Alder and many others of different colors and perfume, all 
adding their mite to beautify and adorn this many colored carpet of 
nature's own weaving. 

In the fall of the year the great unbroken limitless forest presented a 
gorgeous array in its autumnal hues. 

As far as the human vision could extend stretching out across hill 
and dale, mountain and plain, brilliant in its bright coloring of green, 
brown scarlet and gold would be spread this most beautiful of nature's 
mantles rivaling the tinted colors of the rainbow itself in its glorious 

The fruit and nuts that grew naturally in the Monongahela Valley 
and surrounding territory were quite numerous and valuable. 

The first fruit which ripened in the woods was the wild strawberry. 
It grew on poor land in open spaces bare of timber. The berry was small 
and more acid than the cultivated variety. It was not abundant in any 

The service tree was the first to bloom in the early Spring. The ber- 
ries ripened in June, were red, small and of a very agreeable flavor. They 
generally grew along water courses. Birds were very fond of them and 
got most of the crop. 


Blackberries grew in places where trees had blown down sufficient to 
create small openings in the forest and permit the sun to enter. 

Wild raspberries were not very abundant but were of an agreeable 

Elder berries grew in open places and clearings and were used by 

Gooseberries of an agreeable flavor were small and not plentiful. 

Huckleberries grew in patches on the hills and poor ridges. 

Plums were quite abundant and grew on rich land and were of differ- 
ent sizes and colors, and of good flavor. 

Mulberries grew quite plentifully and were much sought after by 
both man and the birds. 

Grapes were in abundance and of different varieties, the best being 
known as Fall grapes and grew in coves and the high slopes of the Hills. 

Black haws grew on large bushes along the streams and were very 
sweet and much loved by children. There were also red and sugar haws. 

Wild cherries were abundant in many places. 

Pawpaws were plentiful but were not generally used. 

Persimons after several frosts, were considered a delicacy, a kind 
of beer was made from them. They were the favorite fruit of the possum. 

The crab apple was very abundant and the tree was noted for the 
beauty and fragrance of its bloom. 

The fruit was universally used by the early settlers. 

There was also a great variety of nuts and in abundance. Such as 
the hickory nuts, black walnuts, white walnuts, (butternuts) hazelnuts, 
chesnuts, beechnuts and acorns. 

All of these were of use to the settlers by being eaten by them or 
their domestic animals and fowls. 

The sugar tree, by the sugar it produced in the Spring, contributed 
much to the comfort of the inhabitants. 

Ginseng, which grew in the woods, was gathered and shipped East 
when roads were opened, and became quite a profitable article of 

Thus it will be seen that Providence had provided for the country 
west of the mountains a great variety of fruits, nuts and plants for hu- 
man use, perhaps not excelled by any other part of the continent. 


Native Animals and Birds. 

The Tinbroken forest which originally covered what is now "West Vir- 
ginia was inhabited by numerous wild animals, which have almost entirely 

Among them, first in size was the buffalo. These did not exist in great 
numbers as forage for them was not very abundant. Their principal food 
in the summer was a plant known as the pea vine, the leaves and sprouts 
of trees. In the winter they had to depend on moss and the small limbs 
of trees and bushes known as "browse." This was very light provender 
for an animal of the size of a buffalo and in the Spring of the year they 
must have been very weak and thin. 

The last one known to have been killed in what was once Harrison 
County territory, was in 1825 in Randolph County. 

The Elk, the most stately and lordly resident of the forest, was not 
very numerous, and the last one killed in Randolph was in 1843. 

Deer and bear were very numerous, and contributed largely to the 
support of the settlers. A few of them still live in the Allegheny moun- 

Panthers were in small numbers, but wild cats were quite numerous, 
the latter giving much annoyance in the destruction of pigs and poultry. 

"Wolves were numerous and were by far the most ferocious and de- 
structive animals in the forest. 

Sheep, pigs and calves were destroyed by them in great numbers. 
They were hunted, trapped and a price set upon their heads, but they 
were very cunning and hard to trap. 

The last one killed is said to have been in Randolph County in 1897. 

It is said that the disease of hydrophobia was the principal cause of 
their rapid extinction. 

The grey fox, the black and grey squirrel, the raccoon, ground hogs, 
minks and muskrats were natives and quite numerous. 

Squirrels at times would become very plentiful, threatening the de- 
struction of the com crop, when suddenly as if by common consent they 
would commence traveling towards the East, swimming the rivers that 
crossed their path in countless numbers and disappearing in the woods. 

After this emigration they would be scarce for years, then multiply, 
emigrate and perish as before. 

Beavers were found in small numbers ; otter were more numerous and 
they were much trapped for their furs, which were valuable. 


Of animals, not natives West of the mountains, but who followed the 
white man, as he traveled to the waters of the Ohio, were the red fox, pos- 
sums, rats and mice. 

The red fox was brought from England into Virginia at an early day 
for the purpose of hunting him with hounds. 

Of the fowls of the air, the buzzards or vultures, grey eagles, bald 
eagles, ravens, wood peckers, hawks, wild turkeys, wild pigeons and pheas- 
ants were here in great numbers. Wild geese and ducks were here only 
on their migrations in the spring and fall. The wood duck raised its young 
in hollow trees but went south in the winter. 

It was no uncommon thing to see flocks of buzzards numbering fifty 
or one hundred perched on trees over the carcass of a deer or domestic 

The crow, blackbird, song birds and the quail were not natives here, 
but followed the trail of the white man as he cleared out the forest. 

The honey bee moved along generally a little ahead of the settler and 
his presence was considered by the Indian as a harbinger of the coming of 
the whites. 

Rattlesnakes and copper heads were plentiful and very much dread- 
ed. Gnats, gad flies and other winged insects were the pests of the coun- 
try to both man and beast. While they were prevalent, cattle grew poor 
and cows gave less milk. Frequently fires would be built while outdoor 
work was being done as the smoke kept them at a distance. 

The little book in the County Clerk's office entitled ''Record of Wolf 
Heads" shows that from the organization of the County a bounty of 
twelve shillings and six pence was paid for killing an old wolf and six 
shillings and three pence for killing a young one. 

In the year 1800 the monetary system of pounds, shilling and pence 
was changed to that of dollars and cents, and two dollars were paid for 
killing an old wolf, and one dollar for a young one. 

In 1802 the bounty was increased to six dollars for an old, and three 
dollars for a young wolf, and the last entry made in the record book July 
8, 1805, shows that that sum was still paid. 

The person killing a wolf either cut off its head or took the scalp, 
which included both ears, proved his claim and received a certificate from 
the County Court for the amount of the bounty. 

The Legislature of the Colony authorized the payment of one hundr.jd 
poTmds of tobacco for each old wolf killed, and Counties were allowed to 
commute their tobacco dues by the payment of twelve shillings and six 
pence in money, which thus became the bounty for killing wolves. 

The first certificate for bounty for killing an old wolf was issued 
January 21, 1785 to John Hannaman for twelve shillings, six pence. 

For the year ending in October 1796 the County paid for 

Wolf bounties 15 pounds 6s. 3d. 

For the year ending October 1798 18 pounds 15s. Od. 

For the year ending October 1799 13 pounds 14s. Od. 


The certificates granted by the County Court were forwarded to the 
Auditor at Richmond for settlement and were often taken by members 
of the Legislature as will be shown by the following receipt : 

"Received of Benj. Wilson, Clerk of Harrison, a list of wolf claims 
for the years 1802, 1803, 1804, 1805 and 1806, in pursuance of an order of 
the said Harrison County Court made in October 1806, for the purpose of 
drawing the money on sd. claims, which we are to pay to the future or- 
der of sd. Court, or in case we do not draw the money, to return the Au- 
ditor's "Warrant for the claims or the list. 

Witness our hands and seals 19th. Nov. 1806. The list amounts to 
399 dollars. 

John Prunty. [seal.] 

Elias Lowthee. [seal.] 


Life of the Settlers, Houses, Weddings, 
Amusements and Diseases. 

The settler iisually arrived bringing all his worldly goods upon pack 
horses, and selected a site for his cabin, near a Spring. For this reason 
most of the houses in West Virginia are located in a hollow or on low 
ground. He would then fell trees and cut them into logs to build the 
cabin, and split clapboards with which to cover it. His neighbors, if he 
had any, would be notified that on a certain day he would have a "rais- 
ing. ' ' The neighbors would turn out on that day to lend a helping hand 
to the new comer, and the logs would rapidly be placed in position, one on 
the top of the other in the form of a pen, notched at each end in order to 
fit closely. The opening between the logs was filled with split sticks and 
then plastered with wet clay. This was called "chinking and daubing." 

The roof was of clapboards held in place by heavy poles laid on top 
and pinned down at the ends. 

The door was made of "puncheons" split from logs and swinging on 
wooden hinges. The floor was of split logs, with the hewn side up and 
fastened down by wooden pins, driven through holes at the ends into 
sleepers. Openings were left for windows, which were sometimes covered 
with greased paper to let in the light. Small spaces were left here and 
there for loop holes. 

A doorway was cut through one of the walls and split pieces of wood 
called door cheeks reaching from the top to the bottom of the opening 
were pinned with wooden pins to the ends of the logs. 

A wooden latch was placed inside the door. To this was attached a 
leather string, which ran through a hole in the door above the latch. By 
pulling on this string from the outside the latch would be raised and ad- 
mittance gained. By pulling the string in to the inside the door could not 
be opened from the outside, and was considered locked. 

At one end would be built a chimney and the flue would be carried up 
to the top of the cabin by small sticks placed one above the other with 
clay between and plastered heavily inside with clay, called "cat and clay" 
and would last for many years without burning, the chimney being a crib 
of logs lined with flat stones, and a stone hearth. 

The whole house was often completed without the use of a nail, the 
axe and the auger being about all the implements used in its construction. 
Expert axmen took great pride in their work, and it is wonderful how 
smooth and close fitting the floor of a cabin could be made by this tool 

The furniture of the cabin was of the rudest character, wooden blocks 


witli legs inserted answered for chairs. The table was two or three slabs 
fastened on pieces fastened to the wall and supported at the other end by 
wooden legs. 

Wooden platters and bowls were much in use and pewter plates and 
spoons were considered unusually elegant. The bedsteads were simply 
poles held up by forked sticks at one end and the other end by the wall, 
and sticks laid across on which to lay the skins and blankets. 

Over the doorway was hung the rifle on two dogwood forks, just as 
cut from the bush, and pinned to the wall. 

At night the cabin was lit from the wood fire supplemented by dip 
tallow candles and a lamp made of a gourd filled with lard, in which was 
placed a twisted rag wick. In some localities pine knots were used. The 
cooking utensils were iron pots, frying pan and a dutch oven. 

After completing a shelter for his family the first thing to be done 
was to clear out ground for a com crop, for on corn bread and game from 
the woods, depended the lives of the pioneers. 

Such was the rude home of the pioneer, which in time was generally 
followed by a hewn log house much more pretentious and comfortable 
than the first one. 

It was not until portable saw mills were introduced a few years be- 
fore the civil war that frame or wooden buildings came generally into use, 
but in the thinly settled regions of the State log houses are still in use. 

Dress of the First Settlers. 

The hunting shirt was universally worn. This was a kind of loose 
frock coat, reaching half way down the thighs, open in front and made so 
wide as to lap over a foot or more when belted. The sleeves were large. 
The cape was large and fell down over the shoulders and was often hand- 
somely fringed with a ravelled piece of cloth of a different color from that 
of the hunting shirt. The bosom of this dress served as a wallet to hold 
provisions or other necessary articles. The belt, which was always tied be- 
hind answered several purposes besides that of holding the dress together. 
In cold weather the mittens and some times the bullet bag occupied the 
front part of it. To the right side was suspended the tomahawk and to 
the left the hunting knife in its leathern sheath. 

The hunting shirt was generally made of linsey, sometimes of coarse 
linen and occasionally of dressed deer skins, these last were very cold and 
uncomfortable in wet weather. 

The shirt and jacket were of the common fashion. A pair of drawers 
or breeches and leggins were the dress of the thighs and legs, a pair of 
moccasins made of dressed deer skins covered the feet. In cold weather 
the moccasin was stuffed with deer's hair or dried leaves so as to keep the 
feet warm, but in wet weather it was generally said that wearing them 
was a "decent way of going barefooted." 

Owing to the spongy texture of the leather of which they were made 
they were no protection from dampness or rain, and it is owing to this 
cause that so many of the early settlers were afflicted with rheumatism. 


To prevent this disease as much as possible it was their custom to sleep 
with their feet next the fire. 

In the latter years of the Indian wars some of the young men affected 
some portions of the Indian dress, which did not meet with the approval 
of the female population. 

The women of the country dressed in dresses of linsey and petticoats 
of plain material. They also wore coarse shoes and moccasins and sun- 

They wore no watches, bracelets, chains, rings or diamonds, nor decor- 
ated their heads with ribbons and huge ill-shaped hats and bird feathers 
such as their fair descendants now adorn themselves with. 

Many of them were pretty well grown up before they ever saw the in- 
side of a store room, or knew what one was except by heresay. Instead of 
spending much of their time in primping and ornamenting themselves, 
they had to handle the distaff or shuttle, the sickle or weeding hoe in order 
to help the head of the family make both ends meet. 

Life of the Settlers. 

Dr. Joseph Doddridge in his most valuable book, relating to the set- 
tlement of Western Pennsylvania says : 

''Land was the object which invited the great number of settlers to 
cross the mountains for as the saying then was, "It was to be had for the 
taking up." 

''Some of the early settlers took the precaution to come over the 
mountains alone in the spring, and after raising a crop of corn, return 
and bring their families out in the fall. This I should think was the bet- 
ter way. Others, whose families were small, brought them with them in 
the Spring. My father took the latter course. His family was but small 
and he brought them all with him. The Indian meal which he brought over 
the mountains was expended six weeks too soon, so for that length of time 
we had to live without bread. The lean venison and the breast of the wild 
turkey we were taught to call bread. The flesh of the bear was de- 
nominated meat. This artifice did not succeed very well, after living this 
way for some time we became sickly, the stomach seemed to be always 
empty and tormented with a sense of hunger. 

I remember how narrowly the children watched the growth of the po- 
tato tops, pumpkin and squash vines hoping from day to day to get some- 
thing to answer in the place of bread. How delicious was the taste of the 
young potatoes when we got them. "What a jubilee when we were permit- 
ted to pull the young corn for roasting ears. Still more so when it 
acquired sufficient hardness to be made into "Johnny Cakes" by the aid 
of a tin grater. We then became healthy, vigorous and contented with 
our situation, poor as it was. 

Most of the early settlers considered their lands of little value from 
an apprehension that after a few years cultivation it would lose its fer- 
tility, at least for a long time. I have often heard them say that such a 
field would bear so many crops and another so many, more or less than 
that. The ground of this belief concerning the short lived fertility of the 


land in this country, was the poverty of a great proportion of the land in 
the lower parts of Maryland and Virginia, which after producing a few 
crops, became unfit for use and was thrown out into commons. 

In this unfavorable opinion of the nature of the soil of our country 
our fore fathers were utterly mistaken. The native weeds were scarcely 
destroyed before the white clover and different kinds of grass made their 
appearance. These soon covered the ground so as to afford pasture for the 
cattle by the time the wood range was eaten out as well as protect the 
soil from being washed away by drenching rains so often injured in hilly 

The settlements composed a self supporting community nearly every 
thing in use was made at home. The great want was salt, iron and am- 
munition. To get these the only commodity to exchange for them were 
furs and skins which were taken East of the mountains on pack horses. 

As the population increased and roads were opened for wagons, other 
articles such as hides, linen from flax, linsey, butter, honey, beeswax, 
ginseng and snake root were shipped. Later cattle and hogs were driven 
to the sea coast. 

Nearly everything in use was made at home. One man writing in 1787 
from East of the mountains where conditions were better than West of 
them, says : " I never spent more than ten dollars a year which was for 
salt, nails and the like. Nothing to eat, drink or wear was bought, as my 
farm produced all." 

Every man and woman was a jack of all trades. A fine example of 
development in this line is given of a pioneer in Western New York, who 
was a farmer, hunter, trapper, road builder, tailor, shoemaker, lumberman, 
butcher, hatter, blacksmith, brick-layer, teacher, lawyer and Justice of the 

There was but little trouble in procuring meat, as game abounded in 
the forest and fish in the streams, but the great difficulty was bread, and 
often there was none to be had until the com crop came in. 

Hand graters were used to make meal, and mush and milk was one 
of the substantial dishes. 

Indian corn was a great factor in the settlement of Western Virginia. 
It came early and could be used as food in many different ways. Hand 
mills consisting of two dressed mill stones set on a section of a tree and 
turned by hand were in use until tub mills run by water were introduced. 
Every house had a hominy block. 

Cattle got fat in the summer by ranging in the woods, the pea vine 
being their principal food. In the winter they ate a kind of moss and 
browsed on the limbs of trees, such as the linn, maple and beech. 

Com could be eaten as roasting ears, made into bread, hominy pone, 
cakes, mush, succatash, manufactured into whiskey, and used as currency 
for carrying on local trade and also as food for animals. 

Besides, the corn shuckings where the settlers would gather at each 
others houses to husk their com crops, were occasions of feasting, dancing 
and social enjoyment. 

The owner of the crop would pull the ears from the stalks and haul 


them to an open place near his home and put them in a long low pile. In 
husking the shuck was thrown back and the ear forward. The man who 
husked a red ear was entitled to kiss the prettiest girl present. 

The principal crops of the early settlers were com, flax and potatoes. 
Flax was spun and woven into a coarse linen cloth by hand for shirting 
and other wear. 

Sheep were almost indispensible on account of their wool, but were 
very hard to keep on account of the depredation of wolves. 

"Wool was carded by hand and spun into yarn on the spinning wheel 
and woven into a cloth called linsey and made into hunting shirts, 
trousers, and dresses for the women. 

Dyes were obtained from the bark of the butternut, red oak and 
other barks and berries. Spoons were made by pouring melted pewter in- 
to copper moulds. Candles were made from melted tallow run into tin 
moulds. Fire was obtained from flint, steel and punk, a kind of sponge 
like substance obtained from trees. Soap was made from grease. 

Tea and coffee were luxuries and almost unknown. Sugar was made 
from maple trees. Herbs and sassafras bark were sometimes used for tea, 
and parched rye as a substitute for coffee. 

Many articles now deemed necessary for comfortable living were un- 
known for a great many years after the settlement of the County, such as 
cooking stoves, matches, lamps, sewing machines, overshoes, umbrellas, 
buggies, corn planters, reapers, mowers, movable threshing machines, 
grain drills, horse rakes, breech loading guns, percussion caps and port- 
able saw mills. 

Grain was sowed by hand, cut with the sickle and beaten out with the 
flail or trodden out by horses. 

The settlement of a new country in the vicinity of an old one is not 
attended with much difficulty as supplies can readily be obtained from the 
latter but the settlement of a land remote from a cultivated region or 
separated by mountain ranges is very different, because at the outset be- 
fore crops can be raised by the new settler, food, clothes, salt, iron and 
household furniture can only be obtained in small supplies and with great 
labor and difficulty. 

The making of a new settlement in a remote wilderness in a time of 
peace is no light undertaking, but to this when are added those difficulties 
resulting from a warfare with cruel, brutal savages, who show no mercy 
and have no pity, the toils, anxiety, privations and sufferings tax the 
capacity of the human race to the utmost of their endurance. 

If the situation saddled hardships and responsibilities upon the men 
what must have been the burdens borne by the women in the wilderness? 
Cut off from their parents and the friends of their childhood with no 
mails or means of communicating with them, often with scanty clothing 
and without nourishing food, with no diversions save the dull drudgery of 
household duties in their cold uncomfortable log cabins, and besides this 
there was the constant anxiety for the fate of the husband engaged in 
warfare with the savages and not knowing what moment a terrible fate 
would befall herself and little children. 

Many wilted, like broken flowers in the sun, and died in their young 


womanhood, miable to bear the hardships, privations and terrors incident 
to a life in the wilderness. Others bore up bravely until the end. It was 
a time that tried the souls of men and broke the hearts of women. 

All honor to these noble women who so loyally and patiently did their 
part in reclaiming a savage land. They could say to their husbands in 
the beautiful language of Ruth: "Whither thou goest I will go, and where 
thou lodgest I will lodge, and where thou diest will I die and there will I 
be buried." 

The table furniture at the early settlement of the country consisted 
of a few pewter dishes, plates and spoons, but mostly of wooden bowls, 
trenchers and small wooden mugs, called noggins, gourds and hard shelled 
squashes for drinking vessels. The iron pots, knives and forks were 
brought from the East side of the mountains along with salt, iron and am- 
munition, on pack horses. 

Hog and hominy was one of the substantial dishes of the times and 
Johnny cake, and pDne of com meal were the only kind of bread used for 
breakfast and dinner. At supper, mush and milk was the standing dish. 

Mush was frequently eaten with sweetened water, maple mo- 
lasses, bear's grease or the gravy of fried meat. 

Every cabin had near it a truck patch in which was raised com for 
roasting ears, pumpkins, beans, squashes and potatoes. These in the latter 
part of the summer and early fall were cooked with pork, venison and 
bear meat, which made very wholesome dishes. The standing dinner dish 
for every log rolling, house raising, and harvest day, was a pot pie. 

Dr. Joseph Doddridge was sent from his home in the Western part of 
Pennsylvania to school in Maryland when a boy, and thus describes his 
impressions when taking a meal at the town of Bedford, in a stone tavern 
with plastered walls and ceiling: 

"On going into the dining room I was struck with astonishment at the 
appearance of the house. I had no idea that there was any house in the 
world which was not built of logs, but here I looked around the house and 
could see no logs, and above and I could see no joists. Whether such a 
thing had been made by the hands of men or had grown so of itself I 
could not conjecture. I had not the courage to inquire anything about it. 
When supper came on, my confusion was worse confounded. A little cup 
stood in a bigger one with some brownish stuff in it which was neither 
milk, hominy or broth. What to do with these little cups and the spoon 
belonging to them, I could not tell, and I was afraid to ask anything con- 
cerning the use of them. I therefore watched attentively to see what the 
big folks would do with their little cups and spoons. I imitated them, and 
found the taste of the coffee nauseous beyond anything I ever had tasted 
in my life. I continued to drink, as the rest of the company did, with the 
tears streaming from my eyes, but when it was to end, I was at a loss to 
know, as the little cups were filled immediately after being emptied. This 
circumstance distressed me very much, as I durst not say I had enough. 
Looking attentively at the grown persons I saw one man turn his little 
cup bottom upwards and put his little spoon across it. I observed that 
after this his cup was not filled again. I followed his example and to my 
great satisfaction the result as to my cup was the same." 


The introduction of china ware on the tables was not regarded by the 
pioneers with much favor as it was too easily broken and dulled their 
hunting knives. Tea ware was too small for men they might do for 
women, children or the sick. Tea and coffee were regarded by many as 
only slops, which did not ''stick to the ribs." 


All the world loves a lover, and a wedding in the early years of Har- 
rison County attracted the attention of the entire neighborhood old and 
young. This was not to be wondered at as a wedding was almost the only 
gathering which was not accompanied with the labor of log rolling, build- 
ing a cabin or going on a scouting expedition or campaign. 

Dr. Doddridge gives the following account of the proceedings: "On 
the morning of the wedding the groom and his friends met at the house of 
his father and made preparations to escort him to the house of the bride. 
Let the reader imagine an assemblage of people without a store, tailor or 
dressmaker within two hundred miles, and a company of horses without a 
blacksmith or saddler within an equal distance. The men dressed in shoe 
packs, moccasins, leather breeches, leggins, linsey hunting shirts, and all 
home made. The ladies dressed in linsey petticoats and linsey or linen 
bed gowns, coarse shoes, stockings, handerchiefs and buckskin gloves if 
any. If there were any buckles, rings, buttons, laces, ruffles or flounces 
they were relics of old times East of the mountains, family ornaments 
from parents or grandparents. The horses were equipped with old sad- 
dles, bridles or halters or pack saddles with a bag or blanket thrown over 
them and fastened with a girth, rope string or a piece of leather. 

All being in readiness the procession started to the home of the bride, 
the order of march was in double file and was often interrupted by the 
narrowness of the trail through the woods as there were no roads, and 
sometimes by grape vines being tied across the path either as a joke or to 
show the ill will of some neighbor. 

"Another ceremony commonly took place before the party reached the 
home of the bride, after the practice of making whiskey began which was at 
an early period, when the party was about a mile from the place of their 
destination two young men and sometimes a woman, would be singled out to 
run for the bottle; the worse the path, the more logs, brush and deep 
hollows the better as these obstacles afforded an opportunity for the 
greater display of intrepidity and horsemanship. The English fox chase 
in point of danger to the riders is nothing to this race for the bottle. The 
start was announced by an Indian yell : logs, brush, muddy hollows, hill 
and glen were speedily passed by the rival parties. The bottle was always 
filled for the occasion so that there was no use for Judges, for the first 
who reached the door was presented with the prize with which he returned 
in triumph to the Company. On approaching them he announced his vic- 
tory by a shrill whoop. At the head of the troop he gave the bottle first 
to the groom and his attendants and then to each pair in succession to the 
rear of the line, giving each a dram, and then putting the bottle in the 
bosom of his hunting shirt took his station in the Company. 


The ceremony of the marriage preceded the dinner, which was a sub- 
stantial backwoods feast of beef, pork, fowls and sometimes venison and 
bear meat roasted and boiled, with plenty of potatoes, cabbage and other 
vegetables. During the dinner the greatest hilarity always prevailed al- 
though the table might be a large slab of timber hewed out with a broad- 
axe supported by four sticks set in auger holes, and the furniture some 
old pewter dishes and plates, a few pewter spoons much battered about the 
edges were to be seen at some tables, the rest were made of horns. If 
knives were scarce the deficiency was made up by the hunting knives which 
were carried in sheaths suspended to the belt of the hunting shirt. 

After dinner the dancing commenced and generally lasted until morn- 
ing. The figures of the dances were three and four handed reels or square 
sets and jigs. The commencement was always a square four, which was 
followed by what was called "jigging it off," that is two of the four 
would single out for a jig and were followed by the remaining couple. 
The jigs were often followed by what was called cutting 
out; that is when either of the parties became tired of the dance, on inti- 
mation the place was supplied by some one of the Company without any 
interruption of the dance. In this way a dance was often continued till 
the musician was heartily tired of his situation. Towards the latter part 
of the night if any of the company through weariness attempted to conceal 
themselves for the purpose of sleeping they were hunted up, paraded on 
the floor and the fiddler ordered to play "Hang on until tomorrow morn- 

During the festivities of the evening the bottle which was known as 
"Black Betty" was frequently passed and freely partaken of. 

The Infair was an entertainment held at the house of the Groom's 
father on the day after the wedding, and the order of the procession and 
the race for "Black Betty" the same as before. 

The feasting and dancing frequently lasted for several days, at the 
end of which, the whole company were so exhausted with loss of sleep 
that several days rest were requisite to fit them to return to their ordinary 

It sometimes happened that some neighbors or relations, who were 
not invited to the wedding took offense and out of revenge for the supposed 
slight would clip the manes and tails of the horses of the Company during 
the night. 

The race for "Black Betty" was sometimes participated in by the 
young women of the Company. The writer recalls that a Clarksburg 
lady recounted to her grandchildren the details of an exciting race she 
took part in when she was a young girl "Way down in old "Mongahale" 
when she triumphantly won the bottle over all her men competitors. 

Bread Stuffs. 

The hominy block and hand mills were in use in almost every house- 
hold of the early settlers. The first was made of a large block of wood 
about three feet long with a bowl shaped excavation scooped out of one 
end, generally by fire, wider at the top than at the bottom, so that the 


action of the pestle on the bottom threw the com up to the sides towards 
the top of it from whence it continually fell down into the center. In con- 
sequence of this movement the whole mass of the grain was pretty equally 
subjected to the strokes of the pestle. In the fall of the year when the 
Indian corn was soft, the block and pestle did very well for making meal 
for Johnny cakes and mush, but the work was rather slow when the com 
became hard. 

A machine still more simple than the mortar and pestle was used f ormak- 
ing meal while the corn was too soft to be beaten. It was simply a grater 
made of a piece of perforated tin or sheet iron nailed on to a block of wood, 
the ear of corn was rubbed on the rough edges of the holes while the meal 
fell through them on the block to which the grater was nailed, and being 
held in a slanting position the meal was discharged into a vessel placed for 
its reception. 

The hand mill was better than the mortar and grater. It was made 
of two circular stones, the lowest of which was called the bed stone, the 
upper one the runner. These were placed in a hoop with a spout for dis- 
charging the meal. A staff was let into a hole in the upper surface of the 
runner near the outer edge and its upper end placed through a hole in a 
board or cross piece over-head. The grain was poured into the opening in 
the runner by hand and the operator would take hold of the upright staff 
and by a circular movement the upper stone or runner would revolve, thus 
crushing the grain between the two stones. 

The first water mills were knowTi as tub mills, and consisted of a per- 
pendicular shaft to the lower end of which a horizontal wheel of four or 
five feet in diameter was attached, the upper end passing through the bed 
stone and carrying the runner after the manner of a trundle head. These 
mills were built with very little expense, and answered their purpose quite 

Instead of bolting cloths sifters were in general use. These were made 
of deer skins in the state of parchment, stretched over a hoop and per- 
forated with a hot wire. 


The pioneers suffered from the diseases incident to a new country. 

The children were afflicted with the flux and croup and great num- 
bers of them died from these complaints. 

The adults were subject to rheumatism, coughs and colds, which often 
developed into pulmonary troubles, fevers and pleurisy. 

The remedies for these complaints were many and various consisting 
of teas made from plants, bark and roots, poultices for burns, and gun 
shot wounds, were made of elm bark, scraped potatoes and plants. Snake 
bites were treated by a decoction of white plantain boiled in milk taken 
internally and by sucking the wound, applying to it salt and gun powder 
and binding a portion of the snake to the wound. There were no doctors 
in the country and all the medicines used were simple remedies gathered 
from the forest. 


Many died from very simple disorders or injuries that could easily 
have been cured by a modern physician, but on the other hand many 
serious cases of illness and wounds recovered without medical treatment. 


As the Indian method of warfare was an indiscriminate slaughter of 
all ages and sexes it was necessary for the settlers to provide for the safe- 
ty of the women and children as well as for the men, and each neighbor- 
hood generally combined together and built rude log structures called 
forts, in which they could take refuge when warned by the scouts that 
Indians were approaching the settlements. 

The regularly constructed forts were rectangular in shape the outside 
walls being in part of cabins joined to each other by a stockade, which was 
composed of strong logs set on end firmly in the ground in contact with 
each other. The outer wall of these cabins were from ten to twelve feet 
high and the roofs sloping inward. The doors of the cabins opened into a 
common square or Court. Blockhouses or bastions were sometimes erect- 
ed at two or more corners of the fort and projected beyond the cabins and 
stockade, so as to sweep the outside walls. 

A large folding gate made of thick slabs nearest the spring closed the 
fort. The cabin, walls and gates were pierced with port holes at proper 
heights and distances and the whole structure made bullet proof. 

The block house was a square two story log structure, with port holes 
both above and below. 

The walls of the upper story projected on all sides about two feet 
over those of the lower story, thus leaving an open place through which 
the inmates could fire from above and downward upon an enemy, at- 
tempting to force the heavy slab doors or to climb or set fire to the walls. 

In some less exposed locality the cabins would be surrounded by a 
stockade enclosing them in a square. These were called stockades but 
generally the name of fort was applied to all of these different places of 

The families belonging to these forts were so attached to their own 
cabins on their clearings that they seldom moved into their fort in the 
spring until compelled by some alarm as they called it; that is when it 
was announced by some murder that the Indians were raiding the 

Dr. Doddridge says that the Fort to which his father belonged was 
during the first years of the war three-quarters of a mile from his cabin. 
He says: "I well remember that, when a little boy, the family were some- 
times waked up in the dead of night by an express rider with a report that 
the Indians were at hand. My father seized his gun and other implements 
of war. My step-mother waked up and dressing the children as well as 
she could, and being myself the oldest, I had to take my share of the bur- 
dens to be carried to the fort. There was no possibility of getting a horse 
to aid us in removing to the fort. Besides the little children we caught 
up what articles of clothing and provisions we could get hold of in the 
dark for we durst not light a candle or stir the fire. 


All this was done with the utmost dispatch and with the silence of 
death. The greatest care was taken not waken the youngest child, as for 
the older ones it was enough to say "Indian" and not a whimper was 
heard afterwards. 

Thus it often happened that the whole number of families belonging 
to a fort who were in the evenings at their homes, were all in their little 
fortress before the dsiWD. of the next morning. 

In the course of the succeeding day their household furniture was 
brought in by parties of the men under arms. 

All of these works were built without the use of a nail, spike or any 
other piece of iron for the simple reason that such articles were not to be 

Such places of refuge seem very trifling in a military point of view, 
but they answered the purpose in a frontier war as the Indians had no 

The Indians rarely made an attack on one of these rude fortresses and 
seldom captured one of them when a determined resistance was made. But 
at times the forest diplomats have lulled the garrison of one of them to a 
sense of false security to surrender under promises of protection, which 
was no sooner done than an indiscriminate slaughter was at once begun. 


The following is a list of the forts or places of defense built by the 
settlers in what was originally Harrison County between the years 1774 
and 1795 : 


This fort stood on the Ohio River below Parkersburg on the site of the 
present village of Belleville, Wood County. It was built in 1785 and 1786 
by Captain Joseph "Wood and was considered a strong place of defense. 

Buckhannon Fort. 

Buckhannon fort stood on or near the site of the town of Buckhannon 
and when the settlement was abandoned by the whites, it was burnt by 
Indians in 1782. The renegade Timothy Dorman being with this party. 

Bushes Fort. 

This was situated on the Buckhannon River one and a half miles 
North East of the Upshur County Court House on land first settled by 
John Hacker and near where is now the Heavener Cemetery. 

Currence Fort. 

A small fort in the upper part of Tygart's Valley, a half mile east of 
the present village of Crickard in Randolph County. It has sometimes 
been called Cassino's Fort. 


Coon's Fort. 

This fort was situated on Coon's Run near the West Fork River be- 
low the town of Shinnston and now in Marion County. 

Edward's Fort. 

This was a small place of defense built in Booth's Creek District, now 
in Taylor County. 

Harbert's Block House. 

Was situated on Jones Run in Eagle District. 

Hadden's Fort. 

Was in Tygart's Valley at the mouth of Elk Water, Randolph 

Jackson's Block House. 

Was situated on Ten Mile Creek in Sardis District, exact location not 

Minear's Fort. 

This fort was located on Cheat River at the present site of St. George, 
Tucker County, and was built by John Minear, in 1776. 

Neal's Station. 

Was situated on the South side of the Little Kanawha River about 
one mile from its mouth in the Ohio River, now in Wood County. It was 
built by Captain James Neale, and was a prominent place of defense in 
the Indian Wars. 

Flinn's Fort. 

Was situated on the Ohio River at the mouth of the Lee Creek, Harris 
District, Wood County. 

Nutter's Fort. 

This was located on the Southern Bank of Elk Creek two miles from 
Clarksburg on the Buckhannon road on the Land of Thomas Nutter. It 
bore a prominent part in the defense of the County, and was a house of 
refuge for settlers fleeing from a savage foe for many miles around. 


Power's Fort. 

Was on Simpson's Creek, Harrison Comity, below Bridgeport and 
was built by John Powers. 

Richard's Fort. 

This was near the mouth of Sycamore Creek, six miles from Clarks- 
burg on the land of Jacob Eichards. 

Westfall's Fort. 

This was a large house enclosed in a stockade, and was built by Jacob 
Westfall about a quarter of a mile South of Beverly, about the commence- 
ment of Dunmore's War. 

West's Fort. 

This fort was on Hacker's Creek near the present town of Jane Lew 
in Lewis County, and was in a locality that suffered more from Indian 
raids than any other portion of the Virginia frontier. 

Wilson's Fort. 

Was built by Colonel Benjamin Wilson in Tygart's Valley now Ran- 
dolph County near the mouth of Chenowith Creek, between Beverly and 
Elkins and bore a prominent part in the Indian wars. 

In addition to the forts mentioned on the East Bank of the Ohio Riv- 
er in Harrison County, the United States Government built Fort Harmer 
at the mouth of the Muskingum, now Marietta in 1786, and a fort built 
by the settlers at Belpre, opposite Parkersburg in 1789 called Farmer's 
Castle, gave additional security to the frontier. 


Climate and Natural Phenomena. 

According to Dr. Doddridge great changes have taken place in the 
climatic conditions since the settlement of the Western country yet the 
changes have been so gradual that it is not easy to recollect or describe 
them. When the country was first occupied the summers were much cool- 
er than they are at present, for many years there was scarcely ever a 
warm night during the entire summer. The evenings were cool and the 
mornings were frequently uncomfortably cold. 

The coldness of the nights was owing to the deep shade of the lofty 
forest trees, which everywhere covered the ground. In addition to this 
the surface of the earth was still further shaded by large crops of wild 
grass and weeds, which prevented it from being heated by the rays of the 
sun during the day. At sun down the air began to become damp and cool, 
and continued to increase in coldness until warmed by the sunshine of 
the succeeding day. This wild herbage afforded pasture for our cattle and 
horses from spring until the onset of winter. 

The summers in early times were mostly dry, the large streams dwin- 
dled into small rivulets, and the mills were not expected to do any grind- 
ing after the first of June, excepting at intervals after heavy rains. 

It was a frequent saying that three good rains were sufficient to make 
a corn crop, if they fell at the proper time. The want of rain was com- 
pensated in some degree by heavy dews, which were then more common 
than of late, owing to the shaded condition of the earth, which prevented 
it from being either warm or dry by the rays of the sun during even the 
warmest weather. 

Frosts have severely bitten the com as early as September 22nd. 
Hunting snows usually commenced about the middle of October and No- 
vember was regarded as a winter month, as the winter frequently set in 
with severity during that month and sometimes at an early period of it. 

For a long time after the settlement of the Country much more snow 
fell in comparison to the snow fall of recent times. It was no unusual 
thing to have snows from one to three feet in depth and of long con- 

Deep snows were the occasion of much labor and discomfort to the in- 
habitants. Paths had to be made to the barn, spring, smoke house and 
com crib. The labor of getting wood during a deep snow was exceedingly 
disagreeable, as when a tree fell it buried itself in the snow, so that the 
driver had to plunge his arms deep into the snow to get the log chain around 
the trunk to haul it to the house. 

Dr. Doddridge says that the spring season of the year has not changed 
much, but that the summers are warmer, the fall milder and longer, and 


our winters shorter by at least one month, and accompanied with much 
less snow and cold than formerly. 

The coldest winter of which there is any account is described by the 
ancient chronicles as follows: 

The winter of 1779-80 began early and continued until March It 
was perhaps the severest winter in the history of the United States. In 
January the harbor of New York was frozen over so solidly that the Brit- 
ish drove laden wagons on the ice from the City to Staten Island. 

In Western Pennsylvania the snow began to fall heavily about the 
holidays and was followed by exceedingly cold weather for two months. 

The snow accumulated at intervals and by February 1 was four feet 
deep in the woods and on the mountains. This stopped all the supply 
trains from the East and the garrison at Fort Pitt suffered severely for 
food and clothing. Many of the soldiers were without shoes, and scout- 
ing expeditions were out of the question. The officers were without money 
or credit and were reduced to extreme straits. 

Great was the destruction of animals and birds in the forest. The snow 
was so deep that they could not get food, and when the Spring came the 
hunters found only the dead bodies of deer, turkey and smaller game." 

Thomas Haymond, who was at that time a child living near Morgan- 
town remembers throwing corn to the wild turkeys, who came close to his 
father's house in search of food having been made tame by hunger. 

About the year 1800 a meteor passed across Harrison County, and by 
its brilliant light and tremendous explosions created terror and conster- 
nation among the inhabitants. 

Major William Haymond, who was at the time on a surveying expe- 
dition and encamped in the woods somewhere west of Clarksburg, gives 
the following account of it: 

"Agreeable to my own observations, and taking into view the obser- 
vations of several others, who saw the light rise up previous to its spread- 
ing, the origin of the phenomenon must have been between the West and 
North West from me, at the distance of about five and six and twenty 
miles, at or near the Buckeye Bottom. 

The first report was rumbling and by information was heard upward 
of two hundred miles. The subsequent reports were distinct, not involved 
one with another and regularly timed to about two-thirds of a second, 
much louder than cannon or other reports that I have heard. They passed 
from West to East about three miles and three-quarters above the Earth, 
at the rate of about thirty-eight miles in a minute. 

Their distance from me when nearest was about six miles and two- 
thirds. The distance from me to the last I heard was about twenty miles 
and one-third. 

I am, dear sir, your obedient servant, 

Wm. Haymond, 
Mr. Egbert Newman, 

The year 1816 was known throughout the United States as the year 
without a summer. But little grain or fruit matured North of the 


In Harrison Comity there was frost in every month of that year. 
"While the crops were very short there was enough to supply the wants of 
the inhabitants. 

In the year 1820 occurred the greatest sleet ever known in this 
country. A cold rain set in which froze as it fell, and the forest was bent 
to the ground with it in every direction. 

As the sun the next day shown down upon the woods, they resembled 
a forest of glittering glass and presented a rare and beautiful sight. 
Every little twig was as thick and looked like a glass candle. Great trees 
were broken and for days the public roads were obstructed by fallen limbs 
and trees and nearly all one day the branches could be heard breaking. 
Nothing like it was ever seen before or since. 

On the night of November 13, 1833, occurred what has always been 
spoken of as the night on which the "stars fell." 

For hours the heavens were ablaze with shooting stars, flaming me- 
teors, tongues and balls of fire and sheets of flame, darting in every di- 
rection presenting a grand and brilliant though terrifying spectacle. 
Many of these as they approached the earth seemed to go out or disappear. 

This brilliant and unusual display created great excitement and ter- 
ror. Many supposed that the end of things had at last come, and hundreds 
prepared themselves accordingly and prayed for protection from the 
threatened calamity. 

Towards morning the sky cleared, nature assumed her wanton aspect. 
Old Mother Earth continued on her course as usual and the people be- 
came calm. 

This phenomenon was probably caused by a comet passing across the 
Earth's orbit, causing a meteoric shower. 

In the year 1828 considerable excitement was occasioned by the letter 
"B" appearing on the blades of wheat. Superstitious people believed 
that this letter stood for blood, and that it foretold that war or some other 
great calamity was impending. 

About the year 1833 a hurricane starting on Middle Island Creek be- 
low "West Union and moving Eastward to near Salem and Bristol and then 
turned Northerly to the lower part of Indian Eun. 

The path of this blizzard was rather irregular and at intervals would 
skip or jump over a hill and resume its general direction. 

It destroyed a brick house near West Union and cut a wide swath in 
the timber up-rooting large trees, twisting some from their stumps and 
flinging others hundreds of feet away from the place of their growth, and 
destroyed everything in its pathway. 

This is the only destructive windstorm known to have visited Harri- 
son County since it was occupied by the white people. 

In the Spring of 1852 occurred the great flood in Elk Creek and the 
West Fork River, which carried away nearly all the bridges and did im- 
mense damage to growing crops, fences and houses. 

On June 5, 1859, occurred a heavy frost, which destroyed every liv- 
ing thing in the shape of crops, fruit and garden vegetables. 

Some few wheat fields that were above a certain line on the hills es- 
caped damage. 


Com was replanted and the wheat fields ploughed under and sowed 
in buckwheat and good crops were raised. 

In July 1888 another great flood occurred, which was more destruc- 
tive than the one of 1852. 

The Maulsby bridge was the only one left standing on the West Fork 
river in the County, and not a bridge was left around Clarksburg. 

"January 1, 1840. Snow fell two feet deep. Thomas Raymond 
says it is the deepest snow since the winter of 1779 and 1780." 

A very severe winter occurred in 1899, the thermometer ranging 
at Clarksburg from February 8th to the 15th at from 8°, 10°, 
20° to 34° below zero. One day, the 8th., it was below zero all day. This 
is the coldest continuous weather existing here since thermometers were 
in use. 

At different times slight shocks of earthquakes have been felt, but no 
damage has ever been done by them. 

We have traditions of intensely cold weather, deep snows falling early 
in the fall and lying on the ground until late in the spring, but from the 
best information that can be gathered there has been little or no percep- 
tible change in the weather since the first settlement of the County, except 
that incident to the clearing out the forest. 

The snow will lie longer in a forest than on cultivated ground and as 
the country becomes cleared out the streams rise higher and get lower. 
This is owing to the trees, logs and leaves acting as a sponge and retaining 
the water, and preventing it running off rapidly, while in cultivated lands 
it drains off at once thus causing high water in the streams. 



In October 1777, the General Assembly passed an Act for establishing 
a court of common law of general jurisdiction called the Grcneral Court 
of Virginia, which was composed of five judges elected by the General 
Assembly and was to hold its sessions at Williamsburg. 

By the Act of 1788 the State was divided into Districts composed of 
several Counties, and Judges of the General Court were detailed to hold 
Court twice a year at one place in each District. 

Under this act the first law Courts, other than county courts were 
held west of the mountains, the one for North Western Virginia being 
held at Morgantown as appears from the following extracts from the order 

At a Superior Court held for the District of Harrison, Monongalia, 
Ohio and Randolph Counties, at Monongalia Court House, on Monday the 
fourth day of May one thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine, in the 
thirteenth year of the Commonwealth. 

Present Joseph Prentis and Cuthbert Bullitt, Esquires, Judges who 
were allotted to hold this Court by the General Court. 

John Williams qualified as Clerk, Francis Talliaferro Brooke as De- 
puty attorney and James Daugherty as public jailor for the District. 

The following members of the Grand Jury appeared: Francis Wor- 
man, Joseph Jenkins, Samuel Hannaway, Thomas Chips, William John, 
John Davis, Henry Dering, Charles Herreman, Nicholas Carpenter, Wil- 
liam Lowther, John Hall, John McCauley and John Jackson. 

The following who had been summoned as Grand Jurors but failed 
to answer were James Cockran, Daniel McCain, Thomas Webb. Robert 
Maxwell, Cornelius Bogard, Peter Cassedy, Edward Jackson and George 

The Court fined each one of them four hundred pounds of tobacco, 
and as there were not sufficient members present to constitute a Grand 
Jury the Court adjourned until the first day of the next term. The min- 
utes were signed by Joseph Prentis. 

The next term of Court was held on the 21st. day of September, 1789, 
by Judges James Mercer and Richard Parker. 

The Grand Jury were John Pearce Duval, Gentleman, Foreman John 
Evans, Robert Ferrell, Henry Dering, John Davis, Thomas Butler, 
Thomas Chips, Charles Harriman, Benjamin Biggs, George 
Bealls, John Bukey, James Mitchell, William Haymond, John Powers, 
John Hall, George Jackson, John McCally, Edward Jackson and John 

Three Indictments were found at this term, two for larceny and one 
for riot. 


The order fining the recusant members of the Grand Jury at the last 
term was remitted. 

The Court sat two days and transacted but little business. The min- 
utes of the Court proceedings were signed by James Mercer. 

The assignment of the Judges of the General Court, to hold Court 
West of the mountains, was not a very agreeable billet, and it may well 
be imagined was not much sought after. The detail involved the long 
journey on horseback through an uninhabited and trackless wilderness 
and after reaching the place of holding Court the best quarters that could 
be procured were perhaps no better than a deer skin on a rough cabin 
floor for a bed, and wild meat and com bread for provender. But not- 
withstanding the hardships and privations excellent, worthy men were 
willing to endure them and do their part in establishing law and order 
among the pioneers of the border. 

The Circuit Courts were substituted for the District Courts in 1809 
by the Act of the Legislature of February 1808, which divided the State 
into twelve circuits, and directed that one Judge of the General Court be 
assigned to each Circuit, who was to hold a Court twice in each year at 
the Court House in each County of his Circuit. 

Under this Act the first Circuit Court held in Harrison County was as 
given below. 

The Circuit was composed of the following Counties: Brooke, Ohio, 
Monongalia, Harrison, Wood, Mason and Kanawha, and was Imown as 
the 11th. Circuit. 

At a Superior Court of Law held for the County of Harrison on Mon- 
day the first day of May in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hun- 
dred and nine. Present, Hugh Nelson, Esquire, a Judge of the General 
Court being allotted by the Governor of this Commonwealth with the ad- 
vice of the Council of State to hold a Superior Court of Law in each Coun- 
ty within the eleventh Judicial Circuit of this Commonwealth. 

It is therefore ordered that Benjamin Wilson, Junior, be appointed 
Clerk of this Court. 


Samuel P. Moore, foreman, William Haymond, William Powers, Ja- 
cob Israel, Daniel Morris, Job Robinson, Isaac Coplin, William Lowther, 
Edward Jackson, Allison Clark, Absolom Boring, David Hews, John 
Prunty, John Reynolds, William Gillis, James Bartlett, Benjamin J. 
Brice, Thomas Tate, Joseph Bell, Daniel Davisson, Junior, and James 

Thomas Wilson, Maxwell Armstrong, John G. Jackson, James Pindall 
and William Tingle, Esquires, personally appeared in Court and severally 
took the oath of fidelity to this Commonwealth an oath to support the 
Constitution of the United States and the oath prescribed by law to be 
administered to Counsel and attomies at law and are admitted to practice 
in this Court. 

Ordered that William Tingle, Esquire, be appointed Attorney for 
the Commonwealth to prosecute in this Court. 


The term lasted five days and adjourned until the fall term. Four 
teen Indictments and presentments were found for unlawful gaming and 
five for assault and battery. 

The presentments were for "unlawfully playing with cards at all 
fours or three up." 

List of Judges of the Circuit Court of Harrison County. 


Hugh Nelson May term 1809 

Daniel Smith Spring term 1811 

Lewis Summers Spring term 1819 

Edwin S. Duncan June term 1831 

George H. Lee May term 1848 

Gideon D. Camden July term 1852 

Wm. A. Harrison Spring term 1862 

Thomas W. Harrison September term 1863 

Charles S. Lewis May term 1873 

A. Brooks Fleming May term 1878 

Alpheus F. Haymond September term 1888 

John M. Hagans January term 1889 

John W. Mason September term 1900 

Charles W. Lynch January term 1905 

Clerks of the Circuit Court. 

Benjamin Wilson, Jr 1809 

Augustine J. Smith, pro tem 1830 

John L. Sehon, pro tem 1830 

George I. Davisson 1831 

Granville G. Davisson 1836 

Edgar M. Davisson, pro tem 1856 

Cruger W. Smith 1856 

Fernando A. Robinson 1861 

Thomas C. Ramage 1879 

Paul M. Robinson, pro tem 1887 

Henry Haymond 1888 

Enoch C. Tetrick 1897 

Homer W. Williams 1903 

I. Wade Coffman 1909 

The last term of the Circuit Court in Harrison Coimty under the old 
State was held by Judge Gideon D. Camden on May 18, 1861. 

Judge "Wm. A. Harrison held the first Court under the reorganized 
government of Virginia, April 15, 1862. 

Judge Thomas W. Harrison, who succeeded his father, held the first 
term of Court under the new State Government of West Virginia, Septem- 
ber 16, 1863. 

The act of the legislature passed in 1811 established a superior Court 
of Chancery, and divided the State into Districts. The Fourth District 
was composed of the Counties of Brooke, Ohio, Tyler, "Wood, Randolph, 
Harrison, Lewis, Preston and Monongalia, and directed that Courts 
should be held at Clarksburg in April and September in every year. 

Under this act the records describe the first term as follows : 


"At a Superior Court of Chancery held at Clarksburg for the fourth 
District on Monday the 18th. day of May 1812. 

Present, Dabney Carr, Chancellor of the said District." John L. Se- 
hon qualified as Clerk and John Prunty as Sergeant at Arms. 

The following attorneys qualified, Archibald B. "Wilson, Edward S. 
Stribbling, Lemuel E. Davisson, Jonathan Jackson, Isaac Morris, John G. 
Jackson, James Pindall, Philip Phelps and Oliver Phelps. 

But little business was done save to qualify the officers of the Court, 
admit attorneys to practice and docket cases for future hearing. 

The term lasted four days and adjourned May 21st. until the fall 

Judge Dabney Carr held Court for the last time at the fall term of 

Judge Henry St. George Tucker, the successor of Judge Carr, held 
Court for the first time at the Spring Term of 1824, and the last time at 
the October term of 1830. 

This Court was abolished and merged into the Superior Court of Law 
and Chancery in 1831, having had but two chancellors in the nineteen 
years of its existence, and only one Clerk Major John L. Sehon. 


United States Courts. 

United States Circuit Court. 

Judge Nathan Goff of Clarksburg now on the bench, 1909. 

The District Court of the United States for the District of Virginia 
West of the Allegheny Mountains held its first session at Clarksburg on 
March 22, 1819, Judge John G. Jackson presiding. 

His commission was spread upon the record and is dated February 4, 
1819, and is signed by James Monroe, President, and John Quincy Adams, 
Secretary of State. 

The attorneys who qualified at this term were James Pindall, James 
McCauley, Jonathan Jackson, Lemuel E. Davisson, Lewis Maxwell, George 
I. Davisson, Isaac Morris, Edwin S. Duncan, Jacob Beason, John J. Allen, 
Joseph H. Samuels, Oliver Phelps and Jesse Jarvis. 

E. B. Jackson was appointed Clerk and Thomas Synott, Court Crier. 

The following were qualified as Grand Jurors: 

William Haymond, Foreman. Samuel P. Moore, John Webster, John 
Righter, Joseph Wilkinson, Anderson Corbin, William Davis, Benjamin 
Coplin, William A. Rodgers, William Cammell, Lambert Flowers, Samuel 
Washington, Jacob Stealey, Joseph Cheuvurant, Chapman Grant, James 
McCally, John L. Sehon, James H. Watson, William Haymond, Jr., James 
Tibbs, Ralph Berkshire and James Hurry. 

A List of United States District Judges. 

John G. Jackson 1819 John W. Brockenbrough 1846 

Philip C. Pendleton, Spring Term 1825 John J. Jackson 1861 

Alexander Caldwell, Fall term.. 1825 Alston G. Dayton 1905 

Isaac L. Pennyhacker 1839 

Clerks of the U. S. District Court. 

E. B. Jackson Thomas L. Moore 

John Webster Joseph Caldwell 

Jasper Y. Doddridge Jasper Y. Moore 1861 

Richard W. Moore Charles B. Kefauver 1907 

Erasmus Stribling 

Judge John J. Jackson, who was appointed by President Lincoln in 
1861, served on the bench for the long period of forty-four years. He was 
Imown as the "iron judge." 

His first term of Court was held in the summer of 1861 at Clarksburg, 
at which term he appointed Jasper Y. Moore as Clerk, whose father and 
brother had both held the office before him. 

Mr. Moore's order books are models of neatness and accuracy and his 
high character, integrity and efficiency in discharging the duties of his 
office, and his record as a public officer is without reproach. He held the 
office for forty-six years. 


County Courts. 

The institution of the County Courts originated in Virginia as early 
as 1623-24, and as it is the most ancient, so it has ever been one of the 
most important of our institutions, not only in respect to the administra- 
tion of justice, but for police and fiscal affairs. They were first called 
monthly courts, and at first only two of them were established, and their 
jurisdiction jealously limited to the most petty controversies, reserving 
the right of appeal for the party cast to the Governor and council, who 
were the judges of what were then called the quarter Courts. 

In 1642-43 the style of monthly courts was changed to that of County 
Courts, the colonial assembly having previously begun, and continuing 
thence forward to enlarge their duties, powers and jurisdiction, and to 
extend the system to every County as it was laid off. 

As early as 1645 they had been matured into Courts of general juris- 
diction in law and equity, and the most important matters of police and 
fiscal affairs were confided to them. 

Previous to 1661-2 the judges of the Countyi Courts had been styled 
Commissioners of the monthly courts and afterwards Commissioners of 
the County Courts; but at that time it was enacted that they should take 
the oath of a Justice of the Peace, and be called Justices of the Peace. 

These tribunals now assumed a perfectly regular form; and their 
functions have ever since been so important, that their institution mar 
well be considered as a part of the constitution both of the colonial and 
present form of government. No material change was introduced by the 
war of the revolution in their jurisdiction or general powers and diities of 
any kind. 

Up to the time of the adoption of the constitution of 1852 the Justices 
composing the County Court were appointed by the Governor for life, 
upon the recommendation of the members of the Court, thus making that 
body self continuous. They also recommended a candidate to the Gov- 
ernor for appointment of Sheriff, Surveyor and Militia officers, and ap- 
pointed their clerk, assessors and constables. 

The only local officers elected by the people were members of the 
legislature and overseers of the poor. 

By the Constitution adopted in 1852 the justices were made elected 
by the people for short terms, as were also the Sheriff and other County 
Officers, but in other particulars the system underwent no change. 

When West Virginia was created the system was changed to a Board 
of Supervisors for each County, which discharged the same duties as the 
old County Court, except it was shorn of its powers as a court of law and 
equity jurisdiction, each county district elected one member. 


The constitution of 1872 abolished the Board of Supervisors and we 
now have a County Court that still discharges the important duties of all 
matters concerning county affairs but has no law and equity jurisdiction. 

For twenty-five years after the organization of Harrison County the 
County Court was the only one held in the County, and it was a tribunal 
of the greatest importance to the public, and contributed much towards 
the settlement of the county. 

It was the medium through which small disputes were settled and 
breaches of the peace were tried, roads laid out, mills established, bridges 
built, licenses granted, taxes levied and collected, deeds, wills and mar- 
riages recorded, and all things conducted that entered into the home life 
of the settlers, and tended to establish law and order and organize self 

While the territory including Fort Pitt and south of it was in dispute 
between Virginia and Pennsylvania, Lord Dunmore, the governor of the 
former colony issued a new commission of the peace and adjourned the 
Court of Augusta County from Staunton to Fort Pitt and called it Fort 
Dunmore, and Court was held there at intervals in the years 1775 and 
1776, but the jurisdiction of this Court does not appear to have extended 
to the territory now comprising West Virginia. 

In May 1776 the Richmond Convention passed an ordinance provid- 
ing that the Justices residing in the District of West Augusta upon tak- 
ing the oath of allegiance to Virginia should have the power and authority 
to hold a court within the said District on the third Tuesday in every 
month at such place as they may appoint in the same manner as in the 
other counties. 

In August 1776 a Court was held for West Augusta when the name 
of Fort Dunmore was dropped and that of Pittsburgh substituted. 

Lord Dunmore had by that time fled and taken refuge on a British 
war ship. His schemes had failed, the revolution was on, and the settlers 
agreed to sink their local differences and turn their arms against the com- 
mon enemy. 

Court was in September and November 1776 held at Augusta Town, 
in what is now Washington County, Pennsylvania, about two miles from 
the County seat on what is known as the Gabby farm. 

This spot has been marked by a monument containing the following 
inscription : 

"On this spot was held in 1776 the County Court for the District of 
West Augusta, Virginia, the first court held by any English speaking 
people west of the Monongahela River. Erected by the Washington Coun- 
ty Historical Society in 1905." 

In October 1776 the District of West Augusta by an act of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of Virginia was divided into the three Counties of Ohio, 
Yohogania and Monongalia, and thus passed from the pages of history. 

In order to show the close relations this Court held to the people the 
full proceedings of the first Court held in Harrison County is given be- 
low, as also numerous extracts from the order books from time to time. 

The first minute or order book appears to have been written on sheets 
of large or foolscap paper and afterwards bound in book form. 


Some of the sheets have water marks in them, evidently of English 
manufacture, as the crown can be distinguished with the initials G. R. 
beneath it. 

In others the figure of Britannia can be seen seated in the car of vic- 
tory holding a trident with the lion and the unicorn in front surmoimted 
with the motto "Pro Patria. " 

Be it remembered that at the house of George Jackson on Buckhan- 
non River the 20th day of July 1784:— 

A Commission of the peace & a commission of Oyer & Terminor for 
the said County directed to John P. Duvall, Benj. Wilson, Wm. Lowther, 
James Anderson, Henry Delay, Nichs. Carpenter, Wm. Robinson, John 
Powers, Thomas Cheney, Jacob Westfall, Salathial Goff & Patrick Hamil- 
ton was presented & read & thereupon the Oath of Allegiance to the Com- 
monwealth was administered by Benj. Wilson Gent, to the said John P. 
Duvall and by him to the above named Justices and also the oath of office 
as directed by law. 

Wm. Lowther Gent, produced a commission (Sheriff) from his ex- 
cellency the Governor bearing date the 14th. day of June last past, which 
was openly read and thereupon the sd. Wm. Lowther, gent, having first 
entered into bond with George Jackson & Benj. Wilson his securities for 
his due and faithful performance of the said office took the oath of Alle- 
giance to the Common Wealth & the Oath of office as directed by law. 

Benjamin Wilson was chosen Clerk of the Court for said County, he 
having taken the oath of Allegiance to the Common Wealth & the Oath of 
office as directed by law. 

Ordered that the above proceedings be recorded. 

Ordered that William Haymond be recommended as a proper person 
to fill the office of Principal Surveyor for said County, and certified. 

Ordered that James Anderson and Nicholas Carpenter Gents, be re- 
commended as proper persons to his Excellency the Governor to fill the 
office of Coronor. 

Ordered that John P. Duvall is recommended to his Excellency the 
Governor as a proper person to be County Lieutenant of this County and 
Benj. Wilson, Colo.; Henry Delay, Lieut. Colo., and William Robinson 

Ordered that the Sheriff summons 24 freeholders for a Grand Jury of 
Inquest for the body of this County to appear at next November Court. 

Ordered that a former order of Monongalia County Court in these 
words : 

"Ordered that the road from Richards Fort extended by Edmund 
Wests mill to John Hackers, the nearest and best way, Nicholas Carpen- 
ter, Isaac Richards and David Sleeth be appointed to view and lay out 
said road and make report to the next Court to be held for this County 
is hereby revived. 

Ordered that a way for a road from Clarksburg to the Monongalia 
River at Wickwires ford and John Goodwin, Robert Plumber, John Owens 
and Moses Hustage or any three of them being first sworn do view the 
same and report the conveniency and inconveniences of the same and 
make report to the next Court. 


Ordered that Christopher Carpenter be appointed Surveyor of the 
highway agreeable to a former appointment of Monongalia Ct. Court 
from the river above Richards Fort to Elk River in Clarksburg and the 
tithables between Booth's Creek and Little Buffalo and Limestone and 
Elk River is required to aid the Surveyor in keeping the road in lawful 

Ordered that Benj. Coplin be appointed Surveyor of the highway in 
room of Benj. Shinn from Elk River in Clarksburg to Ezekial Thomas 
and the tithables below Elk River to Simpsons Creek and up the South 
side of Davisson's Run are to aid the Surveyor in keeping said road in 
lawful repair. 

Ordered, that John Powers be appointed surveyor of the highway in 
room of William Robinson from Ezekial Thomas to Pettyjohns ford and 
the tithables from the north side of Davisson's Run and Simpson's Creek 
to the County line are required to aid the Surveyor in keeping the same 
in lawful repair. 

Ordered that Clarksburg be the place for erecting the public build- 
ings on for this County and that one quarter of an acre of land formerly 
belonging to Daniel Davisson be appropriated for the purpose of erecting 
the publiek buildings upon, together with one quarter of an acre formerly 
belonging to Joseph Hasting adjoining thereto be applied to the aforesaid 
purpose said Davisson's gift is number eight, and the gift in land made 
by Hastings is number seven, which said Gentleman viz. Daniel Davisson 
and Joseph Hastings in Court hath agreed to make a deed in fee simple 
to the present Court, and there their successors so long as the Court House 
and other publiek buildings shall continue thereon. 

Ordered that George Jackson, John McCally, John Sleeth, John Wil- 
son, Cornelius Westfall, John Goodwin, Edward Jackson, Benjamin Rob- 
inson, John Prunty and Robert Maxwell are proper persons to be recom- 
mended to his Excellency the Governor to fill the office of the peace for 
said County. 

Ordered that Salathial Goff, James Anderson, Henry Delay, Jacob 
Westfall, Patrick Hamilton, Thomas Cheny, William Robinson and John 
Sleeth is appointed to celebrate the rights of matrimony, they first com- 
plying with the law. 

Ordered that Daniel Davisson do make the road he has turned round 
his fence equally as good as the other part of the road is made and to be 
revived at the judgment of the Overseer. 

Ordered that a bill of sale given by John Sailor to Charles Harris is 
admitted to record. 

Ordered that Charles Harris be appointed Constable and appear at 
next Court to swear into the office. 

Ordered that Obidiah Davisson be appointed Constable and appear 
at next Court to swear into the office. 

Ordered that John Runyon be appointed Constable and appear at 
next Court to swear into office. 

Ordered that Michael Johnson be appointed Constable and do appear 
at next Court to swear into office. 


Ordered that Jacob Riffle be appointed Constable and appear at next 
Court to swear into office. 

Ordered that John Currence be appointed constable and do appear 
at next Court to swear in office. 

Ordered that Mathias "Whiteman be appointed Constable and do ap- 
pear at next Court to swear into office. 

Ordered that George Jackson hath a good and just right to build a 
mill on his premises in or adjoining Clarksburg on the Elk Eiver so that 
said Jackson doth not affect no other persons land. 

Ordered that the Clerk do issue a summons in behalf of John Hacker 
against Elijah Stout to show cause why he detained said Hacker out of 
his landed rights. 

Ordered that the Court do meet at the house of Hezekiah Davisson's 
at Clarksburgh the next Court day in Course. 

Ordered that the Court do adjourn to the next Court day in Course. 

John P. Duvall. 
Test. Benj. Wilson, Clk. 

It will be seen by the above record that a great deal of important 
business was accomplished at this first jsession of the Court in organizing 
the County and setting the wheels of government in motion, and there is 
no question that its members were composed of earnest able men thoroughly 
competent to perform the duty for which they were assembled. 

Col. William Lowther was qualified as sheriff, although the order 
omits to state what office he was appointed to, the Clerk of the Court 
was appointed, surveyor militia officers, coroner and Justices of the Peace 
recommended to the Governor for appointement, constables, viewers and 
overseers of roads appointed, a grand jury summoned for November Court, 
a mill seat established, the County seat located at Clarksburg, lots donated 
upon which to erect the public buildings, one civil suit brought, and then 
adjourned to meet at Clarksburg the following month of August. 

The business completed they no doubt mounted their horses and 
struck out by various paths and trails through the woods, as there were no 
roads, to their cabins and unprotected families, as this time of year was 
the season the Indian war parties raided the settlements. 

At this day a photograph of these sturdy men would be an interesting 
sight, clad in the rude dress of the frontier, consisting of hunting shirt, 
leggings and moccasins, with their rifles close to hand, being engaged 
in establishing a government for the people in the wilderness. 

They were in hourly danger of being attacked by a savage enemy, 
and having their new government blotted out of existence, and toppled 
over by the strong arm of a barbarous foe, but at a great disadvantage 
and danger to themselves they had met to perform a duty to their country ; 
had discharged that duty well and intelligently and all honor is due them 
for it. 

The house in which this first Court was held stood near the present town 
of Buckhannon in the neck of the loop of the river, about one mile East 
of the Upshur County Court House, and is said to have been built by John, 
the father of George Jackson. It has long since been torn down and no 
part of it is now standing. 


The next meeting of the Court was held in Clarksburg the following 
August, presumably at the house of Hezekiah Davisson, and was the first 
court of any kind ever held in that town. 

The precise location of this house is not known, but it was on what 
is now main street, somewhere between Second Street and Elk Creek. 

Lots numbered seven and eight referred to as being donated by 
Davisson and Hastings for public building purposes, according to an old 
map were situated on the South East comer of Main and Second Streets, 
where the Presbyterian Church now stands. Some changes were after- 
wards made in this location, the corner lot No. 8 was taken for the jail 
and Lot No. 15 situated on the North East Corner of Second and Main 
Streets taken for the Court House. 

The full proceedings of this Court were as follows: 

At a Court held for Harrison on the third Tuesday in August, 1784 
and in the IX year of the Commonwealth. Present John Percy Duvall, 
James Anderson, Nicholas Carpenter, William Robinson, John Powers, 
Thos. Cheney, Gent. Justices. 

Anthony Thirton Pt. 1 

vs. } Trespass. 

Thos. Wilmoth Deft. J 

The party not appearing the suit is further continued. 

Barbarah Shaver Pit. 1 

vs. }■ Slander. 

Sarah Currenee Deft. J 

Joseph Friend enters special bail for the defendant and the suit is 
further continued. 

Elizabeth Shaver 




U. B. 

Jonathan Smith 



Joseph Friend enters special for the defendant and the suit is further 

James Lacky Pit. 1 

vs. \ Tress. 

William Smith Deft. J 

Jonathan Smith enters special bail for the defendant and the suit 
is further continued. 

John Wolf 




}■ Petition. 

Alexr. Maxwell 



James Anderson, Joseph Davisson & John McCalley evidence sworn in 
the above suit now on trial. 


Judgment is granted for the Pit. and his costs of suit in his behalf 
expended Debt. £3. Os. Od. 

Sarah Currence 




}■ Slander. 

Barbarah Shaver 



Jacob Shaver enters special bail for the defendant and the suit is 
further continued. 

Jonathan Smith 




U. B. 

Elizabeth Shaver 



Jacob Shaver enters special bail for the defendant and the suit is 
further continued. 

Jonathan Smith Pit. 1 

vs. \ 

Barbarah Shaver Deft. J 

Jacob Shaver enters special bail for the Deft, and the suit is further 

Jonathan Cobun Pit. ") 

vs. >• Petition. 

Jessee Hughes Deft 3 

The above suit agreed. 

Mary Shaver Pit. 1 

vs. }■ Slander. 

Sarah Currence Deft. J 

Joseph Friend enters special bail for the deft, and the suit is further 

ider West 




}• Slander. 

3W Nutter 



Amaziah Davisson enters special bail for the deft, and the suit is 
further continued. 

Jonathan Smith 





James Taff 



Ordered, that a summons issue to site John Westfall to appear at the 
next Court as garnishee in the suit of Jonathan Smith. 


It is proven to the satisfaction of the Court that Thomas Berkley 
lost a certificate that' was liquidated by the Court of Claim's in Monongalia 

That Frederick Westfall an orphan child be bound to George Jackson. 

Ordered that John Menear be exempt from the payment of publiek 
County & Parish Levys. 

Salathial Goff, James Anderson, Henry Delay, Jacob Westfall, Patrick 
Hamilton, Thos. Cheney, & William Robinson, Gent. Laymen — Appeared 
in Court and took the oath of Allegiance to this State, and the Clerk is 
required to grant a license to the Gents, above named to celebrate the rights 
of Marriage agreeable to an act entitled — an act to authorize and confirm 
Marriages in certain cases. 

Ordered that the Sheriff summons a Jury of 12 men to appear on the 
land of John Hacker and Elizabeth Stout, to inquire into and settle 
the bounds of land between them and report their proceedings thereon to 
the next Court. 

Ordered, that Samuel Freeman be appointed Constable and is required 
to swear into office. 

Ordered that the Court do adjourn until tomorrow at eight o'clock. 

John P. Duvall. 
Test, Benj. Wilson, Clerk. 

August 18, 1784. 

Assessors were appointed to take a list of all white persons and 
buildings distinguishing dwelling houses from other houses, together with 
a list of the tithables subject to the pajrment of County or parish levies. 

September 21, 1784. 

John Percy Duval produced a commission of County Lieutenant from 
his excellency the Governor, and took the oath of office as directed by law, 
also Benj. Wilson as Colonel, Henry Delay as Lieut. Colonel, and William 
Robinson Major, and severally took the oath of office. 

The viewers reported that a good road could be made with ordinary 
labor from Richards Fort by West's Mill to John Hackers and will be 
of advantage to the inhabitants. 

Note. — Richard's Fort stood on the old Eli Marsh farm six miles from 
Clarksburg on the road to Milford, and on Sycamore Creek just above 
its mouth. John Hacker lived near Jane Lew. 

William Haymond produced a commission as Surveyor of Harrison 
County and was sworn into office. 

September 22, 1784. 

Ordered that a log jail be built for the use of this County at the 
town of Clarksburg, and that the sale thereof will be at next November 
Court to the lowest bidder, also a pillory and one pair of stocks. 

Ordered that acknowledgment of Eva Truleys to Peter Breeding for 
injustice done by her to him for his character, and on the same being 
proven the sd. acknowledgment is ordered to be recorded. 
November 16, 1784. 

Davis Bradford attorney at law appeared in Court and on his 


motion he is admitted to practice in the Court of Harrison County and 
took the oath of office as directed by law. 

At a Court held for Harrison County on the third Tuesday in Novem- 
ber 1784 & IX year of the Commonwealth, present James Anderson, 
William Robinson, John Powers, John Goodwin, John McCally and John 
Sleeth, Gent. Justices. 

On being summon 'd the following Gents, appear 'd of the Grand 
Jury of inquest to wit : 

Benj. Jones, Foreman John Wood 

Henry Runyon Ebenezer Petty 

Thomas Barkley William Davis 

Robert Plumber Amaziah Davisson 

Joseph Davisson Andrew Davisson 

Daniel Cain Jonathan Stout 

Benj. Coplin Daniel Wamsley 

Joseph Hastings Daniel Stout 

John Ratllff Aaron Smith 

The Grand Jury sworn and charge given. The Grand Jury made 
their presentments and they were received and the Jury is discharged. 

Indictments and presentments not given in record. 

The above is the record of the first Grand Jury held in Harrison 

November 18, 1784. 

The rates of liquors and victuals, horse forage &c. as rated for ordi- 
nary keepers for the year 1784. 

£. S. D. 

Wine pint 0—1—6 

Jamaica spirits per half pint — 1 — 

Peach & Apple Brandy Do. — 1—0 

Warm Breakfast — — 9 

Cold Breakfast 0—0—8 

Dinner — 1 — 

Supper warm — — 9 

Supper cold — — 8 

Bed per night of clean sheets — 0—4 

If not clean nothing 

Horse at hay for night. — — TY2 

Corn and oats by the gal'n — — 7^ 

Pasturage 24 hours — — 4 

January 19, 1785. 

On motion of Richard Hocklin, servant of John P. Duval complaining 
agent, his master, in regard of wearing an iron collar its the opinion of 
the Court sd, collar be taken off by his master. 


Novemler 18, 1784. 

Sarah Currence PKt. 1 

vs. }■ Trespass. 

Barbary Shaver Deft. J 

Plea not guilty. 

The suit now in issue and there came a jury, to wit; 

Ebenezer Petty, Foreman Charles Harris 

Adam O'Brien Hezekiah Davisson 

Edmon Night Francis States 

Alexander "West William Raymond 

Lewis Duval William Tanner 

Thomas McCann John Cutright 

Verdict for the Plaintiff, six pence damages. 

The above is the record of the first Jury trial in Harrison County. 

December Term, 1784. 

Ordered that a bridle road be opened from Clarksburg to "Wickwire's 
ford, and that John Davisson be the surveyor thereof from Clarksburg 
to the widow Davisson 's grave yard: James Anderson from there to 
Eobert Plumber's and John Goodwin from there to the ford. 

The tithables on the East of Elk Creek, on Simpson's Creek and 
on Booth's Creek were to be under the direction of the above named 

Note: — This ford was on the Valley river below Fetterman. A 
bridle road was simply a path through the woods, the trees being barked to 
show the way, logs roUed to one side and the small trees cut out wide 
enough for a horse to pass through. 

March 18, 1785. 

The Court proceeded to lay the County levy. 

£ S. D. 

To William Lowther Gent. High Sheriff of this County for 

public services till November Court 1784, past 2 — 10 — 

To Benj. Wilson Clk. of this County for public services till 

November 1784, past 2—10— 

To Elizabeth Countryman 7—10 — 

To Daniel Davisson for stocks to be built against April 

Court 5—19—11 

18— 9—11 

By 2 6 levied of 337 tithables 41—17—6 

By 2 — fine on John Nutter 1 — 0— 

By 15 — fine on Peter Kinsels & Daniel Sleeth 0—15— 

By 5 — fine on Dougherty and Daniel Davisson .... — 5 — 

By 5 on Leo Martin and Hezekiah Davisson 0—5—0 

By 15 — on Alex Sleeth 0—15— 

By 5 — on Bulger & John Heagle 0— 5 — 

45— 2— 6 

40 £> O 

The names following those of the parties fined in the above Sheriff 


statement are the sureties of the parties named for the payment of the 

March 18, 1785. 

Or'd That the Sheriff collect of every tithable in this County 2s. 6d. 
being the County levy for the year 1784, and pay the same as directed 
by the proportions. 

Note: — It appears so far as the order book shows that in the first 
years of the County there was no tax levied on property, but only a 
poll tax on each tithable or male over twenty-one years of age. Building 
roads was no expense to the County as the inhabitants of certain dis- 
tricts were required to work on the roads without charge. 

The amount of two shillings and six pence to be paid by each one as 
given above in the money of the present day amounts to 41 >5 cents. 

The contract to make one pair of stocks, whipping post and pillory 
was let to Daniel Davisson at the price of £5. 19s. lid. 

John Prunty undertook to build the jail agreeable to the plans pre- 
scribed for £19. 15s. Od. 

The levy for the year 1785, the second year of the County was laid 
in November of that year and the sum of £129. 12s. Od. was directed 
to be collected off of 432 tithables by the High Sheriff. 

The amount allowed for old wolf scalps was 12 shillings and six pence, 
and for a young one 6 shilings and 3 pence. 

David Bradford was allowed for extra services as Common-wealth 
attorney £17. 10s. Od. 

The finances of the County were reckoned by pounds, shillings and 
pence. The Virginia pound in dollars and cents was $3,333^. A shilling 
16% cents and a penny 1 7-18 cents. 

March 18, 1785. 

James McDead appeared in Court and proved to the satisfaction of 
the same that he enlisted as a substitute in the regular service in room of 
Uriah Gardee, and entered the service in the year 1780 and continued in 
service twenty-one months, and was discharged by Major Sneed of the 
Light Infantry, and has lost said discharge and ordered to be certified. 

April Term, 1785. 

William Robinson, Benj. Robinson, Enoch James and Daniel 
Davisson appointed viewers to mark a road from Skillings ford on the 
West Fork River by Levi Shinn's Mill site, to Clarksburg keeping as close 
to the river as the situation will admit. 

William Runyon, overseer of the highway directed to keep in repair 
the road from the Bear Wallow on the top of the ridge to the Highland 

April Term, 1785. 

Daniel Davisson appointed surveyor of road from Elk Creek in 
Clarksburg to the Bear Wallow on the top of the ridge on the South side 
of Goose Creek. 


April 20, 1785. 

Major William Lowther proved to the satisfaction of the Court that 
he was in the volunteer service under the command of General George 
Kogers Clark in the year 1781, and obtained from the General a Major's 
commission, and acted in that capacity from June 21 until August 11, 
and that he was seven days from the date of discharge to his arrival home. 
Ordered to be certified. 

Adam Morgan proved to the Court that he served nine months as a 

Note : — The indictments at this period were generally for drunkeness, 
disorderly conduct, card playing, assault and battery, breach of the Sab- 
bath day, keeping tippling houses and allowing gambling in private houses. 

May 18, 1785. 

Ordered that the principal surveyor of this County do appoint one of 
his Deputies to act in conjunction with the Surveyor of Greenbrier County 
to run the dividing line between the Counties, and the Court is of the 
opinion that two markers, three chain carriers, four pack horses, two 
drivers and one hunter will be sufficient; and for the provisions and pack 
horses wages &c the County Court will settle for on the oath of the Deputy ; 
also the Deputy is to purchase and hire in the best terms and to account 
on oath. 

Note : — Thomas Douglass was the Deputy selected to run this line. 
It is not known whether he was joined by a party from Greenbrier or 
not, but the order books show that frequent efforts were made to induce 
Greenbrier County to bear her share of the costs of establishing the line 
between the Counties, and on two or three occasions commissioners were 
sent to that County in order to secure a settlement. It was finally settled 
by Greenbrier paying £123. 14s. 2d., and Harrison paying £66. Os. lOd. 

This line began on the top of the ridge which divides the Eastern from 
the Western waters, where the line between Augusta and Bottetourt 
crosses the same, and running thence North 55 degrees West to the Ohio 
Kiver, being the Southern boundary of Harrison County. 

The reports and map of Surveyor Douglass cannot be found. His 
statement of expense, which was presented to the Court at the May term 
1786 states that the distance was 108% miles and the time engaged in the 
work was from September 15, 1785, to May 15, 1786 and that the total 
expense was £189. 15s. Od., or $632.50, and that the following provisions 
were used : 

2% pecks of salt. 
123 pounds of flour. 

6 bushels of wheat 

% bushels of Indian corn ..-. 

6 pounds of bacon 

Number of days for horses employed 279 

Number of days for packers, chain bearers &c 632 

Number of days for hunters 211 

Daniel McCann and William Murphy were the chain bearers. 

This line reached the Ohio River near the present boundary line be- 
tween Jackson and Wood Counties. 


Note: — It appears from the following entries that soldiers in active 
service were occasionally quartered on the inhabitants. 

May 18, 1785. 

Commonwealth, Dr. 
Henry Snider — Billettlng two soldiers 26 days, ass'd 3s. 4V^d per day. 

Edward Cunningham — Billettlng three soldiers 76 days each. 
One — Do 5 days. 
One — Do 26 days. 
And two men 3 days. 

Ass'd to 3s — 4%d. each soldier each day. 
Also 4 days horse hire ass'd 2 each day. 

Note : — It seems that the allowance for each soldier per day was three 
shillings four and a half pence, which amounts in the money of the present 
day to fifty cents. 

The horse hire amounted to 33 ^^ cents each day. 

August 16, 1785. 

John Wade Loughberry qualified in open Court to administer rites of 

August 17, 1785. 

James Anderson qualified as Sheriff gave bond for 1000. S. Stratton 
has permission to erect a grist mill on Hacker's Creek. 

November 15, 1785. 

The Jail reported finished by a Committee composed of Nicholas Carpen- 
ter and John Powers according to contract by John Prunty. 
Note: — This probably refers to the temporary log jail. 

Felruary 21, 1786. 

Ordered that a bridle road be opened from Con oily 's lick, agreeable 
to a former order of Augusta County Court from said lick to the top of ye 
Allegheny Mountains and the petitioners are to aid and assist John "War- 
wick, who is appointed overseer thereof to open said way. 

Note: — This is the order referred to in the chapter on organization 
of Counties. 

Connolly's lick referred to in the above was near Bulltovm 
in what is now Braxton County. 

It is said that Conolly's cows frequently going to this lick led to the 
discovery of salt water, and salt works were afterwards established there 
by John Haymond. 

November 17, 1785. 

The Court proceeded to lay the County levy. 

£ S. D 
To Wm. Lowther, late High Sheriff of this County for 

6—17—16 the balance due to him 6—17—6 

To Benj. Wilson, Clerk of our Court for extra services from 

last November to this day 7 — 10 — 

To said Clerk for two called Courts 400 2—10—0 

To Said Clerk attendance on Court of public claims 1 — 00 — 

To James Prather, 1 old wolf 0—12—6 


To Wm. Johnson, 1 old wolf — 12 — 6 

To James Arnold, 1 old wolf, and one young wolf — 18 — 9 

To John Hamilton, 1 old wolf — 12 — 6 

To Barnes Allen, 2 old wolves 1 — 5 — 

To Thomas Nutter, 1 old wolf 0—12 — 6 

To Daniel Davisson, 1 old wolf, assigned to David Prunty. . — 12 — 6 

To Benj. Wilson for purchasing book for County's use 3 — 00 — 

To Daniel Davisson for serving on highway with his team. . — 6 — 

To Catherine Counterman 7 — 10 — 

To David Bradford extra services County Court atty 17 — 10 — 

To John P. Duval, assignee Jesse York, 1 young wolf — 6 — 3 

Ordered that the sum of £129. 12s. Od. be levied on 432 tithables and 
that the present Sheriff collect the same and account with Court according 
to law, at the time limited by law. 

£ S. D. 
By 10 Shillings on Joel Lowther, he being security for 

Robinson for swearing — 10 — 

By 5 shillings on Joel Lowther, he being security for Kinch- 

eloe for getting drunk, — 5 — 

February 21, 1786. 

Ordered that the building of a Court House to be in the town of 
Clarksburg and a bridge across Elk be exposed to publick sale, to the 
lowest bidder on the 2nd. Court day in March next, at which time ye 
draught of the same will be made kaown, and the Clerk is required to 
publickly notify the same. 

Isaac Edwards a Baptist Minister was qualified to perform the rites 
of matrimony. 

March 23, 1786. 

John McCally and Captain Edward Jackson, Commissioners, ap- 
pointed to settle with Greenbrier County the expenses of running the 
dividing line between Harrison and Greenbrier at five shillings per day. 

Note : — The settlement of this account led to several meetings between 
representatives of the two Counties before it was satisfactorily arranged. 

Hezekiah Davisson was awarded the contract to build the Court House 
for ninety pounds. eGorge Jackson was accepted as his security for 180. 

Note : — The pound in use was the Virginia pound, which amounted in 
the money of the present day to $3.33 5^, which made the contract price 
for building the Court House amount to $300.00. 

April 19, 1786. 

John Prunty and John Wilson appointed Commissioners to call on 
the court of Monongalia County, to immediately comply with the act for 
dividing the County of Monongalia as respects the refunding the money 
for their publick buildings and make their report with all possible 

Note : — The act creating Harrison from Monongalia County provided 
that the money Harrison had paid towards building the Court House and 
other public buildings in Monongalia should be refunded to Harrison. 
This led to a law suit and long vexatious legal proceedings before a settle- 
ment was reached. 


May 18, 1786. 

George Jackson has leave to keep a ferry on his own land across Elk, 
four pence for man and horse, and two pence for one man or one horse. 

June 2, 1786. 

Ralph Marion appointed overseer of the highway from Ann Davisson's 
Grave yard, to Eobert Plummer's, and all the tithables on Simpson's Creek 
above Ann Davisson's Run including Thompson's settlement, keep the road 
in repair. 

September 19, 1786. 

On motion of Benj. Wilson, a Jury of twelve men were directed to be 
summoned to condemn a site for a mill. 

March 21, 1787. 

Wm. Blair came into Court and proved to their satisfaction that he 
is an object, as appeared by a wound received in the year 1775 under the 
Command of Col. Charles Lewis, in Captain Jno. Lewis' Company; and 
it appears to the Court that an additional allowance of 2s. lOd. be added 
to the present £10. allowed. 

March 21, 1787. 

Christopher Carpenter came into Court and proved to the satisfaction 
of the Court that he is entitled to a military land warrant for services 
performed in the late war under the command of Uriah Springer in Col. 
Jno. Gibson's regiment and that he never had it in his power to obtain 
a discharge as he was absent on furlough; and the same is ordered to be 

March 22, 1787. 

Hezekiah Davisson & others, commissioners for opening a wagon road 
from the State road to the mouth of the Little Kanawha gave bond for 
£4000, agreeable to a law passed October 1786. 

March 29, 1787. 

Richard Conkling was bound over to answer the next Grand Jury, 
charged with having feloniously bitten off James Taff's ear. 

April 17, 1787. 

The sheriff was ordered to collect three shillings off of each tithable, 
and not to distress until the last day of the present month. This amounted 
to fifty cents a head. 

Commissioners Report. 

We the Commissioners appointed by the Courts of Greenbrier and 
Harrison Counties to settle and adjust the expense of running the dividing 
line between the said Counties, do find the proportion of the County of 
Greenbrier to be one hundred and twenty-three pounds, fourteen shillings 
and two pence and the proportion of the County of Harrison to be sixty-six 
pounds and ten pence and that the said Commissioners do agree that the 
sum of twelve pounds eight shillings and three pence shall be paid on the 
first Tuesday in December next to any person appointed receiver by the 


Court of Harrison County at the house of Mr. William Poage and the sum 
of fifty-one pounds one shilling and nine pence to be paid to such persons 
as have obtained receipts for services performed or for provisions found 
for the purpose of extending said line, and being liens on the County of 
Greenbrier and Augusta on the said first Tuesday in December and the 
sum of sixty pounds, four shillings & two pence to be paid also to any re- 
ceiver appointed by the Court of Harrison on the first Tuesday in Sep- 
tember 1788, at the house of the said William Poage it being the full 
amount of the sum due from the County of Greenbrier which agreement 
we do hereby ratify and confirm this 3rd. day of April, 1787. 

WiLM. Poage, 
John Wilson, 
Edward Jackson. 
April 18, 1787. 

Ordered that the County of Harrison after Randolph is taken off, 
be laid off into three districts to enable the Commissioners of the land 
tax to proceed to execute the law be as followeth : to-wit : Beginning at the 
mouth of Brown's Creek on the East side of the West Fork, thence up said 
creek to the head thereof, and along the dividing ridge between Lost Creek 
and Elk Creek to the Randolph County line, and thence along said line 
and the Greenbrier County line to the Ohio River, thence up said river to 
the Ohio County line, thence along the last mentioned line to the head 
of Ten Mile Creek, thence down along the dividing line between said creek 
and the waters of the West Fork River to the head of Davisson's Run, 
thence down said nm to its junction with the West Fork River, thence up 
said river to opposite the mouth of Browns Creek, thence crossing the West 
Fork River to the beginning, shall be the first and one District. 

The second district shall be on the west side and bounded by the first 
district and down the Ohio County line to the Monongalia County line 
and thence along said line to the West Fork river ; thence up said river to 
the mouth of Simpsons Creek; thence up the largest fork of said creek to 
the head thereof, and crossing the dividing ridge to the head of Shocks 
Run ; thence down the said run to the County line ; thence up said line to 
to the first district, which shall be one and the second district. And the 
residue of the County of Harrison below the second district shall be one 
and the third district and John McCalley is appointed Commissioner to 
serve in first district, Nicholas Carpenter in the second district and John 
Powers in the third district, Nicholas Carpenter in the second district 
and John Powers in the third District and the same is ordered accordingly. 

June Term, 1787. 

John Radcliff appointed overseer of the highway from the four mile 
tree to the six mile tree on the road that leads from Clarksburg to Angelius 
ford, and that the tithables from Hezekiah Davisson's place on Elk Creek 
and upwards including the waters of Elk do aid the surveyor in making 
a bridle road. 

Note:— It appears that at the June Court 1787 appraisers were ap- 
pointed for the estate of Levi Douglass and that at the September Court 
of the same year Mrs. Ann Burrowes was appointed guardian for Thomas 
Cottrill orphan of Andrew Cottrill, deceased. 


This indicates that both of these men died in that year, which is a 
matter of interest as they were both among the original pioneer settlers 
of Harrison County, as is related elsewhere, and had borne the hardships 
of frontier life for sixteen years. 

Avgust 23, 1787. 

George Jackson qualified in open Court as Lieutenant Colonel of 

September 18, 1787. 

Daniel Davisson was authorized to keep an ordinary in Clarks- 

Note. This means a tavern and his house stood on the North 
West comer of Second and IMain Streets. 

November 19, 1787. 

On motion made the Court is of opinion that the corner pillars where- 
on the Court House is to be built agreeable to the plan of the Court House 
as formerly laid off, are not sufficient. 

Therefore the Court is of opinion that the pillars under each corner 
shall reach from each comer 5 feet each way, and the thiclmess thereof 
two feet. 

The said Court and Thos. Barkley who undertook to build said Court 
House, agree each, to appoint a man who are to agree upon the sum said 
Barkley shall be paid for said pillars above the sum the said pillars 
would have come to, admitting they had been built agreeable to the former 

Novemler 20, 1787. 

Nicholas Carpenter qualified as sheriff. 

December 18, 1787. 

James Anderson late sheriff in his settlement is charged with 
£130. 19s. 

Januarij 27, 1788. 

A female prisoner who is charged with having feloniously taken goods 
from Joseph Wilkinson to the amount of £1. Os. Od. sterling. 

The Court on hearing the testimony is of opinion that the defendant 
is guilty of the fact wherewith she was charged and that she be imme- 
diately tied to the publick whipping post and there to receive ten lashes 
on her bare back, well laid on, & the same is ordered accordingly. 

February 16, 1788. 

William Haymond qualified as commissioner of the road from the 
State Road to or near the mouth of the Little Kanawha. 

March 20, 1788. 

James Anderson is granted license to retail goods in this County 
as the law directs. 


Apirl 23, 1788. 

John Denham minister gave bond for £500 to celebrate the rites of 

April 23, 1788. 

George Jackson, Benjamin Wilson, Nicholas Carpenter and John 
Powers took the oath as trustees for the Randolph Academy. 

April Term, 1788. 

Benjamin Robinson qualified as Captain of Militia and J. Bartlett and 
John Thomas as Ensigns. 

April 23, 1788. 

The Sheriff was ordered to collect £255. 3s. 6d. off of 346 tithables. 

August 18, 1788. 

William McCleery and Francis Taliaferro Brooke qualified as attor- 

August 19, 1788. 

Ordered that the militia now in actual service in this County be not 
exempted from County levy. 

William McCleery is by Court accepted as State's attorney for this 
County for one year for this Court, inclusive, and is allowed seven- 
teen pounds for the same. 

September 16, 1788. 

The prisoner having confessed to having stolen an axe, a hat, & a pair 
of stockings. 

Ordered that the Sheriff immediately tie the prisoner to the public 
whipping post and give him thirty-nine lashes well laid on & deliver him 
to David Hughes, Constable, who shall convey him to Isaac Anderson, 
said Anderson to convey him to the next constable who is to convey him 
instantly out of the county, or the said Anderson to convey him out of the 
county himself. 

November 19, 1788. 

William Robinson qualified as Sheriff. 

May 18, 1789. 

Ordered that Isaac Williams, Cornelius Miller, James Neal and Chris- 
topher Carpenter do view a way for a bridle road opposite the mouth of 
the Muskingum to the State road near Bull Creek. 

July 20, 1789. 

Ordered that Christopher Carpenter be surveyor of the highway from 
opposite the mouth of Muskingum River to the State road near to the 10 
mile tree on said State road, and that the tithables below the mouth of 
Middle Island Creek down the Ohio to the County line, including the 


tithables 10 miles South of said Ohio Eiver, aid in opening and keeping 
the road in repair. 

Octoler 17, 1789. 

Ordered that Wm. Haymond and Benj. Wilson, do view the Court 
House of this County, if agreeable to the plan delivered to Thomas Bart- 
lett, the undertaker, and to make a settlement of the additions and deduc- 
tions wherein said Bartlett has differed in the plan, and the various alter- 
ations to be valued in money and report the same to next Court. 

Novemher Court, 1789. 

Wm. Haymond and Benj. Wilson the Commissioners appointed to 
view the Court House were authorized to call in a third party provided 
they would disagree. 

December 22, 1789. 

Wm. Haymond, Benj. Wilson & David Hughes who were appointed 
by the Court to value the building of the Court House, report that the 
sum of £18 Is. Od. be reduced out of the sum of £184 10s. Od. which makes 
the sum to be allowed to Thos. Bartlett, the undertaker, for building the 
Court House to £166 9s. Od. And the Court is of the opinion that the 
Court House shall be received from Thomas Bartlett which is done accord- 
ingly and the bond cancelled. 

Note: — The name Bartlett was often spelled "Barkley" in the early 
records. This was also the case with other names of the early settlers. 
The Clerks and other officials were very careless in this respect and spelled 
the same name in different ways. This led to confusion and in one in- 
stance to a vexatious law suit. 

Novemher 5, 1789. 

John Powers presented a commission from Governor Randolph as 
sheriff but reported that he was not able to procure security, thereupon 
Thomas Cheney, George Jackson and John McCally were recommended 
to the Governor for the appointment. 

November Term, 1789. 

Viewers were appointed to make a way for a wagon road from the ford 
of Elk Creek in Clarksburg, down the East side of the said creek into the 
road that leads to William Barkley's, down the West Fork river and 
report to next Court. 

June Court, 1790. 

Thomas Cheney presented a commission as sheriff but made oath that 
he could not procure security, whereupon the Court recommended John 
McCalley, Benjamin Robinson and William Haymond as proper persons 
to fill the office of Sheriff. 

September Court, 1790. 

Joseph Chevuront, a minister of the Methodist Church qualified to 
administer the rites of matrimony. 


November 15, 1790. 

Maxwell Armstrong qualified as Attorney, and appointed Common- 
wealths Deputy Attorney. 

January 17, 1791. 

John McCalley qualified as Sheriff. 

Septemler 20, 1790. 

Ordered that Michael Thomas, Jeremiah Sergeant, James Neal and 
Moses Hewitt or any three of them, they being first sworn, do view and 
mark a way for a road from the State road, by Neals station on the 
Little ''Kenaway" and from there to the Harrison and "Kenaway" 
County lines and report the conveniences and inconveniences to Court. 

Note: — This order was entered in response to the following petition: 
"To The tvorshipful Court of Harrison County : 

The petition of the inhabitants of Neal's Station on the Little 
"Kenaway" humbly showeth, that your petitioners as well as the settlers 
on the "West of the Ohio, and travellers from "Caintucky" labor under 
great difficulty for want of a road from said station into the State road, 
as also Southward to the "Kenaway" County line, as many of the travel- 
lers from "Caintucky" leave their canoes at Belveal and come across by 
land to Clarksburg, and are often bewildered in the woods or obliged to 
hire a pilot to bring them through. 

Your petitioners therefore humbly pray your worships to grant them 
an order for laying off and opening a road into the above mentioned State 
road that leads to Clarksburg, and your petitioners as in duty bound 
shall pray &c. 

James Neal, 
Jeremiah Sergeant, 
Michael Thomas, 
John Hewitt, 
IMosES Hewitt, 
Wm. Tippett, 
Daniel Powell, 
John Wright, 
JosiAH Littel, 
Henry ]\Iat." 

January Term, 1792. 

Thomas Cooly, Presbyterian Minister, qualified to celebrate the rites 
of matrimony. 

John Sleeth qualified as Sheriff. 

March Term, 1793. . . 

William Lowther recommended to the Governor for a Commission 
as Lieutenant Colonel, Commandant, and William Eobinson Major. 

April Term, 1793. 

Monongalia County is asked to open a road from Wickwires ferry on 
the Valley River in this County to Ramsey's ferry on Cheat River. 


Julj/ Term, 1794. 

Benjamin Robinson qualified as Sheriff. 

October Term, 1794. 

Viewers appointed at the instance of Joshua Gibson and William 
Barkley to view the land of David Carpenter on the West Side of the 
West Fork River to erect a dam at the falls below the mouth of Elk. 

August Term, 1794. 

The Sheriff ordered to collect three shillings six pence off of each of 
the 686 tithables in the County. 

October Term., 1794. 

John Patterson, Minister of the Seventh Day Baptist Church author- 
ized to celebrate the rites of matrimony. 

August Term, 1793. 

The tithables reported as 607 and the levy to be 2s. 6d. 

September Court, 1793. 

Ordered that John Haymond and John McCally, Delegates be au- 
thorized to sell all the Wolf head certificates belonging to this County for 
not less than 13S. 6D. in the pound. 

October Court, 1793. 

Upon application of Joshua Gibson and William Barkley a Jury is 
directed to meet at the falls of the West Fork, below the mouth of Elk, 
and view the land on the West Side of the River, the property of David 
Carpenter for their abutments of their dam. 

Note: — This is the location where afterwards was established the 
Point Grist Mill and saw mill which served the public for many years. 

March 20, 1794. 

In order to encourage the erecting of a bridge across Elk Creek the 
Court agrees that they will aid a subscription now in the hands of Wm. 
Martin, provided they like the terms on which the bridge is to be built, 
the manner it is done &c. and if approved by the Court they will make up 
the balance by a County levy. 

Note: — The proposed bridge referred to above is the ]\Tain Street 
bridge over Elk Creek in Clarksburg, and was the first one built in the 

A great deal of the time of the Court was taken up in appointing 
viewers and superintendents of roads and the number of roads increased 
rapidly as the County became settled. 

Many of the localities named in connection with roads are not recog- 
nizable as they are now in other Counties. 

Juhj 21, 1794. 

Benjamin Robinson gave bond and qualified as sheriff. 


August Court, 1794. 

The number of tithables reported as 686, each assessed with 3S. 6D. 
Randolph County was allowed 10 due for the public buildings of Har- 
rison County. 

Note: — The inhabitants of Randolph had been taxed to assist in 
building the Court House and Jail of Harrison before Randolph was 
created and when the new County was taken from Harrison her propor- 
tion of this levy was refunded as above. 
Octoher Court, 1794. 

Ordered that the claims for Wolf certificates due from the publick to 
this County amounting to £168 3s. 4d. together with a claim of £27 10s. Od. be 
placed in the hands of George Jackson and John Haymond, Delegates to 
be sold for not less than ten shillings on the pound, and to account on 
their return from the assembly. 

Jackson and Haymond afterwards reported that these certificates 
were sold for £161 8s. 5d. 

May Term, 1795. 

Commissioners appointed to contract for bridge over Elk Creek in 
Clarksburg to be sixteen feet wide with hand rails. 

August Term, 1795. 

The County was laid off into two land assessment districts as follows : 

That all the land on the East side of the ridge that divides the waters 
of the Mononcrahela River from the waters that run "West to the Ohio 
River be one district, and the lands West of said dividing ridge 
to the West Bank of the Ohio River be the other District. 

March Term, 1796. 

Henry Smith authorized to keep an Ordinary at the month of the 
Little Kanawha. 

May Court, 1795. 

George Jackson, Wm. Robinson and William Haymond authorized to 
contract with some one to build a bridge over Elk Creek in Clarksburg 
on the Main Street to be 16 feet wide. 

August Court, 1795. 

John P runty presented a commission from the Governor as Sheriff, 
gave bond for $30,000 and took the oath of office. 

Note:— About this time the change of the monetary system begins 
from Pounds, shilling and pence to Dollars and cents, though it is not 
made permanent for some time. Occasionally both systems are used. 


February Court, 1796. 

Ordered that the sum of 1 6 be assessed against each tithable in this 
County, numbering 802, which will amount to £60 3s. Od. 

May Court, 1796. Special Session. 

Isaac Bockover stands charged for feloniously assaulting &c. John 

The prisoner plead guilty. A majority of the Court were of the opin- 
ion that he should be tried by the District Court. "Wm. Robinson, a mem- 
ber of the Court dissented and requested his dissent to be put on record, 
and in the meantime the prisoner escaped. 

The Sheriff was ordered to raise ''Hue and Cry" and command as- 
sistance to take him, and offer a reward of fifty dollars for his capture. 

Note : — This incident shows how primitive the times were. When a 
prisoner reached the tall timber he was pretty safe from capture, but in 
these days of telephone, telegraph, steam and trolly cars an escape is 
hardly possible. 

The following letter explains itself, the writer being a member of the 
last Congress of Washington's last term as President. 

Philadelphia, 27th. May, 1796. 
Gentlemen : — 

Permit me to take the liberty to enclose for the use of the citizens of 
Harrison County to you a copy of the land law for the sale of the lands 
N. West of the Eiver Ohio. I have got 2 copys printed for each County in 
our District, and I have sent to each Court and one to the Sheriff. The 
Military land bill is now before the Senate that I expect to bring copy 
home with me &c. when I return. 

We talk to rise on Wednesday next. The House of Representatives 
sent up one resolution to the Senate for to adjourn on Wednesday last, 
this they disagreed to, but say they will consent to the day above. As I 
hope to see you all shortly I shall omit any further details, only say that 
the Senate & us is all but at war about the South Western Territory, we 
wish them to be an independent State & the Senate will not agree &c. Ac- 
cept of my respects and believe me. 

Your Most Obedient Serv't, 

Geo. Jackson. 

The Worshipful Court of Harrison County. 

June Court, 1796. 

Ordered that the prison bounds be as follows : To wit : Beginning at 
Elk Creek one pole above George Jackson's Mill dam, thence to the tan 
yard Run where it runs through the fence; thence up said run and the 
meanders thereof, to the West side of the cross street, that runs above Wil- 
liam Martin or David Hewes house; thence along the said street or alley 
to a little hollow in said Hewe's lot, thence down the spring run to Elk 
Creek, thence up the said creek to the place of beginning. 

Note: — The law at this time authorized imprisonment for debt, but 
if the debtor could give a prison bound bond instead of being confined in 


jail, he was permitted the liberty of a certain boundary, and in case that 
boundary included his house he was permitted to stay at home but could 
not go beyond the prison bounds. 

The above bounds were about as follows: 

Beginning near the Mill and running up the little stream that puts 
into Elk Creek just below it to the line of Third Street ; thence along this 
street to near Traders Alley; thence Easterly down the little run to the 
Creek, thence up it to the beginning. 

This at that time included all the town lying on the West side of the 

June Term, 1796. 

Commissioners George Jackson, Benj. Wilson and William Haymond 
reported the specifications and plan for a new jail. 

Dimensions 35x20 feet to be built of stone and the walls 2 5^ feet 

The length or front of building to be on the line of Main Street. 

The Westerly end to be on the line of the cross street. The jail was 
located on the South East corner of Second and Pike Streets where the 
Presbyterian Church now stands, and across Main street from the Court 

June Court, 1796. 

The Sheriff was ordered to expose for sale the building of the stone 
July Court, 1796. 

The Sheriff was ordered to collect one dollar per head from 880 tith- 
ables. This is the first time the levy was laid in dollars instead of the 
Virginia pound. 

September 19, 1796. 

John Prunty, Sheriff of this County, came into Court, and for con- 
tempt offered to the Court, ordered that the said John Prunty be confined 
in the stocks for the space of five minutes, and or'd that John McCul- 
lough call upon assistance to enable him to execute this order. 

The contempt offered to the Court by said Prunty was ordering a wit- 
ness, and shoving him that was sworn out from the Clerk's table, saying, 
"No witness should be sworn without he was summoned, as it was cutting 
him out of his fees" and for his damming the Court, and the attorney who 
was there supporting his client's claim, and the whole bunch. The Court 
& attorney was D d fools and a set of d d scoundrels. 

The Court ordered the witness to give in his evidence, he the said 
Prunty said he should not in a very abrupt and angry manner, repeatedly 
damned the Court for fools. 

The Judge of the Court reprimanded him, in return he replied, "he 
was commanding officer of this place" and he still continued his abuse, 


abusing the Court generally and the members individually with the words 
rascals, d d fools and d d rascals &c. 

Ordered that John Prunty be again put into the stocks and there to 
continue until the Court rises this day for his repeated and further ag- 
gravated abuse & contempt to the Court. 

Ordered that John McCullough execute this order. 

Septemher 20, 1796. 

Ordered that John Prunty the present Sheriff for his repeated con- 
tempt and abuse to the Court is ordered to find immediate security for his 
good behavior to be bound with him in the sum of $500 Dollars, whereup- 
on he refused. 

Ordered that said Prunty be put in jail which was executed by Alli- 
son Clark, constable. 

John Prunty, sheriff, who was sworn into office in September 1795, 
and his year having thus expired, was called upon by Court to produce 
his commission from the Governor, in consequence of his being nominated 
at last June Court, and having no commission but insulted the Court, 
which has been done by him for sometime past, the Court is of opinion 
that public justice cannot be administered should said Prunty be commis- 
sioned, therefore Thomas Keed, Thomas Webb & Watson Clark is by Court 
recommended to his Excellency the Governor as proper persons to fill the 
office of Sheriff for said County. Ordered to be certified. 

Ordered that John Prunty be fined for seven oaths sworn in the hear- 
ing and presence of the Court 83 cents each oath, also fifteen oaths in the 
presence and hearing of William Robinson, a Justice of the Peace at 83 
cents each oath. 

Ordered that said Prunty pay down in Court the sum of 17D & 26 
cents, or give security for the payment of the same in six months, and 
John Black came into Court and entered into security for said John 

Note: — The scene that occurred at the September Court 1796 must 
from the description given in the above orders have been an exceedingly 
lively one, and was typical of the time in which it occurred. 

What stirred the ire of Sheriff Prunty was his objection to a witness 
being called to the stand by the Cleric without having a subpoena issued, 
so that he could serve it and thus secure his legal fee for service. 

The Court was composed of men not to be trifled with, and it can be 
imagined what an uproar there was in the Court room Avith the interested 
spectators, the Court disorganized, the Sheriff on the war path loudly ex- 
pressing his supreme contempt for the presiding justices, and after having 
been put into the stocks for five minutes and being released again became 
unruly and was again placed in the stocks to remain there until the Court 
adjourned that day. 

It was a regular rough and tumble affair, a field day and not at all a 
dignified proceeding to occur in a Court of Justice but to the outsiders 
it must have been amusing. Thus ended the first day. 

The next day when Court convened the row was resumed by the Court 
directing the Sheriff to give security for his good behavior, and upon his 


refusal to do so he was uiicereinoiiiously dragged oflE to jail. Upon reflec- 
tion he cooled off, was released and gave bond as required. 

The Court took immediate steps to prevent Prunty's re-appointment 
as sheriff, and recommended other parties for the position but as will be 
seen without effect, as at the following January Term he presented his com- 
mission and was sworn into office. What influence was used to bring this 
about does not appear, but anyiA'ay the old man triumphed over the Court 
and came out victorious. 

Neither did this episode in anyway affect the future public career of 
Sheriff John Prunty, as he was always a man of affairs and represented the 
County for many years in the Legislature at Richmond. 

He died full of years and honors and with the highest respect of all who 
knew him. 

March Court 1797. 

Ordered that William Martin's mark which is a swallow fork in the 
left ear and a hole in the right ear be recorded. 

Note : — Cattle were turned out on the range as it was called, or rather 
in the woods in the Spring and driven home in the fall, and it was neces- 
sary for stock owners to have well defined marks so as to dintinguish their 

The woods at this time furnished abundance of forage and animals 
came out in the fall in good condition. 

It was the practice in certain seasons to cut down young soft wood 
trees for cattle to browse upon ,and they became so accustomed to this, that 
when the cows would see a man with an axe they would fall in behind and 
follow him. 

April 18, 1797. 

George Towers, a minister of the Gospel of the Presbyterian order au- 
thorized to celebrate the rites of matrimony. 

October Term, 1797. 

Jacob Cozad, a minister of the Baptist church authorized to celebrate 
the rites of matrimony. 

On August 22, 1898, the County Court appointed viewers to mark a way for 
a bridle road from Isaac Williams to the mouth of Middle Island and from 
the mouth of Bull Creek, the upper side thereof to intersect the State road 
leading from Clarksburg to said Williams, and report the conveniences 
and inconveniences to Court. 

Note : — This order shows the large territory included in the County. 
The house of Isaac Williams stood on the east bank of the Ohio River op- 
posite Marietta, where Williamstown now is which was named after him. 

November 24, 1802. 

Dick, a negro man, the property of Colonel George Jackson, charged 
with feloniously stealing and carrying away certain property. 

Pleads not guilty, found guilty and the prisoner was sentenced to be 
hung "by the neck until he is dead on Saturday, January 22, 1803." 

The Court fixes the value of the said negro slave at $300. 


Note: — At this time the County Court had the authority to admin- 
ister the death penalty to slaves but not to free people. 

This sentence was never executed, the prisoner either being pardoned 
by the Governor or allowed to escape. 

May 4, 1803. 

Ordered that the prison bounds be extended to include the in and out 
lots of the town, and also to extend along the road to the Baptist meeting 
house and to include all the ground that lies between the two roads round 
said meeting house. 

Note: — This order shows that a Baptist meeting house was standing 
at that date near where the Methodist Church South now stands on South 
Chestnut Street. 

The grave yard was deeded to the Hopewell Baptist Church Congre- 
gation by Daniel Davisson June 21, 1790, and the church building stood 
on the original grave yard lot. This was probably the first church built 
in Clarksburg. 

October 18, 1803. 

County levy fixed at fifty cents off of each tithable. 
John Hall qualified as Sheriff. 

May Term, 1791. 

The Naturalization of Charles Stratton, William Ennis and James 
Malone took place during this Court under the Act of Congress passed in 
1790. The order states that they considered themselves aliens, but does 
not give their nationality. They were probably new arrivals from 

September 19, 1791. 

George Jackson granted a certificate that he has been a resident of 
this Commonwealth, and County from the year 1770, and deemed himself 

a goood citizen. 
June 18, 1792. 

Colo. Duval late Lieutenant of this County has declined any further 
militia command in this County, the Court recommended to the Governor 
that William Lowther was a proper person to fill said office. 

Note : — The County Lieutenant was a most important Military posi- 
tion during the Indian troubles. He was the representative of the Gov- 
ernor, had charge of the public arms, equipments and ammunition, had 
power to call out the Militia, and to exercise all the duties of a command- 
ing officer. 

August 22, 1792. 

The number of tithables reported to the Court was 564, and the Coun- 
ty levy was fixed at 2s. 6d. 

October Court, 1792. 

Charles Stratton agreed to glaze the four lower windows of the Court 


House with glass and to make four shutters for said windows to be hung 
on iron hinges the shutters to be made of seasoned boards and to be of 
one leaf, for which he is to be paid £3 13s, Od. 

September 17, 1792. 

William Lowther produced a commission as County Lieutenant and 
qualified as such. 

January Term, 1793. 

David Hughes was granted a license to keep an ordinary in Clarks- 

Note : — This tavern stood on the North East corner of Main and 
Third Streets, which is now and for a long time has been owned by the 
Lowndes family. 

This Hostelry known as Hughes Tavern was famous for many years, 
and was known and favorably spoken of by travelers far and wide. It 
had a well stocked bar, large stables, and a well kept table, and has been 
the favorite stopping place for many distinguished lawyers, congressmen 
and other public men. The buildings consist of a large two story brick 
on the corner, with a long one story stone building running along Third 
Street, with a frame building on the East of the brick. 

August 21, 1793. 

It being represented to this Court that on the island below the 
mouth of the Little Kanawha there is about 20 families settled, which 
island is in the bounds of this County, and that the publick good requires 
to have some Gentleman in the commission of the peace in that place, as 
there is no Justice of this County living within five miles. 

Ordered that Elijah Barnes be recommended to his Excellency the 
Governor as a proper person to fill the office of Justice of the Peace for 
said County. 

Note: — The Island referred to in the above order is situated in the 
Ohio River a short distance below Parkersburg and is now known as 
"Blennerhasset's Island," and was within the boundaries of Harrison 

In the year 1797 Harman Blennerhasset an Irish gentleman of edu- 
cation and wealth, purchased three hundred acres of the upper end of 
this island for $4500. and with his beautiful and accomplished wife, who 
was Miss Agnew, the daughter of the Governor of the Isle of Man, made 
it their home. 

Upon a gentle eminence he built a spacious mansion two stories high, 
with porticoes forty feet in length stretching out like wings from either 
side. The interior contained spacious halls, enameled walls, gilded 
mouldings, rich draperies, costly furniture, large mirrors, musical instru- 
ments, a library and scientific apparatus. Nearly all Europe contributed 
articles for the adornment of this island home. From Holland came 
brick and tiles, from Venice works of art, from Paris oriental carpets 
and hangings, from London furniture of English Oak. 


The grounds were beautifully graded and planted in shrubbery, rare 
plants and beautiful flowers rendering it an earthly paradise. 

Blennerhasset claimed that the establishment of his home was at an 
expense of $40,000, which was an enormous sum for that day. 

But the serpent was to enter this earthly Eden, and blast the hopes 
and ambitions of its occupants, and it came in the person of Aaron Burr, 
ex-vice President of the United States, who had in a duel on the banks of 
the Hudson killed the gifted and loved Alexander Hamilton. 

For this act Burr was shunned by his political associates, denounced 
and spurned as an outcast by a majority of the American people and, 
seeing that his public career was doomed, resolved on making the attempt 
of separating the Western States from the Union and in uniting them 
with the Spanish Territory in the South and establishing an Empire of 
which he was to be Emperor. 

In pursuance of this scheme he visited the "Western Country in 1805 
landed at the island and succeeded in enlisting the unsuspecting Blenner- 
hasset in his visionary and gilded dream of establishing a vast and 
mighty empire in which Blennerhasset was to bear a prominent part. 

Burr after enlisting a few adventurers to his cause and establishing 
rendezvous at various points along the Ohio and Mississippi again in 
1806 came West and with his daughter Theodosia landed once again up- 
on the Island. 

After a few days Burr floated on down the river to be followed in a 
short time by Blennerhasset with a fleet of boats loaded with men and 

In December 1806 Mrs. Blennerhasset accompanied by her family, 
left the island in a boat with the expectation of joining her husband at 
the mouth of the Cumberland Eiver. 

In the meantime the President, Thomas Jefferson, issued a procla- 
mation warning all citizens not to take part in this filibustering enter- 

Burr was finally arrested by the United States authorities, taken to 
Richmond, Virginia and tried for treason before John INIarshall the Chief 
Justice. The trial began on May 22, 1807 and lasted five months and is 
one of the most celebrated cases ever tried in this country. Burr was ac- 
quitted for lack of evidence. Blennerhasset was arrested, taken to Rich- 
mond but never brought to trial. The Island was occupied by Militia 
called out to arrest Blennerhasset and the house and premises were loot- 
ed, robbed and destroyed by a squad of drunken revellers elated by a 
little brief authority. 

Many were the disappointments and vicissitudes that followed 
Blennerhasset and his charming wife after the destruction of their beau- 
tiful home, he dying on the Isle of Gurnsey in 1831 in poverty and dis- 
tress, and his devoted wife after many unsuccessful attempts to induce 
the Government to allow her indemnity for the wanton destruction of 
her property, died in a New York garret in 1842 in the depths of misery, 
almost alone and neglected, and was laid in Mother Earth by the hands 
of charity, three thousand miles of the stormy Atlantic separating her 
from the one to whom she had unselfishly devoted her life. 


Such, briefly stated, is the sad tragedy in human life that occurred 
on what was once the soil of Harrison County showing as it does blasted 
hopes, disappointed ambitions, and the fraility of all earthly things. 

A century has elapsed since the Blennerhassets' departure from their 
Island Home and not a vestige of their occupation is left save the well 
from which they procured water. The hand of time has levelled all with 
the surface of Mother Earth. 

October 18, 1803. 

A road is established from the bridge at Joseph Davisson's to the 
Brushy Fork near the Widow Douglass'. 

Octoler Term, 1803. 

Sixty Dollars appropriated to build a Clerk's Office. About this 
time something was wrong with the Court House as Daniel Davisson was 
allowed $12.50 and Charles Thomas $3.00 for the use of rooms to hold 
Court in. 

May Term, 1804. 

John Hall recommended for Sheriff. 

Octoler Term, 1805. 

John Haymond qualified as Sheriff. 

Decemher Term, 1805. 

Colonel George Jackson proposed to the Court to set up a stove in 
the Court House for one year and to have the privilege of buying it for 
cost and carriage at the end of that time or pay an annual rent for it. 

Note : — This indicates that there had not been any fire in the Court 
House up to this time as the contract does not call for a chimney. 

January Term, 1806. 

Five dollars was allowed to keep the Court House clean and furnish 
fire wood for one year. 

May Term, 1806. 

The Attorneys, Clerk and Sheriff were permitted to make such im- 
provements to their seats and tables as they may severally think proper 
at their own expense. 

June Term, 1806. 

Contract let to build bridge over Elk Creek in Clarksburg to Benja- 
min Coplin at the price of $1850. 
August Term, 1806. 

John Haymond qualified as Sheriff. 

Pounds, shilling and pence were used in making an allowance at this 

Road established from mouth of Murphy's Creek to the top of Simp- 
son Creek Hill. 


Bridge ordered to be built over Simpson's Creek where a bridge now 

June Term, 1807. 

Henry Camden a Minister of the Methodist Church was authorized to 
celebrate the rites of matrimony. 

The Comity was laid off into constable Districts. 

A road authorized to be opened from Clarksburg to the Mason 
County line intersecting the road leading to Point Pleasant agreeably to 
an act of assembly December 22, 1806. 

Octoher Term, 1807. 

Isabella a negro woman slave, the property of Benjamin "Wilson, Jr., 
was found guilty of grand larceny, and was sentenced to be burned in 
the hand and that the sheriff give her 39 lashes on her bare back at the 
publick whipping post. James Pindall counsel for prisoner. 

Fehruary Term, 1808. 

Stephen Dicks asks for proceedings to condemn a mill site on Elk 
Creek at the Hugill ford. 

April Term, 1808. 

Henry Coffman authorized to build a mill on Robinson's Run. 

July Term, 1808. 

Rachel a negro woman slave, the property of Jacob Means was 
brougfht before the Court charged with burglary and Grand larceny. 

John C Jackson assigned as Attorney for the Prisoner. 

The Court considered that the prisoner was not guilty of burglary 
but guilty of grand larceny, and being asked what she had to gainsay 
the judgment of the law, she prayed the benefit of clergy, and it was 
granted accordingly, and the sentence of the Court was that the prisoner 
be burnt in the hand and receive 39 lashes on her bare back, and the 
sheriff was directed to execute the judgment of the Court, which was 
done accordingly. 

Note : — ^The plea of benefit of clergy was an exemption from punish- 
ment, even for heinous crimes, allowed by civil governments, to persons 
in holy orders, out of an exaggerated reverence for the professed ministers 
of God. 

Originally no one was admitted to this privilege, unless he was 
actually a priest in orders, but in a period of universal ignorance the 
ability to read was a mark of such learning, as to entitle anyone who 
possessed this power to exemption from punishment, for less than capital 
crimes. On the establishment of the Penitentiary in America in 1796 
this plea was abolished as to free persons. 

In Virginia it was considered that as to slaves confinement in the 
Penitentiary was not suitable, and as to them the benefit of clergy was 
retained until abolished in 1848. 


July Term, 1808. 

Order entered establishing a road from Clarksburg to Williamsport 
on the Ohio River, opposite Marietta, 

October Term, 1808. 

Benjamin Coplin qualified as Sheriff. 

July Term, 1809. 

John Hutton asks for writ to establish a mill on Gnatty Creek. 

Ordered that James Pindall be fined 83 cents for profane swearing 
in the presence of the Court. 

Note: — Pindall was an attorney and afterwards a member of the 
Legislature and of Congress. He was a man of great natural ability, a 
profound lawyer and celebrated as a brilliant orator. He was not a 
prohibitionist and this failing was detrimental to his public career. 

September Term, 1809. 

Proceedings taken to erect a water grist mill on Elk Creek at the 
mouth of IMurDhy's Run by John G. Jackson. 

"William Martin qualified as Sheriff. 

December Term, 1810. 

The Court was in doubt as to the legality of removing the Court 
House on to the lands of John Wilson suggested that it would require 
an act of the Legislature to do so, which was finally procured. 

Jonathan Jackson qualified as an attorney. 

Note: — This was the father of the great soldier Thomas Jonathan 
Jackson known as Stonewall. 

December Term, 1811. 

Joseph Johnson was appointed constable. 

Note: — This was the first public position held by Mr. Johnson, who 
afterwards was a Captain in the war of 1812, member of the Legislature 
of Virginia and of Congress and Governor of Virginia. 

June Term, 1811. 

An appropriation of $150, allowed to build a bridge over Simpson's 
Creek a quarter of a mile or more above Johnson's Mill. 

August Term, 1811. 

Samuel Boggess makes application to build a grist mill on Ten Mile 
Creek on his own land. 

Benjamin Coplin makes similar application to be on his own land 
on Ten Mile Creek. 

December Term, 1812. 

John Sommerville and Amon B. Rice granted license to keep an 
ordinary in Clarksburg. 


April Term, 1813. 

Koad established from Major William Raymond's residence down 
Zack's Eun to Brown's Creek. 

February Term, 1812. 

Joseph Morris, a Baptist Minister qualified to celebrate the rites of 

John G. Jackson qualified as a Brigadier General 20th. Brigade of 

March Term, 1812. 

Joseph Johnson recommended to the Governor for appointment as a 
Captain of a rifle Company 2nd. Battalion 119th. Regiment of Militia. 

May Term, 1812. 

Contract approved for one dozen "Windsor Chairs, two of which to be 
armed chairs for the use of the Court. 

Jwie Term, 1812. 

James McCarty Captain, Jonathan Jackson 1st. Lieutenant, John 
Wilkinson Second Lieutenant and David E. Jackson Cornet were recom- 
mended to the Governor for appointment in a troop of Cavalry. 

' ' It appearing to the Court that a Company of cavalry have associated 
them-selves together under the foregoing persons as their officers to tender 
their services to the President of the United States under the Act of Con- 

NoTE : — The above order indicates preparation for the war with Great 
Britain then going on, and this Cavalry Company had volunteered to 
take part in it, but was not accepted, as no record of any Cavalry Com- 
pany going from West of the mountains can be found. 

September Term, 1812. 

Joseph Morgan permitted to build a mill on Buffalo Creek. 

June Term, 1813. 

John L. Sehon, William Williams, Jacob Stealey and David Hewes 
appointed commissioners to sell the old Court House. 

Ordered that the title to % acres of land reverts to Daniel Davisson, 
the Court House having been removed therefrom. 

October Term, 1813. 

Clement Shinn authorized to build a mill on Shinn's Run. 

January Term, 1814. 

Benjamin Webb declined to accept Sheriffalty. 

September Term, 1814. 

Viewers appointed to lay out a road from the Cherry Trees opposite 
Wm. Robinson's house in Clarksburg to intersect the road that comes up 


and crosses Elk Creek opposite the Academy through lands of John L. 
Sehon, Josias Adams and Benj. Wilson, Jr. 

December 9, 1814. 

An act of the Legislature passed permitting John G. Jackson to 
build a dam five feet high acress the West Fork Eiver at his Salt Works 
about three miles above Clarksburg. 

March 21, 1793. 

Upon petition of part of the inhabitants on the banks of the Ohio, 
the Court taking it into consideration, well knowing their exposed sit- 
uation and no officer heretofore commissioned residing in that part of the 
County, and it being near seventy miles from the other inhabited parts 
of the County, the Court humbly recommends Hugh Phelps for Captain, 
Michael Thomas, Lieut. & Bird Lockard, Ensign. The Court requests, if 
it is consistent with the pleasure of the Executive, that they may be com- 
missioned. It has appeared to us that there are about forty militia in 
that part of the County, and convenient to be commanded. Ordered that 
the same be certified. 

Atigust 20, 1793. 

Whereas the exposed situation of the lower end of Harrison County 
has induced the Court to recommend to Governor Lee, to commission the 
persons here recommended, Capt. John Owen, Lieut. John Thomas & 
Ensign Nathan Tucker. 

At a County Court held on the 28th November 1805, Abel Clemmens 
was arraigned charged with having on the night of the 10th. day of No- 
vember, been guilty of murdering Barbary, his wife, Elijah, Hester, 
Kachel, Mary, Elizabeth, Benjamin, Parthena and Amos Clemmens, his 

He plead not guilty and the Court directed that he be sent to Mor- 
gantown for trial in the District Court. 

He was tried, found guilty and hanged in 1806 to a locust tree, which 
stood near the Decker's Creek, Middle Bridge close to Morgantown. 

Clemmens cabin stood at the East end of Clarksburg between Pike 
Street and the Philippi road near the old Jackson grave yard. After 
committing the deed he fled to the woods, and for several days was hid 
in a cliff of rocks north of to^vn, west of and near the present B. & 0. 
station, which are still known as Clemmens rocks, but being driven des- 
perate by hunger and his own tortured feelings he came in and surren- 
dered himself to the authorities. 

Clemmens in his confession stated that he was driven to this horrible 
act from fear that his children would starve, and by a power that called to 
him to do it that he could not resist. He was probably insane but "brain 
storms" and the insanity dodge cut no figure in the Courts of that day, 
and justice was meted out in strict compliance with the law. 

April Term, 1815, 

Proceedings held for John G. Jackson's building a dam five feet high 


across the West Fork River to furnish, power for drilling a well and 
operating salt works. 

Note: — Jackson's Salt works were on the West Side of the river 
above the mouth of Davisson's run in what is now Clark District. 

June Term, 1816. 

Jacob Stealey, John Webster and Thomas P. Moore appointed Com- 
missioners to build jail in rear of the new Court House and $1000. ap- 
propriated for that purpose. 

One hundred and twenty-four dollars appropriated as a further sum 
for building two clerk's offices adjoining the Court House building. When 
the second Court House was built no provision was made for Clerk's 
Offices. They were built afterwards being one story brick buildings on 
the East and West sides of the main building and opened out into the 
Court House yard. 

One Thousand Dollars appropriated to build bridge over Elk Creek 
at its mouth. Commissioners Isaac Coplin, Stephen Dicks and William 

June Term, 1816. 

John G. Jackson authorized to construct a toll bridge over the West 
Fork River at the mouth of Elk Creek. The Legislature requested to 

One hundred and sixty dollars appropriated in addition to what has 
heretofore been granted to build a poor house. 

July Term, 1816. 

Road established from the East end of the Main Street Bridge in 
Clarksburg to where the road to the mouth of Limestone crosses Elk 

October Term. 

William Davis authorized to make a re-survey of the town of New 

Decemher Term, 1816. 

Price of old wolf scalps, Eight Dollars. 
Price of young wolf scalps, Four Dollars. 

January Term, 1817. 

Old Jail ordered to be sold. 

February Term, 1817, 

Waldo P. Goff appointed Deputy Sheriff on motion of Daniel Davis- 
son, Sheriff. 

April Term, 1817. 

The election of the following Board of Trustees for Clarksburg cer- 
tified to the Court by Lemuel E, Davisson, Town Clerk. 


James Pindal, Daniel Morris, John G. Jackson, B. Wilson, Jr., John 
"Webster, James MeCalley, Josias Adams, Thomas P. Moore and George I. 

July Term, 1817. 

David, a negro slave tried and sentenced to be hanged on the 29th. 
day of August for the murder of Isaac, a slave. 

Note: — This sentence was not executed. 

September Term, 1817. 

Daniel Davisson appointed Sherijff for the ensuing year. 

April Term, 1818. 

John Taylor, Valentine Clapper, MJatthew Hite, and Aaron Lochard 
proved to the satisfaction of the Court that they served in the Revolu- 
tionary war against the common enemy and their declaration is directed 
to be certified to the Secretary of War. 

Note: — The soldiers of the Revolution were required to prove their 
service and be identified before the County Courts in order to secure 

June Term, 1818. 

The names of Shinnston and Bridgeport first appeared on the County 
records at this Court. 

October Term, 1818. 

Road order refers to Gillis' Coal Bank on Murphy's Run. 

Note: — Tradition says that this was the first coal bank opened to 
supply Clarksburg. It was situated about a mile and a half East of 
Clarksburg, and it was some time before coal was discovered elsewhere. 

September Term, 1818. 

Elias Stillwell appointed Sheriff for ensuing year. 

October Term, 1818. 

Commissioners report establishing a road from Clarksburg to Sisters- 

Road established from Jacob Eibs house (near the Fair Ground) to 
the furnace dam (Point Mills). 

Note: — Jacob Eib was in charge of the ferry over the West Fork 
River at the foot of Ferry Street. 

December Term, 1819. 

The Thespian Society is permitted to occupy the Jury Room in the 
Court House. 

Elias Stillwell qualified as Sheriff this year. 

January Term, 1820. 

David B. Denham applied to construct a grist miU on Bingamon 
Creek a half mile below the mouth of Cunningham's run. 


June Term, 1820. 

■William A. Harrison qualified as attorney. 

November Term, 1820. 

It is certified upon proof, that Nicholas Carpenter was killed by 
Indians on October 4, 1791. 

July Term, 1821. 

Samuel Washington was the presiding Justice of the Court at this 
term. He was a relative of George "Washington and lived for a time near 

He presented the sword of General Washington and a cane of Benja- 
min Franklin to George W. Summers to be by him given to Congress. 

September Term, 1821. 

Peter Johnson qualified as Sheriff. 

November Term, 1821. 

Permission granted for a room in the Court House to be used by a 
Masonic Lodge. A protest was filed against the order by a number of 

James P. Bartlett licensed to keep an ordinary. 

November Term, 1821. 

Jacob Coplin acknowledged deed for poor house farm to the County. 

This was situated on Ann Moore's Eun near the present town of 

January Term 1822. 

Thomas Hayroond qualified as Principal Surveyor of the County. 

Note: — This appointment was to fill the vacancy occasioned by the 
death on November 21, 1821, of Major William Hayraond, who had held 
the position since the organization of the County in 1784, a period of 
thirty-seven years. 

Thomas, his son, continued as surveyor until his death in 1853, a 
period of thirty-one years. 

Cyrus a brother of Thomas was appointed Surveyor upon the death 
of Thomas until his death a period of seventeen years. 

Sidney a son of Cyrus after the death of his father held the office 
for four years, thus making the office held in one family for the long 
period of 89 years. 

November Term, 1822. 

William A. Kogers qualified as Sheriff. 

December Term, 1822. 

Benjamin Wilson, Jr., Clerk of the Superior Court of Law and 
Chancery for Harrison County is refused permission to occupy the office 
East of the Court House as his office. 


February Term 1823. 

Proceedings entered to condemn lands of John Harbert for mill dam 
on the Left Hand fork of Ten Mile. 

John Davisson commissioned Sheriff. 

November Term 1824. 

A stone waU twelve feet high ordered to be constructed around the 
jail yard. 

November Term, 1825, 

Notice of James Pindal's death spread upon the minutes. 

March Term 1827. 

"Wiliam Davis qualified as SheriJff. 

After the principal pioneer work of the County had been done, 
such as making roads, bridges, erecting public buildings and establishing 
mills and the population had increased, the County Court was the medium 
through which the most of the legal business was conducted. 

The Circuit Court was held but twice a year and the important 
legal cases were brought in it, but as the County Court was held monthly 
the minor cases could be tried more quickly than in the other Court, 
as the County Court occupied much of its time as an examining Court 
in trying law and chancery cases as well as misdemeanors, the Circuit 
Court disposing of the felonies. 

For these reasons the proceedings of this Court after the year 1815 
being mostly of a formal character are not of an interesting nature to 
the public generally and will only be occasionally referred to. 

Clerks of the County Court. 

Benjamin Wilson 1784 

John Wilson, Jr 1814 

David Davisson 1831 

Eli Marsh 1838 

Phineas Chapin 1852 

William Roy, pro tem 1857 

Wm. P. Cooper, pro tem 1857 

Thomas L. Moore, Clerk and Recorder 1858 

Sidney Raymond, Recorder 1864 

James H. Taylor, Clerk and Recorder 1867 

James Monroe 1889 

P. M. Long 1891 

Virgil L. Highland 1897 

Charles W. Holden 1903 

W. Guy Tetrick 1907 

September Term, 1814. 

The Bystander is referred to at this Court as being published in 

Thomas Gawthrop authorized to build a Grist Mill on his land on 
Lost Run, the dam not to exceed eleven feet in height. 



October Term, 1814. 

Benjamin Wilson resigned the office of Clerk of the Comity Court 
and John "Wilson, Jr., was appointed to fill the vacancy. 

Note: — Col. Benjamin Wilson had held the office of Clerk since the 
organization of the Comity in 1784, the long period of thirty years. 
He was succeeded by his son. 

The last session of the Coimty Court for the old State of Virginia 
was held at the June Term, 1863, and the last day of that term was on 
the 18th day of June. 

The proceedings show that the Court sat pursuant to its adjournment 
on yesterday. 
Present : 

George K1a.tser, Presiding Justice pro tem. 

Cyrus Ross, 

Jacob Highland, 

Matthew W. Davis, Associate Justices. 

Orders were entered approving the accounts of County officials and 
the following ordered, that all causes remaining on the docket, not spec- 
ially continued or otherwise disposed of be and the same are severally 
continued until the next term, to which they are respectively cognizable. 

Ordered that the Court do now adjourn until Court in course. 

G. Kayser, Presiding Justice Pro tem. 

Thus passed away in the midst of the red tide of the civil war this 
venerable institution which had controlled and guided the destinies of 
the Coimty since 1784, and with it went the jurisdiction of the Old 
Dominion, as the new State of West Virginia came into existence two days 

"The King is dead. Long Live the King." 

Sheriffs of Harrison County. 

1784 William Lowther 

1785 James Anderson 

1787 Nicholas Carpenter 

1788 William Robinson 

1790 John McCally 

1792 John Sleeth 

1794 Benjamin Robinson 

1795 John Prunty 

1797 Thomas Read 

1799 John Hacker 

1801 Watson Clark 

1803 John Hall 

1805 John Haymond 

1807 Benjamin Coplin 

1809 William Martin 

1811 George Arnold 

1811 Joseph Davisson 

1813 Benjamin Webb 

1813 William Martin 

1815 Isaac Coplin 

1817 Daniel Davisson 

1818 Ellas Stillwell 

1820 Peter Johnson 

1822 William A. Rogers 

1824 John Davisson 

1826 William Davis 

1828 Jedediah Waldo 

1830 Samuel Hall 

1833 Matthias Winters 

1837 Caleb Boggess 

1839 Benjamin Stout 

1841 John Cather 

1843 Nathan Davis 

1845 John Davis 

1847 John B. Lowe 

1850 Benjamin Basse! 

1851 Edward Stewart 

1851 Waldo P. Gofl 

1852 Thomas A. Horner 

1854 Abia Minor 

1858 Charles Holden 

I860 James Monroe 


1861 David W. Robinson, pro tem 1885 John W. Monroe 

1863 David W. Robinson 1889 Matthew G. Holmes 

1867 Timothy F. Roane 1893 John I. Alexander 

1871 John A. Hursey 1897 Lloyd L. Lang 

1873 James Monroe 1901 John A. Fleming 

1877 Lemuel D. Jarvis 1905 John M. Flanagan 

1881 James D. Hornor 1909 Michael J. Francis 

The old County Court system having succeeded the Board of Super- 
visors and vested with civil and erimiual Jurisdiction was composed of 
a President and two associate Justices of the peace. 

The first Court under this system was held on February 10, 1873, 
with B. Tyson Harmar as President. 

After several years experience this system was found to be unsatis- 
factory the constitution was amended and the Court made to consist of 
three Commissioners for each County but without judicial powers. 

This system is still in existence. 

County Surveyors. 

1784 William Raymond 1881 Thomas M. Jackson 

1821 Thomas Haymond 1885 Jasper N. Wilkinson 

1853 Cyrus Haymond 1889 C. E. Stonestreet 

1869 Jasper N. Wilkinson 1893 John W. Bailey 

1873 Thomas Hawker 1897 Charles C. Fittro 

1877 Sidney Haymond 


The Board of Supervisors. 

Upon the formation of the new State June 20, 1863, the Board of 
Supervisors became the governing authority in the County, taking the 
place of the County Court system in all matters except that it had no 
civil or criminal jurisdiction, and that the recording of deeds, wills, settle- 
ment of estates, issuing of marriage licenses &c. were placed in the hands 
of a new official known as the Recorder instead of the Clerk of the 
County Court as formerly composing a probate Court. 

This Board was composed of one member from each County Dis- 
trict, which was designated as a township there being ten in the County. 

At the organization of this Board James Denham of Eagle District 
was chosen President and John Hursey Clerk. 

In order to fill Harrison County's quota of men drafted for the war 
then going on bonds were voted in 1864 to raise funds to offer bounty to 

The supervisors disbursed this fund and paid each soldier three hun- 
dred dollars who enlisted under the call. 

The last meeting of the Board of Supervisors was held on Monday, 
December 12, 1872. 

Present: John D. Blair, President and Messrs. Wm. R. Alexander, 
James A. Wood, David M. Shinn, Samuel L. Boring, Thomas M. Hornor, 
A. L. Hustead and Jacob Cork. 

The last orders entered returned thanks to the President John D. 
Blair and Clerk V. P. Chapin for the efficient manner in which they had 
performed their respective duties. 

A. L. Hustead delivered a valedictory address to the board of this 
its last session. 

The Board adjourned sine die. 


Criminal Court. 

By an Act of the Legislature approved February 8, 1909, a Criminal 
Court was established for Harrison County the term of office being fixed at 
four years and the Governor being authorized to appoint the first Judge 
until his successor should be elected at the November election in 1912. 

Honorable Haymond Maxwell was appointed Judge May 7, 1909 and 
held his first term June 1, 1909. 

The Grand Jury was composed as follows : Foreman, Orie MeConkey 
and Walter S. Hursay, John Stuart, John Q. Harrison, Amos Carter, Wil- 
liam Sommerville, William M. Smith, Benjamin Orr, John Lewis, John D. 
McReynolds, Charles A. Short, James H. Mines, Daniel L. HaU, Carl L. 
Homor, Charles Hickman and James Bumgardner. 

The following named Attorneys were admitted to practice: Taney 
Harrison, W. Scott, E. G. Smith, Homer W. Williams, Felix G. Sutton, 
James E. Law, Clarence B. Sperry, Ernest D. Lewis, Elmer F. Goodwin, 
Carl W. Neff, James W. Eobinson, Fred L. Shinn, John G. Southern, 
Osman E. Swartz, Thomas Ramage, Henry J. James, Frank M. Powell, 
S. E. W. Bumsides, Louis A. Carr, Millard F. Snider, Harvey W. Har- 
mer, Harvey F. Smith, Alexander C. Moore, Dabney C. Lee, W. Frank 
Stout, Claude W. Gore, Reuben S. Douglass, J. 0. T. Tidier, W. M. Cona- 
way. Haze Morgan, William H. Taylor, Homer Strossnider and Harry R. 


Court Houses, 

As stated elsewhere the Comity Court after its first meeting at the 
house of George Jackson July 20, 1784, held its next session at the house 
of Hezekiah Davisson in Clarksburg on the third Tuesday in the following 
month of August, and it is supposed continued to meet there for several 

On the 21st February, 1787, the Court directed that the sheriff ad- 
vertise for sale the building of the Court House, to the lowest bidder at the 
next term of the Court. 

On the 21st. of March, 1787, Thomas Barkley and John Reed who are 
designated as the undertakers, with Nicholas Carpenter and John McCal- 
ley, securities for the undertakers, came into Court and entered into a 
bond for £369, which was to be cancelled by building a Court House 
agreeable to a plan delivered to them, which plan is in words and figures 
following : 

We, the subscribers being appointed by the Court of the County of 
Harrison to prepare a plan of the Court House proposed to be built in 
said County, which is as followeth : (as will appear by the draft hereunto 
annexed) it is to be set upon nine pillars of stone to be built in the follow- 
ing manner to wit : as the house is to be thirty-six feet long by twenty-six 
feet wide, there is to be a pillar of stone well built with lime and sand 
morter under each corner, the foundation of which shall be two feet below 
the surface of the earth and eight feet above, each pillar to be three by 
two feet square, done in a workmanlike manner and pointed with like 
morter as above said: there is likewise a pillar to be under the middle 
of each of the foundations sills of the frame of the same depth in the 
ground, height above ground made of the same materials, and of the dimen- 
sions as the first four, the ninth pillar shall be imder the middle of the 
summer in the midst of the building, to be everjnvay made as the other 
above mentioned pillars. 

Upon these pillars the house is to be set of framed work in the following 
manner to-wit, to be made of good sound oak timber well framed together, 
of scantling of the following dimensions to wit: the side sills to be ten 
inches square, and the end sills to be 13 by 10 inches square, the lower 
summer to be ten inches square, the posts to be so long that there will be 
12 feet between the floors which posts to be seven inches square and plates 
to be 6 inches by 5, the studs 5 by 3, the joyse 7 by 3 which is to be but 
two feet from center to center, the studs rafters sleepers &c to be the 
same distance as under the upper summer to be 10 inches by 8 and sup- 


ported by two turned or well plained posts at a reasonable distance apart, 
tbe door to be neatly eased 7 5^ feet high by three and a half wide, and a 
strong door hung with sufficient iron hinges, and a good lock fixed there- 
to, the lower floor to be neatly laid with good sound oak plank well kiln 
dryed one inch and 2 quarters thick, and not more than 7 inches broad, 
well jointed & sufficiently nailed down with double ten, the upper floor 
to be well laid with inch plank of poplar or oak well seasoned as above 
grooved and tongued, sufficiently nailed down: the seven windows (as 
appears by the annexed plan) to be well cased with neat sashes for the 
same, with 87 pains of glass properly fixed in with putty. A floor to be 
made above the lower floors at the end of the house under the 2 twelve 
light windows to be three feet broad, and a seat for the Justices 18 or 20 
inches higher than said floor, with rails banninsters & steps, at each end 
of it. Bar for the Clerk and lawyers, a sheriff's box and Jury box five 
feet high, with steps to go up, and compleat stairs to go up to the Jury 

The said house to be covered with black or red oak lap shingles & 
not less than ^ths. of an inch thick, nor to show more than 15 inches in 
length, nor more than 4 inches in hredth, the rafters to be 5 inches by 
three at the but end, with collar beams, the lathes to be at least one inch 
thick, the house to be weatherboarded with poplar % inch plank, heeded 
and a quarter timber the Joyce to over-jet the walls one foot at least. 
The shingles to be nailed on with 12d nails or any size that the under- 
taker can get larger than lOd ones and lastly strong and commodious 
steps to go up to the door at least 4 feet wide with a hand rail at each 

The whole of the work to be done in a workmanlike manner and 
delivered at the next November Court to be held for this County. 
N. B. There is to be eight braces 7 by 3>4 inches, the window glass to be 
not less than 10 inches by 8, and the two end joice to be 5 by seven inches, 
and the eves of the house to be boarded ready for the cornishing at a 
future day should it be required. 

Wm, Hatmond, 

John Prunty, 

Henry Ross, 

John Wade Loopborrow. 

On the 22nd day of December 1789 William Haymond, Benjamin 
Wilson and David Hewes, commissioners appointed to settle with the 
undertakers or contractors for building the Court House reported that 
they be allowed the sum of £166 and nine shillings in Virginia Currency 
which amounts to about five hundred and fifty-five dollars ($555) in our 
present money, a pound being rated at $3.33^. 

The Court thereupon received the Court House from Thomas Barkley 
and directed the bond to be cancelled. 

It appears from a petition filed with the County Court by John Q-. 
Jackson that the question of building a new Court House was agitated in 
1803. In this petition he states that the people who derive the great 
benefits from the locality of the public buildings, ought to contribute a 


proportional sum to their erection, and thereby render the demand upon 
the people less unjust, and the most effectual way to procure this object 
will be to excite a competition among the holders in town. 

The petitioner offers to give for the location of the new Court House 
one quarter of an acre in a square in any of his lots on the East side of 
Elk Creek provided it is not opposite his residence and four hundred 
dollars in money. 

No action seems to have been taken at this time on this proposition 
and the matter was allowed to slumber for several years. 

On the 21st. of May 1810 the County Court adjudged that the pres- 
ent Court House was insufficient and it was ordered that a new Court 
House be built after the plan of the one at Morgantown "excepting the 
wings" the building to be completed November 1st. and commissioners 
were appointed to contract for the same. 

Benjamin Wilson, Junior, donated a lot on which to build the Court 
House, which is described as being on Market Street with a front of 
ninety nine feet, and extending back Southerly one hundred and thirty- 
two feet. 

On December 10th. 1810 the minutes of the Court states that a con- 
tract had been made to build the Court House, and doubts having arisen 
whether the removal will be legal or not it was ordered, that the Delegates 
in the General Assembly be requested to use all proper means to have 
a law passed legalizing said removal to the land of Benjamin Wilson, Jr. 

The doubt as to the legality of the removal of the Court House to 
the new site, was caused by the opposition of John G. Jackson and the 
residents of the town on the east side of the creek, which developed into 
a beautiful Court House fight, such as our neighboring Counties of Taylor 
and Randolph have since indulged in. 

The petition of John G. Jackson, in part, in opposition is as follows : 

A memorial to the Legislature of Virginia by John G. Jackson dated 
December 25, 1810, states in part, 

"That your memorialists has been induced from a disregard of duty 
and contempt of the laws on the part of some of the Justices of Harrison 
County, who occassionally constitute a Court, to apply on his own behalf 
of the people to solicit legislative interference. 

At the May Term of the County Court 1810, an order was made ap- 
pointing commissioners to contract with some person to build a new 
Court House upon the land of Benjamin Wilson, Jr., out of the estab- 
lished bounds of the town of Clarksburg in which the Court is now held, 
quantity of land not stated nor conveyance made. 

Two of the contractors are Justices of the peace, and they with two 
others, passed an order at the last Court, asking legislative sanction of 
this measure. 

The situation of the present Court House is preferable to that fixed 
by the Court, as it is more central and is opposite the jail. 

At the termination of the town the road turns Northwardly eight de- 
grees and at the comer a brick house is built six poles from the intended 
Court House. 


The old Court House stands on the comer of the Main Street and a 
street leading to the public academy. 

The Court has consented to remain for twenty-six years as tenants 
at will upon the present land for no conveyance has been made except 
what may have passed under the order of July 1784, 

He also refers to a bridge being built over Elk Creek in Clarksburg 
in 1807 at the extravagant price of eighteen hundred and fifty dollars. 

The Court House stood on the North East comer of what is now 
Second and Main Streets. 

Judge Jackson made the following proposition to the County Court 
as an inducement to locating the Court House on the East Side of the 
Creek : 

First : To give the choice of his lots on the East Side of Elk Creek 
except where his dwelling house stands and five hundred dollars in money. 

Second: To give the stone house and six rods of land in front and 
fifteen rods back, and either permit the Court to finish it as it may choose 

Third: To give the stone house and lot and engage to finish the 
house completely at one third of the price at which the New Court House 
will cost. 

The lots on which the stone house stood which was proposed to be 
donated for the Court House, were numbered 37 and 38, as the town was 
originally laid off, the house was 27 by 32 feet, two stories high and con- 
structed on the line between the two lots. 

Judge Jackson's residence stood on the hill on the Bast side of Elk 
Creek on the North Side of Main Street and just East of its inter- 
section with Maple Avenue and was a celebrated and stately mansion in 
its day. 

It was of two stories and had four large colunms extending the 
heighth of the building and supporting the roof of the porch. The front 
yard was ornamented by shrubbry and two large earthen mounds. 

The stone building referred to stood on the opposite side of the street 
from the Jackson mansion and a little west of Maple Avenue. 

The brick house referred to was the famous Hewes Tavern, which 
stood on the North East comer of Third and Main streets and subse- 
quently occupied for many years by Lloyd Lowndes and his son Richard 
T. Lowndes as merchants and known as Lowndes' comer. 

On January 18, 1811, the Legislature after reciting that doubts hav- 
ing arisen as to the legality of removing the seat of Justice of Harrison 
County enacted as follows: 

"That as soon as Benjamin Wilson, Junior, does convey in fee simple 
to the Justices of the said County of Harrison and their successors the 
aforesaid ground, or so much thereof, as the Court shall deem sufficient 
for the purpose, the contractors shall proceed to build and finish the same, 
and when completed agreeably to said contract it shall be lawful for the 
Courts of said County to be holden therein." 

In compliance with this act Benjamin Wilson, Jr., on March 22, 1811, 
conveyed to the Justices of Harrison County the lot in Clarksburg des- 


cribed as lying on the South Side of Market Street twenty-seven feet west 
of the North West Comer of said Wilson's brick store house and of the 
dimensions given above, and thus happily ended the Court House con- 

The contract price for this new temple of justice was thirty-seven 
hundred dollars ($3700) and was to be levied for during the years 1810, 
1811 and 1812. The contractors were Allison Clark, John Smith and 
Daniel Morris. 

The levy for the purchase of the bell was made at the June Term 
1811. It cost two hundred and fifty dollars ($250.00) and was purchased 
at Pittsburgh. It is still doing duty in the service of the municipal 
authorities as an alarm bell, and sounding the curfew for the youngsters 
to retire to their homes. 

The plans of this Court House cannot be found. It was a two story 
brick building surmounted by a graceful cupola and had a front of about 
thirty-five or forty feet. 

The front door opened directly into the Court Eoom. A stairway 
led from the room to the jury rooms overhead and was heated by two 
enormous coal grates placed on the East and West sides of the building. 
The Clerk's offices were two small one story buildings one on each 
side and on a line with the front of the Main building, the County Court 
Clerk's office being located on the West and the Circuit Clerk's on the 
East side, and this arrangement has continued until the present day. 

These offices were not built at the time the main building was con- 
structed, but several years afterwards. 

Both of these office buildings had a door opening out into the Court 
House yard, but had no means of communicating with the main building 
except through the front door. 

At the June term of the Court 1813 it is stated that the seat of Justice 
has been removed and directs that the quarter acre lot on which the former 
Court House had stood revert back to its former owner Daniel Davisson. 
At the July Term 1813 commissioners were appointed to sell the old 
Court House building to the highest bidder after ten days notice, payment 
to me made November 1st. 

The date on which the new building was completed and occupied is 
not accurately known, but from the fact that Court was held in it in 1813, 
and that the bell was purchased in 1811, the inference is that it was ready 
for occupancy in 1812. 

This building stood for more than forty years and during that time 
many distinguished and eloquent lawyers and able jurists appeared at its 
bar or sat upon its bench. 

The whipping post which stood to the rear of the Court House was a 
large trunk of a tree planted firmly in the ground with two large iron 
rings, one on each side, through which the culprits arms were passed so 
as to embrace the post and permit his wrists to be tied on the opposite 

In 1853 a mandamus was issued by the Circuit Court directing the 
County Court to build a new Court House. 


In July of that year a contract was entered into with James P. 
Bartlett to construct a Court House on the site of the old one, to be com- 
pleted by December 1, 1854, at a cost not to exceed eight thousand dollars 
($8000) which sum was to be levied for in the years 1854, 1855, and 1856. 

The old stone house that stood on the North side of Main Street at the 
intersection of Second Street was rented for Court purposes until the new 
building was completed. The rent commenced on May 15, 1854, at the 
rate of $400 a year. Colonel Richard Fowkes was the owner and rented it 
to the County. 

Early in the year 1856 the Courts resumed their sessions at the old 
stand but in the new building. 

This building was two stories high with a hall opening out of which 
ing to the Jury rooms on the second floor. At the end of the hall was a 
were doors leading to the Clerk's Offices and a stairway on each side lead- 
door opening into a large Court room, which was used by both the Circuit 
Court and County Courts. 

On April 10, 1885, the County Court entered an order declaring that 
the present Court House is not suitable for Court House purposes and 
orders the construction of a new one according to plans and specifications 
hereafter to be decided upon. 

At a Court held on January 10, 1887, the contract for the construc- 
tion of a new building was let to George W. L. Mayers of Fairmont for 
the sum of forty-six thousand six hundred and fifty dollars ($46,650,) ac- 
cording to the plans and specifications furnished by George W. Bunting 
the sum to be levied for during the years 1886, 1887 and 1888, the work 
to be completed by October 1st. 1888. 

This building is still in use (1909) and at the time of its completion 
was the most elaborate and costly one constructed by the County. 

The Hotel building in which Courts were held during the 
building of the new court house stood on the comer of Third and Main 
Streets just east of the present Court House, and was for many years 
conducted by James P. Bartlett and was a famous hostelry in its day. 
It was purchased by the County from the heirs of Lloyd Lowndes in 1885 
and is now a portion of the public grounds. 

In chancery order book No. 14 page 96 following the adjourning order 
of the term of the Circuit Court held January 29, 1887, by Judge Fleming 
is entered the following note, evidently by the Clerk. 

"This was the last term of Court held in the Court House built prior 
to the late war and about the year 1853 or 1854. And on the 21st. day of 
February, 1887, the books, records and papers of both clerks' offices were 
transferred to the building known as the Commercial Hotel, formerly the 
Bartlett House, just East of said Court House, as a temporary Court 

In law order book No. 21 page 456 following the adjourning order 
of a special term of the Circuit Court held December 20, 1888, by Judge 
Alpheus F. Haymond is entered the following note : 
*'New Court House. 

It is hereby entered as a matter of history that on the 7th. day of 


December 1888 the books, papers and records of both offices of this 
County were removed from the offices in the termporary Court House 
to which they were taken on the 21st. day of February 1887 as noted 
on page 96 of Chancery order book No. 14 to the new Court House in 
process of completion, and on this day December 20, 1888, was held the 
first term of the Circuit Court of this County in the new Court House, 
the Court sitting in the room or chamber set apart for the County Court 
on the first floor of the building. 

Attest: Henry Raymond, Clerk." 

For several years after the organization of the County the Clerk's 
office was probably kept in a comer of the Court room. 

On October 18, 1803 an appropriation of Sixty Dollars was made by 
the County Court towards the building of a Clerk's office, according to a 
plat of the prison bounds made April 8, 1812 this office was situated 
on the south side of Main Street forty rods west of the intersection of 
Third Street. 

After the building of the new Court House and the establishing of 
the Circuit and Chancery Courts in Clarksburg on June 21, 1815, an 
appropriation of $600.00 was made to build two Clerks offices to be at 
tached to the Court House on the public grounds as above described. 



The first jail built by the County stood opposite the Court House on 
the South side of Main Street at the comer of Second Street where the 
Presbyterian Church now stands, and was built according to the follow- 
ing plan in 1785 : 

Building to be twenty by fifteen feet in dimensions, a partition to be 
taken off at one end 8^ ft. in the clear, story 9 feet high. The founda- 
tion to be of stone V/2 ft. thick and eighteen inches under ground, the 
floor to be of round or split logs to be shingled with red oak shingles. 

One outer door and one inner door leading into the small room to 
be made of four inch oak plank. 

The whole to be built of green oak timber the logs to be round. By 
an order of the County Court of March 18, 1785. 

John Prunty was given the contract at the price of nineteen pounds 
and fifteen shillings, which in our present coinage is equal to $65.83>^. 

The Second Jail. 

The County Court at the June Term of 1796 appointed George Jack- 
son, William Martin, Benjamin Wilson and William Haymond as com- 
missioners to prepare plans and specifications for a new jail on or near 
the site of the old one. 

The dimensions were 35 by 20 feet and the walls to be built of stone 
^Yz feet thick, V/2 feet under ground and three feet thick below the sur- 
face ; partition walls 2 feet thick and one foot under ground ; the floor^ to 
be of scantling eight inches thick and laid close, height of ceiling nine 
feet, debtors' room to be 14 by 15 feet, criminal room to be 8 by 15 feet. 
The length and front to be in full front with the Main Street and the 
Westerly end to be in full front with the cross street. 

On July 18, 1796 John Black was awarded the contract at the price 
of $986.50 and the building as near as can be ascertained was completed 
the following year. 

The Third Jail. 

The third jail, and the first one with a sheriff's residence attached, 
was ordered to be built at the June Term 1816, and one thousand dollars 
was appropirated for that purpose. 


This building was constructed on the public property in the rear of 
the new Court House and practically on the site of the present jail (1909) 
and Sheriff's residence, and fronted on what is now Mechanic Street. 

It was two stories high and built of stone. At the November Term 
1824 a stone wall twelve feet high ran from about the middle of the North 
Side of the building one hundred feet North and thence West to the side 
street, thence southerly to the comer of the jail wall. This enclosure was 
used as an exercise ground for the prisoners. 

The Fourth Jail. 

The Fourth jail was built on the site of the third one and set a few 
feet back from the street and was a two story brick building, a pretentious 
looking structure. The sheriff's residence was in front and the prison 
portion in the rear, and it was necessary to pass through the front door 
and hall of the residence part of the building to reach the entrance to 
the portion containing the cells. 

This building was built by the Board of Supervisors about the year 
1869 and 1870. 

The Fifth Jail and Sheriff's Residence. 

The County Court on July 2, 1901 directed that a new jail and Sher- 
iff's residence should be built and that plans and specifications be pre- 
pared for the future consideration of the Court. 

At a subsequent meeting the plan of Holmboes and Lafferty, Archi- 
tects, were approved. 

On December 21, 1904 the Court awarded a contract for the construc- 
tion of the main buildings to Elliott & Winchell of Zanesville, Ohio, which 
including iron work and fixtures, for which separate contracts were made 
with other firms, aggregated the sum of $75,566.60. 

By subsequent alterations and changes the cost of the building ex- 
ceeded this sum. 

The structure stands in the rear of the Court House and is of massive 
stone work, well constructed and fitted with the most modern of prison 
appliances. The Sheriff's residence fronts on Third Street and is a 
handsome residence, and the entire buildings are the most expensive the 
County has so far constructed. 



Harrison County has been governed by five State Constitutions, three 
under Virginia and two under West Virginia. The first was adopted in 
1776, the second in 1830, the third in 1851, under Virginia, the fourth in 
1863 and the fifth in 1872 under West Virginia. 

The period between the flight of Governor Dunmore in June 1775 and 
the adoption of the first constitution June 29, 1776, is known in history 
as the "Interregnum." 

During this time the convention which met July 17, 1775, at Rich- 
mond, conducted the government of the colony, through its President. 

This convention passed ordinances organizing troops for the public 
defense and appointed a general committee of safety to carry on the gov- 
ernment, and also authorized the selection of County Committees of safety 
by the inhabitants thereof, who executed the decrees and orders of the 
general committee. 

The constitutional convention which met at Williamsburg May 6, 
1776, on June 12, 1776, adopted a bill of rights and on June 29, 1776 
adopted a constitution, the first one in America, and on the same day 
elected Patrick Henry, Provisional Governor of the Commonwealth of 
Virginia. And from this time dates the first year of the Commonwealth. 

This constitution having been adopted without being submitted to the 
people for approval was in force for fifty-four years, but as the people 
outgrew its provisions a change was demanded in hopes that many of its 
restrictions in regard to the qualifications of voters and basis of repre- 
sentation might be remedied under its provisions. 

All State and County officers were appointed and the only privilege 
the voters had was to vote for members of the legislature, overseers of the 
Poor and town trustees, and voters were required to be free holders. 

The Assembly on February 10, 1829 passed a bill submitting to the 
voters a proposition to call a convention to adopt a new Constitution. This 
was carried, but by far the largest vote favoring it coming from West of 

the Blue Ridge. ^ -,o«n 

The Convention assembled in Richmond October 5, 1829, and con- 
tained a remarkable body of men, among them being James Madison and 
James Monroe ex-presidents of the United States, John Randolph and 
others distinguished as lawyers, statesmen and orators. Edwin S. Duncan 
was the representative from Harrison County. 

Philip Doddridge, the great orator from Brooke County, was the 
leader in the debates in behalf of the Western portion of the State, ably 


seconded by Archibald Campbell and Lewis Summers. 

The convention completed its work in January 1830, and submitted 
the Constitution it had adopted to the voters at an election to be held in 
April following. 

On March 1st. Philip Doddridge published a letter reviewing the Acts 
of the Convention, of which the following are extracts : 

''The system proposed in the scheme for distributing power falls too 
heavily on the West to be submitted to, but it falls most heavily on the 
country beyond the Alleghenies, because at present the greater proportion 
of those unrepresented reside there, and bcause it is there that there has 
been and must be the most rapid increase in population." 

''Every day's information serves but to increase my anxiety to see 
the new Constitution rejected. Every day informs me that our adver- 
saries consider its adoption as the execution of a solemn compact, to se- 
cure their power, and our submission, as a political compact for the slav- 
ery of us and our children." 

He says further that if the constitution is ratified that it will dis- 
franchise 43940 free white men over the age of twenty-one years. 

He states that in the appointment of the Legislature thirty-one mem- 
bers of the House are given to the Counties west of the mountains and one 
hundred and three to those east of them. That west of the Blue Ridge 
thirteen senators are given and nineteen east of it. 

The Clarksburg Enquirer of February 1830 recites that a meeting of 
the citizens of Greenbrier was called to meet in Lewisburg, "For the pur- 
pose of discussing the propriety of a separation of the old Dominion in 
order to obtain equal rights. 

At a public meeting held in Beverly, March 10, 1830 the following 
resolution was adopted: 

Resolved, That we would sooner commit the new constitution to the 
flames and vote for a division of the State than its adoption. 

It was claimed during the discussion of the merits of the constitution 
that out of a company of seventy-four soldiers from Virginia in the war 
of 1812 only two had the right to vote. They had the privilege of fighting 
for their country but not the right to take part in its government. 

But all the efforts of the West to secure a vote for every white man 
who had reached the age of twenty-one, and to adopt a just apportionment 
of the members of the Legislature to be elected west of the mountains was 
in vain, the Constitution was ratified by a vote of 26,055 for and 15,563 

Every County east of the Blue Ridge except one (Warwick) gave a 
majority for the Constitution, while every County in what is now West 
Virginia except two, Jefferson and Hampshire, voted largely in favor of 
rejection, casting 1,383 for ratification and 8,375 for rejection. Harrison 
County gave 9 votes for and 1,112 against the Constitution. 

Brooke County, the home of Doddridge and Campbell gave a unani- 
mous vote for rejection. 

Thus was sown the seeds of injustice and distrust which bore fruit in 
later years. 

The new constitution was unpopular in the West and in a short time 
demands were made for a radical change in the organic law. This finally 


resulted in the Legislature calling a constitutional convention, which met 
on the 14th of October 1850, and adopted a constitution which was rati- 
fied by the people on the fourth Thursday of October 1851. 

The election for officers under this constitution was held on the sec- 
ond Monday of December 1851. 

The first legislature under its provisions met on the second Monday 
in January 1852, and the Governor and other state officers qualified 
January 16, 1852. 

The delegates to this convention from Harrison County, were Joseph 
Johnson and Gideon D. Camden. 

This constitution was remarkable in the general advance embodied in 
it, and for its radical difference from former ones. 

The property clause heretofore required of voters was swept away 
and universal sufferage granted. The Governor, Judicial and County 
officers for the first time were now to be elected by the people. "While the 
basis of representation was not entirely satisfactory to the West yet they 
had gained so many privileges that it was acquiesced in as a change was 
provided for to take place in 1865. 

The first Governor elected under this constitution was Joseph John- 
son of Harrison County and the only one ever elected west of the 

The chain of remarkable events unequalled in history, leading up to 
the secession of Virfi:inia, the formation of the new State of West Virginia, 
and the adoption of its first constitution will be treated elsewhere in this 

The second Wheeling Convention which met June 11, 1861, and re- 
organized the government of Virginia, met in August and passed an or- 
dinance that an election should be held in the Western Counties of Vir- 
ginia on the fourth Thursday in October, to take the sense of the voters, 
on the question of dividing the State, and at the same time to elect dele- 
gates to a constitutional convention. 

The vote on the formation of the new state having resulted favorably, 
the Convention met in Wheeling, November 26, 1861, and having complet- 
ed its labors by adopting a constitution, adjourned February 18, 3862. 

The constitution, was ratified by the vote of the people at an election 
held April 3, 1862. 

The act of Congress admitting West Virginia into the Union, was 
conditioned upon the section of the constitution being amended, in re- 
gard to slavery was approved December 31, 1862. 

The constitutional convention re-assembled February 12, 1863, and 
made the changes proposed by the Act of Congress. This amendment was 
approved by the people at an election held March 26, 1863. 

President Lincoln issued his proclamation, which admitted the new 
State into the Union June 20, 1863. 

The new constitution made radical inovations, among them the 
abolishment of slavery, freedom of speech and the press, free schools and 
voting by ballot. 

The first Legislature under this constitution met at Wheelmg June 
20, 1863. 

The Legislature on the 23rd. February 1871 passed an act to take the 


sense of the voters of the State upon the call of a convention to enact a 
new constitution at an election to be held on the fourth Thursday in Au- 
gust 1871, which resulted in approving a convention. 

The election for Delegates was held on the fourth Thursday 1871 and 
the convention met at Charleston on the third Tuesday in January, 1872. 

The election on the adoption of the Constitution was held on the 
fourth Thursday in August 1872, and resulted in its being ratified and is 
the constitution under which we are now governed, 1909. 

At the same time an election was held for State, Judicial, Legislative, 
County and District officials, who were to be seated in case the constitu- 
tion was adopted, which resulted in a wholesale turning out of all officials 
without regard to the fact that they had not yet served out the terms for 
which they had been elected. 

The Governor and other State Officers were to be ushered into office 
on March 4, 1873, and the County officers on the first of January, 1873. 

The first legislature under this constitution met on the third Tuesday 
in November, 1872. 


Conventions and Legislatures. 

In the Virginia Convention held at Williamsburg in 1776 which dis- 
solved the political relations with Great Britian and adopted a Constitu- 
tion the two delegates from West Augusta were John Harvie and Charles 

In the Convention which adopted the Constitution of the United 
States in 1788 George Jackson and John Prunty represented Harrison 

In the convention which adopted the Constitution of 1830 the dele- 
gates were chosen by districts and Edwin S. Duncan represented Harri- 
son County. 

The delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1850 were chonsen 
by Senatorial Districts, and the County was represented by Joseph John- 
son and Gideon D. Camden. 

In the Convention which formed the first constitution of West Vir- 
ginia which went into effect June 20, 1863, the County was represented by 
Thomas W. Harrison and John M. Powell. 

The Convention creating the Constitution of 1872 the County was re- 
presented by Beverly H. Lurty and John Bassel. Benjamin Wilson also 
of Harrison was a delegate from the Senatorial district. 

Kepresentatives in the Senate and House of Delegates. 

The following residents of Harrison County represented the Sen- 
atorial District in which the County was situated. 

When Senator Duval was first elected the County was included in 
Monongalia County. 

1780 to 1792 John Pierce Duval 

1797 to 1802 John Haymond 

1810 to 1813 James Pindall 

1816 to 1821 George I. Davisson 

1821 to 1824 Edwin S. Duncan 

1828 to 1831 John J. Allen 

1831 to 1833 John McWhorter 

1833 to 1837 Waldo P. Goff 

1841 to 1845 Wilson K. Shinn 

1852 to 1853 Benjamin Bassel, Jr. 

1853 to 1856 Uriel M. Turner 

1863 to 1867 Edwin Maxwell 

1867 to 1870 AstOTphlus Werninger 

1872 to 1876 Gideon D. Camden 

1877 to 1879 Eli M. Turner 

1887 to 1889 Edwin Maxwell 

1895 to 1897 Stuart F. Reed 

1901 to 1903 Harvey W. Harmer 

1905 to 1907 Arthur K. Thorn 

1909 Charles G. Coffman 


From 1780 to 1784 the period which the present territory of Harri- 
son County was attached to Monongalia, the following gentlemen repre- 
sented the latter County in the Legislature, James Chew, James Neale, 
Charles Martin, Benjamin Wilson and Francis Warman. 

The Delegates from Harrison County were as follows: 

1785 andl786 George Jackson and John Prunty 

1786 and 1787 George Jackson and John Prunty 

1787 and 1788 George Jackson and John Prunty 

June 1788 Hezekiah Davisson and Charles Martin 

October 1788 Hezekiah Davisson and William Lowther 

1789 John Prunty and George Jackson 

1790 John Prunty and George Jackson 

1791 No record 

1792 Hezekiah Davisson and John Haymond 

1793 John McCally and John Haymond 

1794 George Jackson and John Haymond 

1795 Maxwell Armstrong and John Haymond 

1796 Maxwell Armstrong and John Haymond 

1797 and 1798 Benjamin Robinson and George Arnold 

1798 and 1799 John Prunty and John G. Jackson 

1799 and 1800 John Prunty and John G. Jackson 

1800 and 1801 John Prunty and John G. Jackson 

1801 and 1802 John Prunty and Daniel Davisson 

1802 and 1803 John Prunty and Daniel Davisson 

1803 and 1804 John Prunty and Edward Jackson 

1804 and 180 5 John Prunty and Nathaniel Davisson 

1805 and 1806 John Prunty and Isaac Coplin 

1806 and 1807 John Prunty and Elias Lowther 

1807 and 1808 John Prunty and Elias Lowther 

1808 and 1809 John Prunty and Elias Lowther 

1809 and 1810 John Prunty and Allison Clark 

1810 and 1811 John Prunty and Isaac Coplin 

1811 and 1812 Isaac Coplin and John G. Jackson 

1812 Isaac Coplin and William Newland 

1813 Daniel Morgan and George I. Davisson 

1813 and 1814 Daniel Morris and George I. Davisson 

1814 and 1815 John Prunty and James McCally 

1815 and 1816 Joseph Johnson and Edward B. Jackson 

1816 and 1817 John McWhorter and Edward B. Jackson 

1817 and 1818 John Davisson and Edward B. Jackson 

1818 and 1819 John Davisson and Joseph Johnson 

1819 and 1820 Joseph Johnson and Humphrey Farris 

1820 and 1821 Lemuel E. Davisson and Daniel Kinchelo 

1821 and 1822 Joseph Johnson and Jedediah W. GofE 

1822 and 182 3 Daniel Kincheloe and Jedediah W. GofE 

1823 and 1824 Daniel Kincheloe and John Gather 

1824 and 1825 Daniel Morris and John Gather 

1825 and 1826 George L Williams, Jedidiah W. Goff and 

John Gather, vice Goff, deceased 

1826 and 1827 John Gather and George I. Williams 

1827 and 1828 George I. Williams and John T. Brown 

1828 and 1829 George I. Wiliams and John T. Brown 

1829 and 1830 George I. Williams and George I. Davisson 

1830 and 1831. .. .George I. Williams and George I. Davisson 

1830 and 1832 George I. Williams and George I. Davisson 

1831 and 1832 George I. Williams and William Johnson 

1832 and 1833 Waldo P. GofE and Daniel Kincheloe 

1833 and 1834 John Gather and Daniel Kincheloe 

1834 and 1835 Wilson K. Shinn and Daniel Kincheloe 

1835 and 1836 William A. Harrison and Daniel Klncholoe 

1836 and 1837 William A. Harrison and Wilson K. Shinn 


1838 William A. Harrison and Jesse Flowers 

1839 Edward J. Armstrong and Jesse Flowers 

1839 and 1840 Edward J. Armstrong and George H. Lee 

1840 and 1841 Edward J. Armstrong and George H. Lee 

1841 and 1842 .... Edward J. Armstrong and Daniel Kincholoe 

1842 and 1843 Benjamin Bassel and Augustine J. Smith 

1843 and 1844 ... .Edward J. Armstrong and Luther Haymond 

1844 and 1845 Benjamin Bassel 

1845 and 1846 Jesse Flowers 

1846 and 1847 John S. Duncan 

1847 and 1848 Joseph Johnson 

1848 and 1849 Benjamin Bassel 

1849 and 1850 Charles S. Lewis 

1850 and 1851 Charles S. Lewis 

1852 Charles S. Lewis and Thomas L. Moore 

1852 and 1853 Thomas L. Moore and Cyrus Vance 

1853 and 185 4 Thomas L. Moore and Andrew S. Holden 

1855 and 1856 Robert Johnston and Andrew S. Holden 

1857 and 1858 Robert Johnston and D. D. Wilkinson 

1859 and 1860 John S. Hoffman and Jefferson B. West 

Messrs. Hoffman and West were the last representatives from Harri- 
son County to serve in the assembly at Kichmond. 

Lloyd Holden and George W. Lurty served in that body in 1863 and 
1864 having been elected by the confederate soldiers from the County. 

Under the Restored Government of Virginia the County was repre- 
sented at Wheeling by 

1861 John J. Davis and John C. Vance 

The following have represented the County under the New State Govern- 

1863 Solomon S. Fleming and Nathan Goff 

1864 Solomon S. Fleming and Nathan Goff 

1865 Solomon S. Fleming and Nathan Goff 

1866 Solomon S. Fleming and Nathan Goff 

1867 Solomon S. Fleming and Nathan Goff, Jr. 

1868 Solomon S. Fleming and Nathan Goff, Jr. 

1869 Solomon S. Fleming and Sidney Haymond 

1870 John J. Davis and Nathan Goff 

1871 Charles S. Lewis and Thomas J. West 

1872 Truman Elliott and Thomas J. West 

1873 M. W. Davis and Thomas S. Spates 

1875 W. D. Carlile and Thomas J. West 

1877 James Duncan and F. W. Cunningham 

1879 John C. Johnson and Ira C. Post 

1881 John L. Ruhl and Charles W. Lynch 

1885 Ira C. Post and Jesse F. Randolph 

1887 Henry Haymond and M. G. Holmes 

1889 Alex. C. Moore and Gwin Minter 

1891 ! Charles W. Lynch and Geo. F. Randal 

I893!! Edwin Maxwell and Henry Wickenhoover 

I895! . ! Jeremiah W. Hess and Harvey W. Harmer 

1897 Jeremiah W. Hess and A. W. Davis 

1899 . ! . '. John W. Davis and Z. W. Wyatt 

1901 Lloyd Washburn and D. M. Willis 

1903 Edwin Maxwell and Jasper S. Kyle 

1905 Haymond Maxwell and M. C. Jarrett 

1907 . . . Charles M. Hart and Marcus L. Riblett 

1909' Charles M. Hart and Marcus L. Riblett 



The first explorers west of the mountains came on foot and carried 
all their effects on their backs, following the trails made by wild animals 
and the Indians. 

As settlements increased pack horses were used and all the early set- 
tlers brought their h( jongings in this way. 

Long before the permanent occupation of the County, traders with a 
long string of horses loaded with goods crossed the mountains in Pennsyl- 
vania to trade with the Indians in the Ohio Valley. 

The first mention of vehicles crossing the mountains was in General 
Braddock's disastrous expedition against the French at Fort Duquesne 
(Pittsburgh) in 1755. Upon this occasion a large number of wagons car- 
rying supplies and ammunition accompanied the Army, and a fairly good 
road was cut out through the forest from Fort Cumberland to the Monon- 
gahela River. 

The General Assembly in November 1766 appointed commissioners 
"To view, lay out and direct a road to be cleared from the North branch 
of the Potomac to Fort Pitt on the Ohio, by or near the road called Brad- 
dock's road, in the most direct and cheapest manner the said commission- 
ers think fit, and two hundred pounds were appropriated for that purpose. 

Over the Braddock road most of the early pioneers traveled to West- 
ern Pennsylvania and Virginia. 

Sometime later the Assembly authorized the construction of a road 
called the State road from Winchester by way of Romney to Morgan town. 

The Assembly in October 1786 appointed a commission consisting of 
William Haymond, Nicholas Carpenter, Hezekiah Davisson, Thomas 
Webb, John Powers and Daniel Davisson of Harrison County to lay out 
and open a wagon road from some point on the State road as deemed best 
by them to the mouth of the Little Kanawha River, now Parkersburg. 

The work was to be let to the lowest bidder, the road to be thirty 
feet wide, the commissioners are to receive five shillings a day 83 >^ cents, 
and the expenses to be borne by Harrison County. 

This road was first made from Clarksburg East to some point at or near 
the Cheat river, where it is supposed to have joined the State road. 

The work west from Clarksburg must have been very deliberately 
conducted, as from the report of a traveler as late as 1798 it appears that 
there was nothing but a blazed way through the woods on this end of the 
road at that time. 

Another traveler in going East from Clarksburg in 1790 speaks of a 
wagon road near Cheat River. 

Another one says he left Alexandria with wagons June 30 and ar- 
rived at Morgantown July 18, 1796. 


The celebrated National Road, which practically followed the Brad- 
dock route was the work of the National Government. It went by Cum- 
berland, Uniontown and Wheeling and was completed in 1820. 

The original intention was to extend it to the Mississippi Eiver, but 
the era of railroads prevented this being carried out. 

This road was the most traveled thoroughfare in this country being 
the great commercial artery from the west t o the east. Taverns were 
strung all along the road and from Wheeling east of the mountains droves 
of cattle, horses, hogs, sheep, wagons, carriages and stage coaches were al- 
ways in sight. 

But the shriek of the locomotive caused the taverns to close their 
doors, and grass to grow on the path which the great procession had trod 
for years. 

The National road cost the government seventeen hundred thousand 
dollars, and was fourteen years in process of construction. 

The North Western Turnpike. 

In 1827 a charter was granted to the Northwestern Turnpike Com- 
pany to construct a turnpike road from Winchester to Parkersburg by 
way of Romney and Clarksburg. The state being a large stockholder. 

In 1831 the State practically assumed charge of the construction of 
the road which reached Clarksburg in 1836, and where it passes through 
the town is still known as Pike Street. 

The chief engineer of the road was Colonel Claudius Crozet, a French 
engineer, who was said to have been a soldier in the wars of Napoleon. He 
was assisted by Charles B. Shaw. 

In 1848 the State appropriated $60,000 for macadamizing the road 
from the Valley River to Parkersburg. 

The distance from Winchester to Parkersburg is given at 236^ miles, 
of which 8^ miles was in Maryland. The cost of construction was given 
at $400,000. 

The building of this road was looked forward to with the highest an- 
ticipation by the people living along its course, as it gave them a much 
better outlet to the East than they had ever had before. 

Stage lines were put on, tavern stands opened, mails were carried 
and connections made at Parkersburg with steamboats. 

The first coaches or public conveyances in Harrison County ran from 
Clarksburg to the National Road at Uniontown about 1830. 

The Clarksburg merchants rode on horseback to Baltimore generally 
making the trip in six days. 

Wagons hauling 4000 pounds of goods were about fifteen days on the 
road from Baltimore, the bills of lading allowed twenty days for the trip. 
The round trip from Clarksburg to Baltimore was considered to be thirty 
days. Freight rates were from 2^/^ to 3 cents per pound. 

Live stock was driven East at an early day, as they furnished their 
own transportation. 

The drivers of these freight wagons would often have a number of 
bells attached to the harness and took pride in making a good appearance 
and presented an interesting sight. 


The driver of the stage coach was an important personage along the 
road, and the arrival of a coach at a tOA^Ti always caused a crowd to as- 
semble to view the passengers and hear the news. 

Long after the stage coach had given way to the locomotive old driv- 
ers used to boast of their crack teams, and how they had driven Andrew 
Jackson, Henry Clay, Thomas H. Benton and General Zachary Taylor 
and other celebrities safely on their way to Washington, over the National 

In entering Clarksburg from the East it was customary for the stage 
driver to blow a long blast from a trumpet as he came down the Jackson 
hill on Pike Street to the Elk Creek bridge, and in coming from the West 
the trumpet would ring out from the top of the hill between 6th. and 
South Chestnut Streets. This was to notify the Post Master and Tavern 
keeper of the arrival of the stage. 

Along the line of these roads there was considerable opposition to the 
building of railroads, the argument being used that the railroad would 
carry all the passengers and live stock, which would close all the taverns 
and that there would be no market for provisions or grain. 

An act of incorporation was granted to the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road Company by Maryland, February 28, 1827, which was confirmed by 
Virginia March 8, 1827, and by Pennsylvania February 22, 1828. 

The road was opened to Ellicott's Mills and the first locomotive ran 
on it August 30th, 1830. 

Frederick was reached December 1, 1831. Harper's Ferry December 
1, 1834. Cumberland November 5, 1842, Piedmont July 21, 1851, Fair- 
mont June 22, 1852, and Wheeling December 24, 1852, a distance of 379 

The work of constructing the Parkersburg branch from Grafton was 
commenced in August 1852 at Brandy Gap Tunnel, Thomas S. Spates be- 
ing the contractor and was completed in January 1857. 

The first locomotive reached Clarksburg in July, 1856, from Grafton. 
As the construction of the railroad progressed West from Baltimore, 
freight and passengers were hauled from the terminus of the road to 
Clarksburg, Fetterman being the last station hauled from, beginning in 
1852 and ending in 1856. 

The coach stands rusting in the yard, 

The horse has sought the plow. 
We have spanned the world with iron rails 

And the steam King rules us now. 



A view from the suminit of the hill of Pinnickinnick in the year 1764 
in the reign of King George the III. would have disclosed nothing to the 
vision but a billowy sea of illimitable forest, and a glimpse of Elk Creek 
ilowing at its base, which for thousands of years had heard no sound save 
that of its "own dashings." 

The sounds of civilization would have been unheard, not even the 
smoke of a white man's cabin would have been seen, but stretching for 
thousands of miles westward, all was wrapped in the solitude of primitive 

But a mighty transformation was destined in the near future to come 
over this lonely scene, which had for an untold number of centuries slum- 
bered in the night of a savage gloom. The frowning barriers of the AUe- 
ghenies were soon to be swept away before the restless advancing tide of 
civilization ever moving Westward, and the great valley of the Mississippi 
was soon to be peopled with teeming millions of the Anglo Saxon race. 

As is stated elsewhere in this volume John Simpson, a trapper, who 
in 1764 located his camp on the "West Fork opposite the mouth of Elk 
Creek is the first white man known to have visited the present site of 

Fort Pitt, now Pittsburgh, had been garrisoned by British troops 
since it was captured from the French in the year 1758, and it is more 
than likely that explorers had passed through this region before the ar- 
rival of Simpson, but there is no record of their doing so. 

As early as the year 1772 settlers began locating their lands near 
where Clarksburg now stands, and in 1773 Daniel Davisson took up 400 
acres, upon which the principal part of the town is now located. 

The year 1774 found the following persons settled in the neighbor- 
hood of Clarksburg, Daniel Davisson, Thomas Nutter, Samuel Cottrill, 
Sotha Hickman, Samuel Beard, Andrew Cottrill, Obadiah Davisson, John 
Nutter, Matthew Nutter and Amaziah Davisson. There were no doubt 
others located on public lands of which no official record was made. 

The town was named in honor of General George "Roerers Clark, who 

gained great fame on the frontier by his many expeditions against the 

British and Indians in the Indian Wars and the war of the Revolution, 

particularly by his bold capture of the fort of Yincennes now in the State 

of Indiana in the year 1778. 

Major William Powers who resided on Hacker's Creek was conver- 


sant with affairs in the early settlement of Harrison County, stated that 
at a meeting of the settlers one of the Shinn's suggested that the town be 
named after General Clark, which was assented to and the few log cabins 
clustered together were christened Clarksburg. 

This event must have occurred between the years 1778 and 1781 as 
General Clark was not generally known until the former year, and the 
plats of the surveys of Daniel and Andrew Davisson made in the latter 
year recorded in the surveyor's office of Monongalia County both refer to 
Clarksburg, it follows that the date of naming the town must have been 
between those years. 

The first official recognition of the name yet discovered is in the two 
surveys mentioned. It doubtless occurred earlier in the records of the 
Monongalia County Court, but as they were destroyed by fire in 1796 this 
cannot be verified. 

In 1784 the town is described in an old letter as follows : Clarksburg 
was built by two rows of cabins extending from near where the Court 
House now is to Jackson's house on the East side of Elk Creek. It had 
been built for a fort." 

The Jackson house here referred to stood on the East side of Elk 
Creek and on the North Side of Main Street just East of the intersection 
of Maple Avenue. 

This same writer states "Some little time I went to school, but spent 
much of my time in Clarksburg playing ball, &c. But I never could find 
agreeable company with those high frolicking people for I never attempt- 
ed to dance more than two or three times in my life." 

This glimpse into the social life of the early inhabitants of Clarks- 
burg indicates that they were a fun loving people fond of innocent amuse- 
ments, in spite of their dangerous surroundings and hard struggles for 

In October 1785 the General Assembly of Virginia passed the follow- 
ing act: 

An Act for establishing the town of Clarksburg in the County of 

I. Whereas: A considerable number of lots have been laid off and 
houses built thereon by the proprietors of the place fixed for the erection 
of the Court House and other public buildings in the County of Harrison 
and application being made to this Assembly that the same may be estab- 
lished a town. 

II. Be it therefore enacted: That the said lots so laid off, or here- 
after to be laid off by the trustees, shall be and the same are hereby estab- 
lished a town by the name of Clarksburg, and that William Haymond, 
Nicholas Carpenter, John Myers, John McAlly and John Davisson, Gen- 
tlemen, are hereby appointed trustees of the said town, who, or any three 
of them, shall have power from time to time to settle and determine all dis- 
putes concerning the bounds of the said lots, and in case of the death, re- 
signation or removal out of the County of any one or more of the said trustees 
it shall be lawful for the freeholders of the said town to elect and choose 
others in their stead, and those so chosen shall have the same power and 
authority as any one particularly named in this act. 


III. Provided always and be it further enacted: That half an acre 
of ground, or so much thereof as may be thought necessary either in one 
entire or two separate parcels shall be laid off by the said trustees in the 
most convenient par^ of the said town, and appropriated for the purpose 
of erecting thereon the Court House and other public buildings, and that 
the said trustees have full power to lay off as many lots, streets and alleys 
as to them shall seem convenient for the benefit of the said town, and that 
the possessors of any lot or lots in the said town shall before the first day 
of January one thousand seven hundred and ninety, build thereon a dwell- 
ing house of at least sixteen feet square, either of stone, brick, frame or 
hewed logs, with a stone or brick chimney and upon failure thereof shall 
forfeit their lot or lots to the said trustees to be further disposed of as 
they may think proper for the benefit of the said town. 

IV. And be it further enacted that the freeholders of the said town 
shall be entitled to and have and enjoy all the rights, privileges and im- 
munities which the freeholders of other towns not incorporated have and 

On December 4, 1789, the General Assembly passed an act entitled: 

An Act granting further time to the possessors of lots in the towns 
of Clarksburg, Morgantown, Harrodsburg and Louisville for building 
thereon : 

Whereas it is represented that the hostilities of the Indian tribes and 
other causes have prevented many of the possessors of lots in the town of 
Clarksburg in the County of Harrison, of Morgantown in the County of 
Monongalia, of Harrodsburg in the County of Mercer and of Louisville in 
the County of Jefferson, from building thereon in pursuance of the Acts 
by which said towns were established. 

Be it therefore enacted by the General Assembly, that every possess- 
or of a lot in any of the said towns shall be allowed the further space of 
three years, after the day limited by law, shall expire for building there- 
on, conformably to the acts for establishing the said towns respectively. 

By an Act of the General Assembly passed November 2, 1792, the 
purchasers of lots in the towns of Clarksburg, Milton, Abingdon, and 
Morgantown from the difficulty of procuring materials were allowed a 
further extension of five years to build houses thereon and save the same. 

The County Court of Harrison County at its first session held on the 
20th. day of July 1784 at the house of George Jackson near the present 
town of Buckhannon selected Clarksburg as the County seat of the new 
County and the place where the public buildings should be erected, on lots 
numbered Seven and eight, donated for that purpose by Daniel Davisson 
and Joseph Hastings. 

This Court adjourned to meet in the following month of August at 
the house of Hezekiah Davisson in Clarksburg, which was the first Court 
of any kind held in Clarksburg. 

The first Court House, which was built in 1787, stood on what is now 
the North East Corner of Second and Main Streets and the jail stood on 
the opposite side of Main Street near where the Presbyterian church now 

There is a tradition that it was proposed to locate the County Seat on 
Simpson's Creek on the farm afterwards for many years owned hy Doctor 


William Dimkin, but it was stated that the land was owned by a widow 
who objected to the location being made on her property for the rea- 
son that she did not wish her boys to be brought up in or near the town 
that she knew would spring up at the County seat, and Clarksburg was 
then selected. 

The American Gazetteer published in Boston in 1797 has the follow- 
ing information about Clarksburg: 

"Clarksburg is the chief town of Harrison County, Virginia. It con- 
tains about forty houses, a Court House and jail. It stands on the East 
side of the Monongahela River 40 miles S. W. of Morgantown." 

The County Court Passed an order on June 16, 1828, appointing 
Thomas Haymond, Joseph Johnson and John Reynolds to lay off Clarks- 
burg into streets and alleys under the Act of Assembly passed January 
16, 1828. 

Clarksburg was incorporated by an Act passed March 15, 1849, which 
authorized the voters on the first Monday in May in each year to elect 
viva voce seven free holders to serve as trustees for one year, and in case 
an election should not be held then the same trustees last elected shall re- 
main in office until a new election shall be held. 

The boundary of the town was as follows: 

"Beginning at the mouth of Elk Creek, thence running up the same 
to the mouth of a small drain a few rods below the North Western Turn- 
pike Bridge on the land of James M. Jackson, thence due East one hun- 
dred rods to a stake: thence due South to Elk Creek, thence down the 
same to a point in said creek, lying due west from a certain spring known 
as the Monticello Spring on the land of John Stealey; thence due West 
to the West Fork of the Monongahela River and thence down the same 
to the mouth of Elk Creek to the beginning. 

From time to time the laws incorporating the town were amended as 
the population increased one of the amendments dividing it into five 
wards until on February 26, 1897 an act was passed amending and re- 
enacting and reducing the several acts into one and this charter is still 
in force. 

The town records prior to 1832 cannot be found but the officers elect- 
ed that year were : 

Board of Trustees, Charles Lewis, President, John Field, Clerk, T. 
S. Prim, A. Werninger and William M. Bartlett, Assessor, James Reed, 
Bailiff, Notley Shuttles worth. Treasurer Jacob Stealey. 

Since that time the following persons have been presidents and Clerks 
of the Board of Trustees: 

Presidents, John Stealey, Charles Lewis, Luther Haymond, A. J. 
Smith, Aaron Criss, Nathan Goff, Jas. P. Bartlett and Enoch Tensman, 
Daniel Kincheloe, Wm. P. Cooper, Thomas S. Spates, L. D. Ferguson and 
R. S. Northcott. 

Clerks, A. J. Smith, Richard W. Moore, James P. Bartlett, E. L. 
Stealey, Robert L. Criss, Burton Despard, Luther Haymond, Samuel R. 
Stealey, Robert S. Criss, Burton Despard, Luther Haymond, Samuel R. 

In 1870 the town authorities accepted Chapter 42 of the Code and 
thereafter the chief officers were a mayor and recorder and the governor- 
ing Board designated as a Council. 


In 1832 the total assessed value of property was $110,745, Tax $124, 
tithables 107. 

In 1785 the list of tithables or those liable to pay taxes residing on 
Elk Creek including the inhabitants of Clarksburg was forty-three. 

Isaac Van Meter of Hampshire County in 1801 with George Harness, 
L. Branson and John Miller made a tour to view lands west of the Ohio. 
He kept a record of the journey of which the following is an extract : 

"Saturday, April 18. Crossed Cheat Eiver, which is about the size 
of the South Branch or perhaps larger; hills remarkably high on both 
sides. Passed through the best body of timber and upland I ever saw, for 
about two miles. The face of the country from that to the Monongahela 
River, which appears to have about as much water in it as Cheat, but not 
quite so wide, has generally a good appearance for wheat and lies well for 
cultivation, but not rich and well timbered. 

From there to Clarksburg the land is more fertile and inclined to 

Lodged at Joseph Davisson's six miles this side of Clarksburg. 

Sunday, April 19. Breakfasted at Daniel Davisson's in Clarksburg 
and waited until after dinner. 

Clarksburg has a tolerable appearance on Main Street with an 
Academy on an elevated piece of ground near the town. 

We were informed that nearly fifty children are generally taught 
there. The Court House is on one side of the street, and the jail on the 
other near the center. 

Left Clarksburg and lay at Mr. Clayton's fifteen miles distant. The 
face of the country is very rough, but some small strips of bottom well 
adapted for meadow. 

Monday, April 20. Down Middle Island Creek fourteen miles in 
which distance we crossed it seventeen times. A rough hilly country and 

I was informed that on the Creek there is a bend of seven miles 
aroimd and comes within thirty yards of itself. A ditch is cut through 
and a mill erected with only a seven feet fall in that distance. 

In digging the race which I am informed is twenty-five feet deep, 
the earth was so hard that it was a custom to give visitors a pint of liquor 
to dig up as much dirt. The undertaker after being at a very great ex- 
pense had thought of giving out on account of the 
expense of digging when a person who understood blow- 
ing rocks proposed to try it, and completed it at a small ex- 
pense compared with what its digging would have cost. It was solid clay 
and no appearance of rock. Lodged at Mr. Bonnell's on Hughes River. 
Country still very hilly. Scattering new settlements and a tolerable ap- 
pearance of range, which has not been the case heretofore. 

The Buckeye leaves nearly half grown and vegetation much more for- 
ward than with us. Severe hurricane and powerful rain just after we 
got up." 

At an election held in the Court House for trustees of the town of 
Clarksburg on the 21st. day of May 1804 the following persons were elect- 
ed as such: viz. 


Allison Clark, Daniel Davisson, Benjamin Wilson, Jr., and David 

Only eleven votes were cast at this election. 

A list of taxable property in the town of Clarksburg taken by David 
Hewes, assessor, and subject to taxation imder the corporation laws of the 
town April 3, 1810 contained the names of thirty-one tax payers. 

The total valuation in the town amounted to $84,115. In order to 
show the number and names of the tax payers living in the tovra at that 
date the list is here given: 

James Pindall John Smith 
Allison Clark Robert Gray- 
Joseph Neville Peter Link 
Col. George Jackson Samuel Ferguson 
Jacob Stealey Alexander F. Lanham 
Samuel Hawthorn Daniel Davisson, Major. 
David Hurry Joseph Summerville 
Benjamin Wilson, Jr. David Hewes 
Daniel Morris William Williams 
Archibald B. Wilson Joseph Lowry 
George I. Davisson Joslas Adams 
Daniel Kincheloe Thomas Synott 
Jacob Means Asher Lewis 
Rev. George Towers Thomas Tate 
Michael Criss Nathaniel Davisson's Heirs 
John G. Jackson 

After the Indian troubles were settled the accessions to the popula- 
tion were mostly from Eastern Virginia particularly the professional 
class, and they introduced the manners and customs of that part of the 
country, which still to some extent clings to the people of Clarksburg. 

While the social and political relations were with Richmond the trad- 
ing and commercial relations were always with Baltimore, and now that 
railroad facilities have increased so rapidly in other directions there is 
but little communication with the mother State, and her influence has not 
the prominence it had in days of yore. 

Statement of John Scripps. 

In 1803 at 18 years of age I was sent an unbound apprentice forty 
miles from home to Clarksburg, Harrison County where I served out my 
time four years and continued one year longer at journey work at two 
doUars higher wages per month than was wont to be given. Those five 
years were the turning point in my life. Miy coming out to the West 
had established my health and I had become robust and my perpetual 
application to work, exposure to all weather general privations frequent 
fatigues, hard and cold lodgings &c. had habituated me to any endurance 
so that my new mode of life which to my fellow apprentice was a little 
purgatory was to me a terrestial paradise. 

I had greater liberty and much more leisure than I had ever enjoyed, 
and I worked with a will and obtained a greater proficiency in the trade 
than even my seniors, and being the only scholar among them had the 


books of the concern put into my hands with the entire management of 
the business at the end of my second year. 

There were two very distinct classes of society in the town the one 
consisting of the upper ten, the merchants and professional characters, 
the others of the mechanics, journeymen and employees, a reckless, 
drinking, swearing, gambling class, who spent all their leisure and every 
night at the tavern. This class I could not associate with for although 
raised in a tavern, which my father had kept to help out for our 
awkwardness and deficiency in farming, yet I could neither endure spir- 
ituous liquors, nor the hilarity they occasioned, and being naturaUy ad- 
dicted to study and literary pursuits I spent most of my leisure in them. 
This drew me to the attention of the better class. 

Kev. G. Towers, a Presbyterian clergyman aud Professor of the 
Academy and his wife were the only religionists in the town. They gave 
me access to their large and select library. He was sociable and instruc- 
tive and at his special request I visited him two or three evenings every 
week. Both he and his wife smoked and encouraged me in my smoking, 
as an incentive to study and he kept a pipe constantly for my use. Every- 
body then used tobacco and amid its fragrant fumes I derived much in- 

Dr. Williams the most literary man in the community found me out 
and often visited me. He also advised me to smoke for the benefit of 
'>iy eyes, which had become much impaired by the small pox. Mr. Towers 
preached regularly twice a month in the Academy, but he had no church 

In May 1808 I left the place against the strongest remonstrances of 
my friends and even of my own biased friends for I had a gratutious 
induction into either of the three professions of law, medicine or divinity 
but family reasons induced me to forego their friendly offers. 

Letter from Benjamin to Wm. Scripps of Morgantown from New 


"It gives me pleasure to hear he is so agreeably situated at Clarks- 
burg and of the pecuniary advantages he derived from Mr. Stealey's 
liberality, together with Mr. Tower's library that enables him to en- 
dulge himself in the pleasing pursuits of literature." 

The writer of the above worked with and learned the trade of a 
tanner of Mr. Jacob Stealey, whose tannery was on Water Street near 
the present flour mill. 

In October, 1798, Mr. Felix Eenick passed through Western Virginia 
on his way to look at lands in Ohio, accompanied by Joseph Harness and 
Leonard Stump from the South Branch of the Potomac. 

The journey was on horseback and in part is described by Mr. 
Eenick as follows: 

"Having a long journey before us we travelled slow and reached 
Clarksburg the third night, which was then near the verge of the Western 
settlements in Virginia, except along the Ohio River. 

Among the first inquiries of our apparent good, honest, illiterate 
landlord was whether he could tell us how far it was to Marietta, Ohio, 


and what kind of a trace we should have. His reply was "Oh, yes, I 
can do that very thing exactly, as I have been recently appointed one of 
the viewers to lay out and mark a road from here to Marietta, and have 
just returned from the performance of that duty. The distance on a 
straight line which we first ran was seventy-five miles, but on our return 
we found and marked another line that was much nearer." 

This theory to Mr. Harness and myself, each of us having spent 
several years in the study and practice of surveying was entirely new. 
"We, however let it pass without comment and our old host to his great 
delight entertained us till late in the evening, with a detailed account of 
the fine sport he and his associates had in their bear chases, deer chases 
&c. while locating the road. 

"We pursued our journey the next morning taking what our host called 
the nearest, and which he also said was much the best route. The marks 
on both routes being fresh and plain, the crooked and nearest route, as our 
host called it frequently crossed the other. We took particular notice of 
the ground the straight line had to pass over, and after getting through 
we were disposed to believe that our worthy host was not so far wrong as 
might be supposed. The straight line crossing such high peaks of moun- 
tains some of which were so much in the sugar loaf form that it would 
be quite as near to go around as over them." 

Mr. Eenick and his party encamped two nights in the woods between 
Clarksburg and Marietta where the land office was then kept by General 
Putnam and from his office they obtained maps of the Government land 
for sale. 

"Howes History of Virginia printed in 1845 describes Clarksburg as 
situated 253 miles North Westerly from Richmond and 70 miles East of the 
Ohio River, at the junction of Elk Creek with the West Fork of the Monon- 
gahela. The village stands on a rolling table land, surrounded by an 
amphitheater of hills, while Elk Creek meandering through and around 
the town imparts additional beauty to the scene. 

Clarksburg was established by law in 1785 and is now a flourishing 
town. It contains seven mercantile stores, two newspaper printing offices, 
two fine classical academies, one Methodist and one Presbyterian Church 
and a population of about eleven hundred. 

There are inexhaustable supplies of coal in the immediate neighbor- 
hood and being in the midst of a fertile country possessing great mineral 
wealth in its iron, salt etc., it possesses the elements of prosperity. 

This immediate vicinity was settled a few years before the com- 
mencement of the Revolutionary War. The early settlers in this region 
of Country suffered greatly in the wars with the Indians until Wayne's 
treaty in 1795." 

A Christmas Party in the Long Ago. 

Mr. Benjamin F. Shuttleworth stated to the author that on Christ- 
mas day in the year 1829 when quite a child he remembers of being at 
a children's party at the residence of John Wilson, who lived on the 
South Side of Main Street opposite the intersection of Fourth Street. 


The company assembled early in the morning before daylight and 
enjoyed a bountiful breakfast by candle light. Afterwards they were 
conducted into another room and surrounded an elegant dressed Christ- 
mas tree laden with fruits, nuts, candies and toys. 

The occasion was such an enjoyable one, that although more than 
three quarters of a century had elapsed since its occurrence, it still lin- 
gered in the memory of the participant as a pleasant recollection of the 
days of his childhood. 

Previous to the commencement of the civil war in 1863 Clarksburg 
was noted for its hospitality and social gatherings. 

During the sessions of the several courts it was the custom to enter- 
tain the officials and members of the Bar. Dances were a common form 
of amusement. 

Debating, Thespian Societies and church festivals were numerous and 
occasionally a banquet would be given to some public man or by some 
political party, and the 4th. of July was generally celebrated by patriotic 

Below is given some invitations to attend the dances: 

"Social Ball. 

"The pleasure of your company is requested at a ball to be given 
at the Hotel of Major Wm. M. Bartlett on New Years Eve. 


G. D. Camden Geo. H. Lee 

A. J. Smith Aaron Criss 

L.. Haymond W. P. GofE 

C. Tavenner G. G. Davisson 

Clarksburg, Va., 1841." 

"January i, 1846. 

The pleasure of your company is respectfully requested at a "Cot- 
tilion party" to be given on Thursday evening the 1st. proximo, at 6 
o'clock at Dent's Hotel in Clarksburg. 


Richard W. Moore Aaron Criss 

James McCally G. G. Davisson 

liUther Haymond John S. Duncan 

R. F Criss James M. Jackson 

A. J. Smith And. S. Criss 

December 30, 1845." 

"Independence Ball. 

The pleasure of your company is respectfully solicited to attend 
a ball, at the Court House on the evening of the 5th. of July. 



Henry Haymond 
Col. D. F. Hewes Major Uriel M. Turner 

Col. Luther Haymond Wm. P. Irwin 

G. D. Camden, Jr. Hugh H. Lee 

Capt. A. P. Davisson Theo. Rosenthal 

Clarksburg, Va., June 24, 1858. 

Cooper & Bruen Printers. 

The Harrison Republican in its issue of August 15, 1845, states 

"A census of Clarksburg taken last week by some youths connected 
with the Academy shows the following as the number of inhabitants: 

Heads of families 140 

White males 3 40 

White females 326 666 

Black Males 39 

Black Females 101 140 

Total population 806 

Those living on the "Point" were not enumerated." 

Mr. J. H. DisDebar an accomplished young Frenchman, who came 
to West Virginia as agent for the claimants of large bodies of land 
known as the Swan lands, gives an interesting account of his first visit 
to Clarksburg in April 1846 and put up at the North Western Hotel on 
Pike Street kept by James Carder. He describes the building as a large 
wind shaken two story frame with a long ell and double porches in the 
rear, and as ranking second in the town because the other tavern kept by 
a Mr. Bartlett was built of brick and adjoined the Court House lot. 

The frame building is still used for a hotel and has for many years 
been known as the Walker House. 

He further says that "The denizens of Clarksburg are chiefly of 
Old Virginia descent, and constitute a somewhat exclusive conservative 
set with all the traditions and social prejudices, pertaining to an ancient 
moss grown aristocratic town, such as Clarksburg was reputed to be. 
With very few exceptions there was but very little actual wealth to back 
up their pretensions, which were by common consent founded upon anti- 
quity of pedigree and superior culture and manners. Their language 
was uniformly correct, their conversation refined and their hospitality 
generous within their means. 

Modern buildings, with somewhat tasty surroundings did not exceed 
a dozen all told, and to a traveler from more progressive sections of 
the Country, the town viewed from within or without presented a rusty 
time worn appearance, relieved, however, by neatly cultivated flower 
plots, vegetable gardens and orchards, which with the absence of all bus- 
iness like bustle lent the place an aspect of almost idylic repose. 

Shops and stores of any kind were few and mostly confined to the 
ill lighted front rooms of dingy dwellings. 


Clarksburg was always widely and justly famed not only for its 
distinguished legal talent, and brilliant oratory in the line of polities, 
but also for the general ingenuity of its citizens in trades and shifts of any 

As illustrating the thrift of her people in holding the balance of trade, 
the following anecdote is related: A wholesale grocer of Parkersburg 
was asked what he intended to do with his oldest son then coming of 
age. The reply was "I intend to set him up in business at Clarksburg 
with a thousand dollars and if he can keep that for three months I will 
entrust him with all I possess." 

United States Court was held at Clarksburg twice a year in the 
spring and fall. On such occasions card parties, for gentlemen only, 
were given by leading citizens, with a display of lavish hospitality in 
the shape of generous refreshments of the choicest brands from various 
climes. These entertainments generally lasted from eight of nine P. M. 
until the dawn of day, and besides a selection of local friends embraced 
the Court officials, members of the Jury, witnesses and visitors, all hailing 
from more or less distant parts of the State. It was never a cause of 
surprise that a large proportion of these invited guests required the 
help of some good Samaritan, to find the way back to their lodgings in the 
morning fog, and it is scarcely necessary to add that after all and every 
one of such functions "the balance of trade" was found to be largely 
in favor of the town. 

Mr. DisDebar speaks of Hon. William A. Harrison and Luther Hay- 
mond to whom he had letters of introduction, also of Messrs. Lloyd 
Lowndes and S. Hartman as merchants of the period. 

He gives a humorous account of a frog supper given at the Carder 
Tavern, at which were present John S. Duncan, James M. Jackson, Caleb 
Boggess, Lloyd Moore, U. M. Turner, Robert Johnson, Eobert Sommerville, 
Granville G. Davisson and Edgar M. Davisson. 

It appears that the fires were out at the tavern when the frogs 
arrived, and the landlord refused to have them relighted, so the frogs were 
prepared in a salad by the versatile son of France, and with the addition 
of various liquids immensely enjoyed by the jovial company. And he 
adds, "A year or two later my friend Duncan, who had served a term 
in the State Legislature as a brilliant champion of the right of way for 
the Baltimore & Ohio Eailroad, was again a candidate in competition 
with Col. Joseph Johnson, later Governor of Virginia. It was one of 
the most spirited contests known in that section and decided in favor 
of Johnson by a majority of one vote magnanimously cast by Duncan for 
his opponent who on his part failed to vote for Duncan. 

A short time afterwards riding to Randolph County with Judge 
Edwin S. Duncan I was surprised to learn that it was my French frog 
supper that had defeated his son's election beyond a doubt. Three of the 
Judges rural neighbors, staunch whigs, incensed at John's lack of self 
respect in feasting on raw frogs, had remained away from the polls where 
their votes would have given him a decided majority." 

In early days the neighborhood of Clarksburg was a good boy's 


In the Spring was the fishing season by hooks, trot lines, brush 
seines, gigging and nets. A little later came mulberries, Dew berries, 
wild plums, black berries and raspberries. In the fall there were service 
berries, wild grapes, persimmons, cherries, paw paws, chestnuts, beech 
nuts, walnuts, butter nuts, hickory and hazel nuts. The nuts were gathered 
and stored away for winter use. Later in the Fall came the season for 
trapping snow birds, snaring rabbits, trapping muskrats and coon and 
possum hunts at night. 

The Point mill dam in the West Fork was famous as a fishing place 
for bass, as was the "fish pot" in the bend below the dam. 

The mill dam in Elk Creek called the "Town dam" was another 
fishing resort. 

The swimming holes were for the town boys the Mill pond in Elk 
called "Saint Denis" another was just below the Fourth Street Bridge 
called the Pike Hole, the next was at the bend of the creek below Broad- 
dus College called the Deep Hole. 

Then there was the old Ferry in the river at the foot of Ferry Street, 
which was famous as a swimming place, mostly for men and big boys. 
It was too deep and broad for the little fellows. 

There was a Ferry conducted at this place for many years by "Daddy 
Eib" and hence its name. 

"Despards corner" at Third and Main Streets was a famous gather- 
ing place for boys of evenings, around the old horse block which stood 
out in front of the store room. Many expeditions for the purpose of 
fishing, gathering nuts, tramps through the woods &c. were arranged 

The amusements were games of marbles, shooting at a mark with 
bow and arrows, town ball, pitching quoits, tag, Anthony over. Hunt the 
Hare, jumping, wrestling and foot races and sliding on the ice, coasting 
and snow-balling. 

As the conditions of the country changed the boy's occupations and 
amusements changed also. As the woods were cleared out with them went 
the nuts, fruits and wild animals. 

The Stealey tanyard was located on "Water Street opposite the Mill, 
and the used up tan bark was dumped over the bank into the creek 
between the mill and the bridge, and the accumulation of years formed 
a steep slide into the water and many is the wheelbarrow, cart or any 
loose vehicle left on the streets at night, that would be found in the 
water the next morning and nobody be the wiser for it. For many years 
the expression "over tanbark" was a familiar one and meant sliding 
an article over the bank built by tanbark into the creek. 

On Traders Alley between Third and Fourth Streets was a pond 
of water caused by bad drainage and heavy rains called "Lake Erie" 
and many a luckless wight who had taken too much on board of Corbins 
whiskey was soused in its waters in order to sober him and of course no one 
knew anything about it. 

During the existence of the Militia laws each Regiment of Militia 
was compelled to assemble for drill once each year generally in the 


The Eleventh Regiment assembled in Clarksburg and the day was 
called "Big Muster" and the boys looked forward to it with the greatest 
pleasure and interest. 

Nobody was in uniform. Here and there an officer would have a white 
and red plume in his hat, or a sash or sword belted around him and it 
was sometimes the case that a newly elected officer would mount a pair 
of Epauletts. Great crowds would collect around the fife and drum corps 
on the streets a cavalry company, or rather a party of men on horseback 
with nothing military about them, would occasionally dash through the 
streets headed by a bugler who would sound his bugle, which with the 
drum and shrill notes of the fife, the neighing of the horses, barking of 
dogs and shouts of the officers with clouds of dust and the delighted 
howls of the young population, created pandemonium and an amusing 
and exciting scene, one never to be forgotten, alas Big Muster is a thing 
of the past. The Civil war broke up the Militia system and no one had a 
taste for military display after four years of actual conflict. 

On Big Muster day as on all other public occasions Mrs. Cline had 
her stand set up in the Court House yard where she did a heavy traffic 
in ginger bread and spruce beer. The author can cheerfully testify that 
in all his subsequent application to confection, beer and drinks of "like 
nature" he has never yet encountered anything to equal Mrs. Cline 's 
products, and all the old stagers of Clarksburg he candidly believes will 
verify this experience. 

The coming of a circus and menagerie was an event among the young 
population of the greatest moment, and nothing else was talked about for 
days before the performance. 

At that time the whole outfit of the show travelled by wagons as 
there was no railroad and it was the custom for every boy in town to go 
out to meet the caravan, sometimes two or three miles out. 

It is remembered that shows were held on Main Street East of the 
Presbyterian church, between Pike and Main, near the Southern Methodist 
church and at the northern terminus of North Third Street and on the 
Jackson place. 

In a Clarksburg paper published in 1847 appears an advertisement 
that Robinson & Eldreds Great National Circus composed of 100 men and 
horses will exhibit in Clarksburg on August 21. Among the attractions 
it is stated that Mr. Robinson is the greatest equestrain living the first 
and only successful four horse rider in the world. 

The spacious water proof pavillion enclosing an area of 6000 square 
feet will seat 1000 persons. The Company was formed by J. R. Robinson 
in 1827. 

Occasionally small traveling troops would visit Clarksburg and amuse 
the people by performances consisting of theatricals, dialogues, sleight 
of hand tricks interspersed with music and song. 

Sometimes local Thespian Societies would give an entertainment. 
The Court House was always used for these amusements. 

The earliest Menagerie or animal show of which there is any record 
was one that held forth in a house in Main Street between Third and 
Fourth Strets in the early twenties. The animals exhibited according to 


the recollection of one who attended were a Leopard, monkeys and birds. 
The Leopard seems to have been the "star attraction" and to have made 
the greatest impression on the author's informant. 

The hills South of town known successively as Criss', Duncan's Hay- 
mond and Lowndes' Hills were famous places for the boys to set snares 
for rabbits. 

The West end boys set snares in Humphrey's Hollow on the Stealey 
place near the Old Fair Grounds, and also over the creek to the North 
on Weminger's Hill and the fields beyond. 

The Hollow above mentioned was called Humphrey's Hollow after 
Uncle Humphrey, an old colored man, who with his wife Aunt Easter 
lived close to the river just below the South End of the Fair grounds 

Captain Charles Leib, who was Post Quarter Master at Clarksburg 
in the first year of the war gives the following description of the town at 
that time. The Captain in guarding the interests of the Government 
had made many enemies, and it was not likely that he formed a favorable 
impression of the town or its inhabitants. He says: 

"This ancient metropolis of Western Virginia as its people delight 
in calling it, lies in a little Valley on one side of which runs Elk Creek 
and on the other the West Fork of the Monongahela River. 

On all sides loom up wild desolate looking hills covered to their 
summit with the "forest primeval." 

The town itself is only approached by dilapidated looking bridges 
across the streams before mentioned, and is laid out irregularly with 
little regard to taste or beauty. It is motley collection of rickety frame 
houses, dirty looking brick dwellings and old stone buildings, some of 
which are propped up by large pieces of scantling, shattered monuments 
of the first families of Virginia. 

For the most part the grounds around the dwellings are alike desti- 
tute of good taste or comfort. 

The town boasts a Court House, a most extraordinary specimen of 
architecture, which is used for every purpose besides its legitimate one; 
for fairs, balls, parties, political indignation and other meetings. 

Almost every sect is represented by a Church, the most of which 
have been sadly disfigured by the troops occupying them for barracks. 
There is also an Academy, which has been turned into a Guard House 
and prison for the numerous political prisoners sent there. 

An air of listless inactivity broods over the whole town. Many 
of the people are hospitable and kind, the ladies, refined and educated, 
have more energy than the men, who for the most part are lazy and indo- 
lent, and delight in interfering with the affairs of strangers. Their 
principal occupation in the drowsy summer afternoons is to sit upon 
their door steps with their little negroes playing at their feet, and gaze 
into the street, at times discussing the war and marking out plans for our 
Generals to follow. 

Pacing along the deserted streets in the twilight, the only sounds 
which are heard besides the tramp of your own footsteps are the merry 


ringing laugh of childhood, the tinkle of a distant cowbell and the bray- 
ing of the Government mules. 

The languid inactivity of the town reminds one of those primitive 
Dutch places in New York so graphically described by Washington Irving. 
There the resemblance ends for an ancient Dutch Burgher would be horri- 
fied at the unthriftiness and laziness of those claiming to be descendants 
of the Cavaliers. This is the old town. 

At the depot, half a mile distant where the government buildings are 
erected for the commissary departments all is activity and bustle. Trains 
are continually coming and going bearing stores to distant posts. Troops 
are passing rapidly through, enthusiastic with patriotism and anzious to 
get a glance at Secessia. Messengers with dispatches are rapidly hurrying 
from camp to camp. There is the ceaseless roll of white topped army 
wagons, dissatisfied claimants hanging around the Quarter-Master's office, 
importuning the sentry for admission though knowing it is already full; 
the endless ringing of the blacksmith hammer, the activity and bustle of 
the wagon shop, enthusiastic individuals who have just discovered a new 
plan by which transportation can be hastened, or anxious to dispose of 
horses at a high price from disinterested motives, because they are good 
Union men; the arrival and departure of special trains laden with every 
description of stores and numerous Secessionists in the guise of Union 
men, watching the slightest movement and catching every whisper, hoping 
thereby to learn something favorable to the rebel cause, which they may 
be able to turn to advantage. This is the new town. 

In a large orchard belonging to Major Jackson, between the old town 
and the new is located the government "corral" where are kept the 
horses, mules and necessary equipments for transportation. 

Everything betokens the activity of the government depot. Here 
is a large hay house filled to its utmost capacity with a dozen men pressing 
and curing hay, forage masters issuing forage, men digging wells, ostlers 
cleaning and feeding horses, others breaking them to harness. All is bus- 
tle and work. There are no idle men here and every man is requird to 
do his whole duty. 

Again we cross the bridge, the outer world is left behind and we 
breathe the enchanted air of "Sleepy Hollow." 

Along in the thirties there was printed a piece of poetry describing 
several of the prominent citizens of Clarksburg in no very favorable light. 
It depicted them as land grabbers, negro stealers and hog thieves and 
desperate characters generally. The publication of this doggerell while 
creating wide spread comment and amusement put the town by the ears 
and resulted in a law suit for defamation of character against the poet 
and it was many years before the effects were effaced by time. 

There is given below three of the verses that mention no names and 
will give a general idea of the character of effusion. Twelve verses are 


Old times in Clarksburg. 

Old Uncle Josey in a trance when he fell 
He thought in his vision that he was in hell 
Where the Devil was jailer, and turned the key 
"Step in Uncle Josey, you're my prisoner" says he. 

Oh then Uncle Josey when will they be here? 
With hot lead and brimstone begin to prepare, 
And all of your old friends play each one his part, 
For they'll buy and sell hell if you do not be smart. 

Pray Uncle Josey come tell unto me 
When you were in Hell what there did you see? 
I saw lawyers and doctors of every degree, 
But mechanics and farmers not one did I see." 

The following notes are taken from the diary of a citizen of Clarks- 

June 17, 1840. A daily line of stages started on the North Western 
Turnpike to-day. 

December 23, 1842. The Point Mills burned down. 

May 1851. Great fire on the North side of Main Street burning from 
the Despard comer to the Goff building. 

This includes the buildings from Third Street to David Davidson's 
business house, the site of the Stonewall Jackson house. 

November 12, 1851. Fire destroyed all buildings on the South Side 
of Main Street from the Adams property to the Court House including 
Bartlett's Hotel. 

1850. Waldo P. Goff had the first door bell in town and Luther Ray- 
mond the second one. 

April 4, 1859. Bartlett's Hotel burned. 

Illuminating gas was introduced into Clarksburg in 1871. Natural 
gas for heat and light was piped into town in 1891 from Big Isaac, 
Doddridge County by the Mountain State Gas Company. 

Water works were established in 1888. 

The street car line built in 1900. 

Electric light plant was established in 1887. 

The discovery of oil and natural gas in the West End of the County 
in 1889 has made great changes in Clarksburg. The population has in- 
creased, manufactories have been established and it is destined to become 
a large and prosperous city in the future. 

Clarksburg's Only Duel. 

On the 24th. day of April 1810 two young men stood facing each 
other on the banks of Elk Creek, back of the Randolph Academy, where 
the Central High School building now stands with pistols in hand and 
at the word fired directly at each other. 

Their names were Thomas P. Moore and Charles K. Bumham the 


result of the firing was that Biimham received a severe wound in the 
hip. Moore escaped unhurt. 

The records of the County court show that on the 28th. of April, 
1810, Thomas P. Moore and Charles K. Burnham were arraigned before 
the Court charged with fighting a duel on April 24, with weapons that 
might have produced death. 

The order of the Court states that Burnham was not present owing 
to ''indisposition." 

Both parties entered into bond to keep the peace for twelve months 
and no further action seems to have been taken of the affair. 

On the same day Archibald B. Wilson was charged with having 
been guilty of conveying a challenge from Burnham to Moore and acting 
as his second in the duel and also Lemuel E. Davisson for acting as sec- 
ond for Moore. They were also bound over to keep the peace. 

The same course was pursued in the charges against Hugh M. Tate 
and Alexander H. Creel for assisting, aiding and abetting Moore and 
Burnham in figting a duel. 

The records also show that "Wilson who had acted as second for Burn- 
ham in the duel with Moore was charged with sending a challenge to 
fight a duel to John Phelps and that Davisson who had acted as second 
to Moore was charged with conveying the challenge. They also gave bond 
to keep the peace. 

What caused the outbreak between Wilson and Phelps is not known, 
the gilded youth were evidently on the war path and were industriously 
engaged in painting old Clarksburg a bright red on that April day long 

An interesting romance, which came so near resulting in a sad 
tragedy, is behind these formal Court proceedings, clothed in legal verb- 
age, but the mist of almost a hundred years has obscured the occurrence 
from the recollection of men and only a dim tradition remains. 

The innocent cause of this disturbance can be traced to Miss Rachel 
Pindall, a pretty blue eyed maiden, who had recently come to Clarks- 
burg from Monongalia County, and who was a sister to the celebrated 
lawyer, James Pindall, and to whom the two principals in the duel had 
been paying marked attention. It was the same old story of rivalry for 
the hand of a fair daughter of Eve that \\nll be repeated in the future 
time and again as long as the human race shall exist. 

After the duel Burnham abandoned the field and moved West, and in 
the following year Moore married the young lady in question and many 
of their descendants reside in Clarksburg to this day. 

In the war of 1812 with England Thomas P. Moore entered the 
army and was promoted to the rank of Major, serving wih distinction in 
the invasion of Canada and along the Atlantic coast. 

Lover's Bridge. 

In the fifties there was a rustic wooden bridge spanning the Pike 
Street crossing of the little stream to the East of town, known by the un- 
poetic name of Still House Eun. 


Its ancient stone abutments were covered with vines and foliage 
and each end was shaded by trees growing up from the banks of the 
stream beneath. 

On summer evenings this secluded spot was a famous trysting place 
for young lovers and strolling couples, and rarely was there a moonlight 
night without its low railings being occupied. 

This retired sylvan retreat was called Lover's Bridge by the young 
people and how many promises were there made to be broken will never 
be known as their name is "legion." It was the same old story and yet 
ever new. 

The great civil war changed the social life of Clarksburg, and many 
of the boys who stood on the bridge in the moonlight and whispered sweet 
words of constancy and devotion in the ears of trusting maidens, were 
destined in the near future, to face each other on bloody battle fields in 
the great civil war, and never to meet again. 

Alas ! the sparkling waters of the rivulet are changed to the sulphur- 
ous drainage of a coal mine : the bridge with its beautiful natural sur- 
roundings is gone and its place is taken by a rude stone culvert with an 
unsightly fill over it. The little god Cupid who controls the destiny of 
lovers has fled in disgust. The romance hovering over the charmed scene 
has departed and Old Father Time has proven himself to be what he al- 
ways has been, a relentless image breaker. 

The gulf of half a century yawns between those bright lovely hours 
of gilded youth and the realities of the present, and may the hand of the 
recording angel trace lightly in his book the unfiilled pledges of the youthful 
lovers made on the tree clad old bridge in the long gone past. 

William Scripps. 

From recollections of Rev. John Scripps who was born in Bridewell 
Parish London and came to Baltimore with his father's family Wm. 
Scripps in May, 1791, and settled in Alexandria, Va. In the fall of 1792 
his father Wm. Scripps removed to Morgantown, the following is his 
description of the trip. 

In speaking of his father he says : "Suddenly recollecting that he had 
come to be a farmer he suffered himself to be victimized by land specula- 
tors in the purchase of a large tract of land said to lie on the bank of 
the Monongahela River and began immediately to prepare for removing 
to his purchase. The mode of transit in those days particularly across 
the mountains for all movables was on the backs of pack horses, but his 
chest of books and clothing, mahogany tables, cushion chairs, high post 
bed steads and even large flat boxes of window glass in frames, with which 
to furnish his new abode would not admit of such a mode of conveyance. 
His movables filled three wagons, one six horse and two four horse teams. 

My mother rode Caviller, a favorite horse that had carried General 
Washington through the war of the Revolution, but being old and super- 
annuated he was sold by the General's overseer to my father as suited for 
my mother. This wa.s the last essential service poor Chevalier performed. 
The settlers on our road had been Revolutionary Soldiers and generally 
recognized and sympathized with the poor animal. 


My father took upon himself the entire expense of the journey, not 
only of the wagoners and their teams but also of some hangers on Mechan- 
ics, who were to form a little colony on his estate and carry on business 
under his patronage. 

There was not a public house on the whole 250 miles we traveled, un- 
less in the towns which were far and few between. 

We were fully three weeks on the road and arrived at Morgantown 
early in December 1792. 

My father on his arrival at Morgantown found his land twenty miles 
from any settlement and as he was not prepared to settle in a wilderness 
where no help could be hired, he set about purchasing a more suitable 
tract but was again victimized and bought another and another with the 
same results. 

In 1794 he moved out to the least objectionable of his purchases. 

In the beginning my father could be seen grubbing in his broadcloth 
and satin till they were worn out before he could get any other, for there 
were no stores in the country and no money in circulation to buy with if 
there had been. 

Everybody made their own clothes of flax beginning with the culti- 
vation of the staple. Wool there was none for wolves prevented our 
keeping sheep. We once got a flock of twenty but they were all destroyed 
Provisions were not to be obtained save only by hard and constant labor 
for few settlers had land in cultivation more than sufficient to raise food 
for their own consumption, and generally by Spring there would be no 
bread in the country and people lived on greens, of spontaneous growth, 
which were daily gathered by women and children until they could raise 
vegetables. It was sometime before we had tillable land enough to raise 
wheat. Butter we could not indulge in, for what little we made with our 
surplus maple sugar at six cents a pound and a few eggs was all we could 
market to get money to pay taxes. 

Pike Street. 

Previous to the construction of the North Western Turnpike through 
Clarksburg about the year 1836 now Pike Street, Main Street was the only 
Western entrance into town, Pike Street extending no further West than 
4th. Street, but after the new street was opened the town began gradually 
to spread to the West. 

Robert Childers built the first house on the new extension on the 
South side of Pike Street just East of its junction with Sycamore. 

Granville G. Davisson built the next one at the North East corner 
of Pike and Sixth, followed soon afterwards by Luther Haymond on 
the same side of Pike across Sixth from Davisson's. 


Mills in Clarksburg. 

The first mill built in Clarksburg M^as prior to 1781, probably about 
1776, and was owned by Webb & Davisson and stood abo\e the present 
site on Elk Creek at the entrance to the "Narrows." 

The Mill house stood it is supposed on the East Side of the Creek, 
as the ground there is more suitable for its location and more accessible 
than the opposite or Western side. In low water the remains of the dam 
are still to be seen. 

In 1784 George Jackson obtained permission of the County Court to 
erect a mill on the site of the present one. 

The "Point Mills" were afterwards constructed on the river below 
the mouth of Elk Creek about one mile from the Court House. 



Census of the County. 

At the June Term, 1785, of the County Court, an order was entered 
that a list of all whites and buildings should be taken, distinguishing the 
dwelling houses, together with a list of the tithables subject to the pay- 
ment of County or Parish levies. 

The inhabitated parts of the County were divided into districts and 
an assessor appointed to do the work in each district. 

The reports made by these oflScials are valuable as giving a list of 
names of those resident in the County at that time. Many of the names 
are illegible or so carelessly written and spelled that they cannot be de- 
ciphered. Some names are spelled three or four different ways, for in- 
stance Hughes, Hewes and Hues are intended for the same family name. 

The tithables or men of lawful age agregating 318. Several women 
are enumerated, they being owners of property. The most of the inhabi- 
tants are on the waters of the Valley and West Fork Rivers, there being 
but few west of the latter stream. 

The reports of John Sleeth, Thomas Cheney, Benjamin Robinson 
John MeCalley, George Jackson and John Powers cover the present limits 
of the county. These are all of the reports found for that year. It is 
possible that there were others for thinly settled parts of the County but 
if there were such they cannot be found. 

John Sleeth list of tithables for the year 1785, from the mouth of Lost 
Creek, upwards, including the whole of the livers in the West Fork settle- 

Alex. West 
John Runyon 
Matthew Richards 
Joseph Kester 
Conrad Richards 
Samuel Borris 
Jacob Harleson 
Ebenezer Haley 
James Sleath 
Samuel Bonet 
Thomas Doyl McCune 


Joseph Crozan 
Thomas Hughes 
Daniel Cane 

Thomas Hughes 
Henry Flesher 
James Campbell 
Christen Harrison 
William Hannan 
Jesse Huse 
David Wales Sleeth 
Alex. Sleeth 
John Sleeth 
George Collins 
Adam Bush 



Edmund West, Constable. 
James Schoolcraft 
Adam O'Brien 

James Tanner 
Elias Hues 
John Richard 
John Collins 
John Brown 
George Brush 
Jacob Cozad 
John Hacker 
John Waggoner 
Richard Clark 
Jacob Bush 


Edmond West 
Joel Lowther 
John Huggle 



Thomas Cheney, list of tithables for 1785, from the mouth of the West 
Fork River up to Simpson's Creek including the Valley River: 

Moses HofE 

Robert Plummer, Constable 

Edom Freeman 

George Tetrick 

William Tucker 

Joseph Saxton 

Nathan Tucker 

Koonrod Koon 

Henry Bucher 

Joseph Koon 

Enoch James 
Jacob Biglar 
Jacob Tetrick 
John Tucker 
Samuel Tucker 
John Goodwin 
John Goodwin, 
Evan Thomas 
Ezekel Thomas 


John Wickwire 
John Owens 
Owens Owens 
Lambert Flowers 
Thos. Cheney 
Henry Snider 
John Davis 
Jonah Edwards 
George Moorehead 
Evan Thomas 

Benjamin Robinson list of tithables for 1785 from the County line 
up the west side of the West Fork River to Limestone creek: 

David Wamsly 
Thomas Bartlett 
Robert Bartlett 
Benj. Bartlett 
Barns Allen 
John Warmsley 
Samuel Mclntlre 

Samuel Harbert 
Edward Harbert 
Joseph Wood 
Edward Cunningham 
Thomas Cunningham 
Joseph Wamsley 
Peter Cornelison 

John Wood 
John Outright 
Christopher Carpenter 
Benj. Robinson 
Levi Shinn 

John McCalley's list of tithables for the year 1785 from the mouth 
of Limestone up both sides of the West Fork River to Lost Creek. 

John Cain 
Abijah Ward 
Jacob Richards, Jr. 
Job Hughes 
Josiah Davisson 
John Hess 
William Lowther 
Thomas Barkley 
James Meek 

George Richards 
Jacob Richards 
Isaac Richards 
William Runyan 
Nicholas Bulgar 
John Myers 
Thomas Read 
Thomas McCann 
Cornelius Ward 

Jonathan Coburn 
William Tanner 
Isaac Davisson 
Nicholas Carpenter 
John McCally 
John Read 
Robert Pike 
Benjamin Richards 

George Jackson list of tithables 18th. July, 1785, on the waters of 
Elk Creek. 

Samuel Beard 
Christopher Nutter 
Benjamin Shinn 
Mathew Nutter 
Daniel Fink 
John Davisson 
Henry Russ 
John Wade Lovberry 
Lewis Duvall 
Hezekiah Davisson 
Dinnes Murphy 
John Gregory 
Major Powers 
Joseph Gregory 
Wm. Murphy 

Obadiah Davisson 
David Murphy 
Benjamin Coplin 
George Drake 
Benjamin Cutter 
Andrew Davisson 
Levi Douglass 
John Radcliff 
James Shreve 
John Murphy 
Bazel Williams 
Wm. Haymond 
Jonathan Lambert 
Daniel Davisson 
Gilbert Hustead 

Notley Duvall 
John Duvall 
Joseph Hasting 
Wm. Carder 
Geo. Jackson 
Sotha Hickman 
John Wolfe 
Thomas Nutter 
Jacob Wolfe 
Francis McCann 
John Prunty 
Wm. Davis 
Amaziah Davisson 



John Powers list of Tithables for the year 1785 on the waters of 
Simpson's Creek and the Thompson settlement. 

William Bartlett 
Watson Clark 
David Edwards 
James Anderson 
Caleb Stout 
Joseph Davisson 
William Robinson 
Samuel Shinn 
Samuel James 
Isaac Edwards 
William McKenney 
John Bartlett 
John Allen 
Henry Thompson 

William Thompson 
Elizabeth Webb 
George Stewart 
Thomas Bartlett 
Walter Everet 
John Nutter 
Joseph Wilkinson 
Samuel Smith 
Jacob Kees 
Thomas Stout 
Bonham Stout 
Samuel Wilkinson 
James Anderson 
Isaac Stackhouse 
John Bowers. 

Thomas Webb 
Aaron Smith 
William Asa 
Jonathan Stout 
John Stackhouse 
John Sailor 
Isaac Shinn 
Jacob Kees 
Joseph Davis 
Ralph Morrow 
Ann Davisson 
Joseph Wilkinson 
Daniel Stout 
Thomas Wilkinson 

A list of taxable and tithable property and tithables as per order of 
Court 1785. Salathial Goff's Cheat River District and Horse Shoe Bot- 

James Parsons 
George Richardson 
Salathial Goff 
Philip Minear 
Thomas Wilmoth 

William Parsons 
James Shaw 
Hannah Cuper 
Adam Minear 
Neriah Gandy 
Patrick Magonagan 

Mickle Parsons 
William Shaw 
David Minear 
Edward Johnson 
Philip Fisher 

H. Delay's list of tithables for 1785 from Petty 's Ford up to Joseph 

Anthony Chevelear 
George Westfall 
John Crouch, Jr. 
John Currence 

Charles Persons 
Henry Delay 
Janathan Crouch 
Ebenezer Petty 

John Crouch, Sr. 
Lidda Currance 
William Currence 

The tithables and taxable property of Buckhannon River settlement 
taken by Edw. Jackson, 1785. 

Charles Foransh 
Henry Fink, Sr. 
John Cutrite, Jr. 
John Bush 

John Jackson 
David Casto 
Henry Pink, Jr. 
Joseph Hall 
Edward Jackson 

John Bosart 
Henry Runyan 
John Cutrite, Sr. 
John Jackson, Jr. 

Jacob Westfall list of tithables 1785 from Leading Creek up to Betty's 
Ford, including both sides of the Valley River. 



Aaron Richison 
Abraham Kittle 
Anthony Smith 
Benj. Wilson 
Benj. Outright 
Benj. Jones 
Cornelius Bogard 
Daniel Westfall 
David Cassity 
David Henderson 
David Philipps 
Elizabeth Springstone 
George Bredin 
Henry Prettioc 
John Trubies 
John Pauly 
John Wilson 
Isaac McHenry 
Jonathan Smith 
Jacob Wolf 
Joseph Donahue 
Thomas Holder 
George Reeding 

Jacob Stalnaker, Sr. 
Jacob Stalnaker, Jr. 
Jacob Westfall, Sr. 
Jacob Westfall, Jr. 
John Johnson 
John Yoakum 
John Kittle 
Jacob Kittle 
John Cassity 
Matthias Whitman 
Michael Toner 
Nicholas Smith 
Nicholas Pettro 
Nicholas Wolf 
Peter Bredin 
Peter Casity 
Phineas Wells 
Philip Clem 
Richard Kittle 
Solomon Ryan 
Jonas Friend 
Benjamin Hornbeck 
Andrew Skidmore 

Samuel McHenry 
Samuel Quick 
Thomas Philipps 
Thomas Bore 
Valentine Stalnaker 
William Cassity 
William Smith 
William Levit 
William Blair, Sr. 
William Briggs 
William Blair, Jr. 
Zachariah Westfall 
William Anglin 
George Teter 
Jacob Shook 
Samuel Eberman 
Alexander Blair 
Elizabeth Shaver 
Hezekiah Rosecronts 
Jacob Shaver 
Jacob Brinkle 
Joseph Friend 
James Bodkin 

C. Westfall list of tithables for 1785 taken from Leading Creek down 
to the County line including or comprehending those betwen the East Side 
of the Valley River and Cheat Mountain. 

Cornelius Westfall 
John Westfall 
Robert Maxwell 
William Westfall 

Daniel Booth 
Philip Washburn 
Samuel Cole 
Wm. Wilson 
Aaron • 

George Westfall 
Hannah Wire 
Wm. Haddix 
Wm. Clark 

Patrick Hamilton's list of tithables 1785 from Jacob Crouches up to 
the County Line : 

George Allford 
John Alexander 
Judy Crouch 
Robert Henderson 
John Hadden 
James Lecky, Sr. 
Franceys McDonald 
Charles Nillson 
Elmer Riffel 
Christopher Truby 
Benj. Abbot 

Margaret Bare 
Richard Elliott 
Wm. Hamilton 
David Hadden 
Thomas Lecky 
James Moor 
James Prathor 
Daniel Simerman 
John Warrick 
Peter Shavers 
John Allford 

Joseph Crouch 
Patrick Hamilton 
John Hamilton 
James Lecky, Jr. 
James McClain 
Joseph Milton 
Jacob Riffel 
George Shavers 
George Willson 

Population of Harrison County for the years given below. 

1790 2080 

1800 4848 

1810 9958 

1820 10932 

1830 14722 

1840 17669 

1850 11728 

1860 13790 

1870 16714 

1880 20181 

1890 21919 

1900 27690 


County Districts and Townships. 

The constitution of 1852 required County officers to be elected by the 
people instead of being appointed as heretofore, which required a change 
in the method of choosing County officers and in other local matters. 

The legislature by an act passed April 2, 1852, appointed Commis- 
sioners named in the Act and directed that they lay off their respective 
Counties into districts as nearly equal in territory and population as 
possible, and to number the same. They were also required to establish 
a place for holding elections in each district, not more than two such 
places in any district, and were required to make report of their action 
to the County Court which was to record the same. 

Under this act Harrison Comity was divided into five (5) Districts 
and the following commissioners were appointed: Cyrus Vance, Luther 
Raymond, Samuel Hoff, Lemuel D. Shinn, William E. Bennett, Abia 
Minor, Byron J. Bassel, David C. Coplin, James McCalley and Phineas 
Kandolph, as directed by the law. 

The Legislature by an act passed July 31, 1863, appointed commis- 
sioners and directed that they divide their respective counties into town- 
ships, laid off as compactly as practicable with natural boundaries contain- 
ing as nearly as possible an equal number of population, but not less than 
four hundred to designate each township by name, and to make report 
of their action with maps to be filed with the Recorder of the County. 

The Commissioners named in the Act for Harrison County were 
Luther Haymond, Selden M. Ogden, Sidney Haymond, John W. Boggess 
and Jacob Highland. 

The commissioners laid off the County into ten Townships, which were 
named as follows: Elk after the creek that runs through it. Grant after 
General U. S. Grant. Union to signify the opposition to secession. Ten 
Mile after the creek that runs through it. Sardis after the town of that 
name. Eagle after the American Eagle. Clay after Henry Clay, the 
Kentucky statesman. Simpson after the creek of that name. Coal after 
the coal found in its boundaries. Clark after General George Rogers 
Clark, for whom Clarksburg was named. 

With the exception of a few slight changes these sub-divisions stand 
as first laid off. 



The churcli of England was the established church of the Colony 
of Virginia for many years after the landing at Jamestown. 

The inbabitated parts of the Country were laid off into parishes 
and the governing board was called a vestry, which had charge of all 
church affairs and the poor of the Parish. 

The Minister had a fixed salary which was levied for upon the inhab- 
itants of the parish by the Vestry, and was payable in tobacco. A parson- 
age was provided for him and not less than two hundred acres of land 
was set apart for his use, called a "glebe." 

Marriages were required to take place in the churches and to be cele- 
brated only by the ministers of the established church. 

Catholic priests were not permitted to remain in the colony more than 
five days after receiving notice to depart. 

All other ministers or non-conformists were prohibited from teaching 
or preaching publicly or privately, and were liable to be expelled by the 

Severe laws were enacted against Quakers on account of their teach- 
ing "false visions, prophecies and doctrines and thereby disturbing the 
public peace." 

At the coming of the Revolution all proscriptive laws in reference to 
religious worship and for raising money by taxation for the support of the 
Established Church were swept away, and absolute freedom and liberty 
of conscience in matters of religion permitted. 

The strenuous and isolated life of the settler west of the mountains, 
his struggle to protect himself from the Indians, procure subsistence and 
subdue the forest, gave him no time to pay attention to religious matters 
and they of course were entirely neglected. 

But it was not long after settlements west of the mountains were es- 
tablished, before the pickets of Christianity were on the frontier, and in 
the neighborhoods where a few could be collected together, a traveling 
minister generally Methodist or Baptist, would occasionally appear, deliver 
the cheering messages from the Master and recall to his hearers the teach- 
ings of the faith taught them in their earlier years. 

The pioneer preacher's lot was not an enviable one, nor free from 
danger, and in his long journeys through the dim forest trails on horseback 
he suffered many privations and discomforts, but his motto was "Onward 
Christian Soldier," and nobly did he fulfill his Divine mission. 


The Reverend Francis Asbury, Bishop of the Methodist Church in his 
journal speaks of visiting Clarksburg in his official capacity in 1788. He 
came on horseback from North Carolina by way of Bedford, Greenbrier 
and Pocahontas Counties to Clover Lick, and from there his journal reads 
as follows: 

Thursday, July 10, 1788. 

"We had to cross the Allegheny mountains again at a bad passage. 
Our course lay over mountains and through valleys, and the mud was such 
as might scarcely be expected in December. We came to an old forsaken 
habitation in Tygart's Valley. Here our horses grazed about while we 
boiled our meat. Midnight brought us up at Jones', after riding forty, 
or perhaps fifty miles. The old man, our host, was kind enough to wake 
us up at four in the morning. We journeyed on through devious lonely 
wilds, where no food might be found except what grew in the woods or 
^vas carried with us. We met with two women who were going to see their 
friends and to attend the Quarterly meeting at Clarksburg. 

Near midnight we stopped at A s, who hissed his dogs at us. 

but the women were determined to go to the Quarterly Meeting so we went 
in. Our supper was tea. Brother Phoebus and Cook took to the woods, 

old gave up his bed to the women. I lay along the floor on a 

few deer skins with the fleas. That night our poor horses got no corn, and 
next morning had to swim across the Monongahela. After a twenty mile 
ride, we came to Clarksburg, and man and beast were so outdone that it 
took us ten hours to accomplish it. 

I lodged with Colonel Jackson. Our meeting was held in a long close 
room belonging to the Baptists. Our use of the house it seems gave 

There attended about seven hundred people to whom I preached with 
freedom, and I believe the Lord's power reached the hearts of some. 
After administering the sacrament, I was well satisfied to take my leave. 

We rode thirty miles to Father Raymond's after three o'clock Sunday 
afternoon, and made it nearly eleven before we came in. About midnight 
we went to rest and arose at five o'clock the next morning. My mind has 
been severely tried under the great fatigue endured both by myself and 
my horse. Oh, how glad I should be of a plain clean plank to lie on, as 
preferable to most of the beds, and where the beds are in a bad state the 
floors are worse. The gnats are almost as troublesome here as the mo- 
squitoes in the lowlands of the seaboard. This country will require much 
work to make it tolerable. The people many of them are of the boldest 
cast of adventurers, and with some the decencies of civilized society are 
scarcely regarded. The great land holders, who are industrious will soon 
show the aristocracy of wealth by lording it over their poorer neighbors, 
and by securing to themselves all the offices of profit or honor. On the one 
hand savage warfare teaches them to be cruel, and on the other the teach- 
ing of Antinomians poisons them wath error in doctrine. Good moralists 
they are not, and good Christians they cannot be unless they are better 

Mrs. John McCullough, maiden name Acres, told Luther Haymond 
who was bom in 1809, that she when a small girl rode on horseback from 


Zack's Run to Clarksburg in 1788 to hear Bishop Asbury preach in Dan- 
iel Davisson's bam. 

This bam stood on the West Side of Second Street between Main and 
Pike Streets. 

Lorenzo Dow, the great traveling preacher preached in Clarksburg in 
the 30 's. When he appeared at the Court House, he saw that it was not 
large enough to hold the crowd, and he announced that he would hold the 
service out of doors. He led the way down Main Street, followed by the 
large crowd across the bridge and preached his sermon in the grove near 
the Monticello Spring. 

The history of the Methodist Episcopal Church by Stevens states 
that the first local preacher of that denomination in the neighborhood of 
Uniontown was Eobert Wooster, and that the first conference was held 
there in 1781. 

This was known as the Redstone Conference and was composed of 
Western Pennsylvania and Virginia and in 1785 numbered 523 members. 

In 1786 a Society was organized at Calder Haymond's, on the Mo- 
nongalia River, about twenty miles above Morgantown. Some fifteen or 
twenty miles up towards Clarksburg a good society was formed at the 
house of Mr. Jonathan Shinn, the father of the afterwards celebrated 
preacher Asa Shinn. 

Methodism could obtain no footing in Clarksburg for many years but 
some eight or ten miles up the West Fork was a flourishing Society head- 
ed by Moses Ellsworth. 

In this neighborhood was Joseph Chevuront a local preacher of great 
usefulness and much loved by his people. He was a Frenchman. 

In 1786 there was also a society formed at Father Hacker's on Hack- 
er's Creek and also at Buckhannon and in the Tygart's Valley. 

The Rev. Henry Smith, who visited the Clarksburg Circuit in 1794 
speaks of finding a good Society under charge of Joseph Chevuront fifteen 
miles from Clarksburg. 

The congregation that attended to hear him preach were all back- 
woods people and only one man present wore shoes. The Rev. Chevuront 
wore Indian Moccasins. All the rest of the audience, men, women and 
children were barefooted. The elderly women wore short gowns. 

He speaks of traveling in all kinds of weather and dangers, wading 
deep streams, having to cross the Monongahela River seven times in his 
circuit and besides being ferried over several times; his food being mostly 
venison and bear meat, and the cabins in which he lodged very un- 

The following is an extract from a letter from Clarksburg 
in 1818, by the Reverend Ira Chase, a Baptist missionary from 
to Dr. Sharp of Boston, Secretary of the Baptist Missionary Society of 
Massachusetts, which gives a description of the condition of the town 
from a religious standpoint: 
Rev. and Dear Sir: — 

As I mentioned in my communication to you, I arrived at this place 
on the 27th. of December, 1817. Clarksburg is the shire town of Harrison 
County, and situated on the West Fork of the Monongahela River, which 


affords water carriage to Pittsburgh and thence down the Ohio. The dis- 
tance from that city by land is upwards of one hundred miles. 

A Baptist church had once been constituted here, but many years 
ago the Pastor went to the West. No successor was secured and the 
flock was scattered. Nothing but the graveyard appeared where the 
meeting house once stood. A learned and Independent Minister from 
England, had, for nearly twenty years, supported himself principally 
by teaching in the Academy (the only one in this part of the State) and 
preached some of the time in the village to a few hearers, but with no 
visible success. About two years ago he was called to a better world. 
The people were now destitute. There were indeed residing here two 
Paedobaptist Preachers, but there was no preaching and no religious 
meeting. One of the men was in the practice of physic and the other a 
licentiate from New England, was teaching a school. He had come out 
with the prospect of taking charge of the Academy, and preaching in 
the place. But he had found it necessary to relinquish the Academy for 
the present. It was not now in operation and for want of encourage- 
ment he had suspended his ministerial labors. There was no church of 
any denomination and there were but few, very few, professors of relig- 
ion, and some of these were not very correct in their morals. It was 
painful to see a village, containing so many immortal souls, thus aban- 
doned to ruin. Perhaps, thought I, it is my duty to stop and endeavor 
to excite the attention of the people to their eternal interests. In this I 
was encouraged by two Baptist Brethern who reside in the place. 

On Lord's Day I preached in the Court House to a very small as- 
sembly, and again in the evening. The next day one of the brethern, 
an amiable young man, undertook to ascertain the wishes of the people 
with regard to my stopping, and for this purpose circulated the follow- 
ing paper: 

Clarksburg, December 29, 1817. 

"We, the subscribers, as an expression of our desire to have the gos- 
pel preached among us, promise to contribute to the Rev. Ira Chase for 
the use of the Missionary Society by which he is employed, the sums an- 
nexed to our names, if he will continue his ministerial labors in this 
place five weeks. 

The amount of the subscription was upwards of thirty dollars. The 
brother himself contributed my board, a deacon who resided a few miles 
in the country, my horse-keeping, and the sons of the late Rev. Mr. Tow- 
ers, the clergyman whom I mentioned as having come from England, 
generously opened to me their father's study and supplied me with oth- 
er conveniences. 

My duty was plain. I stopped. The assemblies, instead of dwindl- 
ing away, as some had represented they would, increased constantly. 

Though I endeavored to make the apostle my model as to the mat- 
ter and plainness of my discourse, yet instead of going away offended, 
they seemed conscious that what I preached was true and came again. 
In private I was generally received with politeness and affection, and 
sometimes found an unexpected willingness to converse on religion. 


Yesterday was the last Sabbath I was to continue here, and to me 
it was a most interesting day. As I was returning from the first service 
I was requested to call at a house and converse with a woman under deep 
concern for her soul. Upon leaving her and returning to my chamber 
I found a servant waiting for me, and wishing to know if I would wait 
until this evening so that he and some other blacks could come and talk 
to me on religion. I readily told him I would and I expect them soon. 

Last evening I met my audience for the last time. The house was 
crowded, and all were attentive. I closed my message and bade them 
adieu. O, my God, will not Thou bless my feeble labors? 

9 o'clock P. M. The blacks have just gone. I am fatigued but I 
have had a very pleasant season. There were fifteen in all, male and 
female. I conversed with them all individually. Six or seven of them 
were entertaining a hope in Christ and had entertained one for years. 
They gave a brief relation of the work of grace upon their hearts, and a 
heavenly joy beamed in their countenances. Others were inquiring with 
different degrees of anxiety the way of salvation. The tears stole silent- 
ly down the cheeks of some and all were serious. I directed them to 
come immediately to Jesus Christ, as "the way and the truth and the 

After endeavoring to impart to each the instruction they severally 
needed and then making an address to the whole, the interview was 
closed by singing and prayer. I expect to depart on the morrow. 

Ira Chase. ' ' 

Bishop William Meade of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the 
Diocese of Virginia in an address before the convention of his church at 
Staunton in 1835, refers to his visit to Clarksburg in 1834, and states 
that he remained there three days, preached five times, baptised one 
adult and twelve children and confirmed five. Rev. William N. Ward 
was assigned to have charge of the Clarksburg and Morgantown congre- 
gations in the fall of 1834. 

The Bishop in a subsequent address speaks of visiting Carksburg in 
1842, and that the Reverend McMechen had established a female Semi- 
nary there and used a portion of the buildings for public worship. 

During this visit he baptised one adult and several children and 
confirmed three. 

The Reverend Robert A. Castleman built the Episcopal Church now 
(1909) still in use, in 1852 and 1853. 

For a long time there were no church buildings and religious meet- 
ings were held in private houses, bams. Court Houses and frequently 
in shady groves. Later what was known as Camp Meetings were held by 
the Methodists and continued down to a recent period. 

These camps were composed of log cabins, and were rude benches 
placed under trees and a primitive pulpit. Quite a number of preach- 
ers and leading officials of the Church would gather at these camps in 
the summer and hold service day and night for a week at a time. They 
were well patronized by the surrounding country and accomplished 
much good. But as the county became more settled and sufficient 
churches built to accommodate the people, the Camp meetings were 


The earliest record of the building of a church in Clarksburg is con- 
tained in a deed from Daniel Davisson, the original owner of Clarks- 
burg, dated June 21, 1790, which conveys to the "Congregation of Ee- 
gular Baptist members of Hopewell Church and their successors" in 
consideration of ten shillings, a lot containing three rods and seven 

This lot is located on the South side of what is now Main Street, 
just west of Chestnut, and was used as a burial ground from 1788 down 
to shortly after the close of the civil war. 

In a deed made by the same party on May 7, 1800, reference is 
made to the "little stream that runs down on the south side of the meet- 
ing house." This proves that sometime prior to the year 1800 a church 
building stood on this lot but its exact location and the time of its construc- 
tion is not known. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church built a small brick church partial- 
ly on the ground of the Randolph Academy on the brow of the hill East 
of the present public school building overlooking First Street where they 
worshiped for many years. The date this church was built is not known. 
It is certain, however, that it was used as a house of worship in 1827. 

In 1868 they built a new church building on the South side of Pike 
Street east of Second, and are now (1909) constructing another building 
on the North East comer of Second and Pike Streets at the old mile- 

Presbyterian Church. 

The Reverend Asa Brooks undertook the building of a Presbyterian 
church in 1829 in Clarksburg, but he died before its completion and was 
buried under the building. This church stood on the South East comer 
of Second and Main Streets where the present church, built in 1893, now 
stands, on the site of the first jail. 

The Catholic Church. 

The first services of the Catholic Church in Clarksburg were held 
along in 1852 and 1853, when the Baltimore & Ohio Railway Company 
commenced the construction of their road, for the benefit of the Irish 

For some time the congregation met in a building that stood where 
the "Waldo Hotel is now located. Father Brannon is remembered as 
among the first priests. The present church building was built in 1865, 
the lot having been deeded by James M. Jackson in 1864. 

Father Daniel 'Conner was in charge of the congregation for many 
years prior to his death in 1903. He was a man of great executive abil- 
ity, accomplished great good in his long pastorate, stood high with the 
officials of his church, and was much loved and esteemed by all who knew 
him, irrespective of religious belief. 

In 1801 David Davisson conveyed 2j^ acres "to the present mem- 
bers of the Baptist meeting house on Simpson's Creek, adjoining lands 
surveyed for Joseph Wilkinson and their successors, and to all other 


persons adjoining thereto ''for a house of divine worship to be erected 
thereon and for a burial yard, they to have the choice in the ground for 
that denomination to erect their meeting house thereon, and a second 
choice for a Presbyterian meeting house for divine worship. 

This plot of ground is included in the 400 acres patented to An- 
drew, the father of David, in the year 1774, and near the present town 
of Bridgeport. 

At the time this deed was made, the meeting house was already 
built, but the time of its construction is not known 

In 1801 the Seventh Day Baptist built a log church at Salem, two 
stories high, of hewed logs. 

In 1858 this building gave way for a frame one, and in 1900 the 
present brick building was constructed on the same site. 

In 1808-09 a church was built at Lost Creek by the Seventh Day 
Baptist, which was replaced by a brick building in 1870. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church South was built in Clarksburg on 
the comer of Chestnut and Main Streets in 1854. 

Samuel Clawson was an old fashioned regular fire and brimstone 
kind of a preacher, and his lurid style and vivid descriptions stirred the 
souls of his auditors. 

Upon one occasion while preaching a sermon, one of the congrega- 
tion smiled at his comments on the Devil. Turning to him the preacher 

"I suppose you do not believe in a Devil, but thank God the time is 
not far distant when you shall be chained down to hell's brazen floor and 
the Devil with his harpoon shall pierce your reeking heart, and pile the 
red hot cinders of damnation upon you as tall as the pyramids of Egjrpt 
until it shall fry out the pride of your fat to grease the gudgeons of 

In 1852 a Baptist brick church was built on Pike Street, Clarksburg, 
which is still standing, but not used for worship. The congregation oc- 
cupying a new building on the corner of Pike and Sixth Streets. 



In 1671 Sir William Berkely, Governor of Virginia, in replying to 
an inquiry made by an official in England as to what provision was made 
for public instruction in his colony made the following famous response: 

"I thank God there are no free schools nor printing, and I hope 
we shall not have, these hundi-ed years, for learning has brought dis- 
obedience and heresy and sects into the world, and printing has divulged 
them and libels against the best Government. God keep us from both." 

The sentiments expressed by the Governor seemed to have lingered 
in Virginia to some extent, for many years, and early legislation of Vir- 
ginia shows but little development towards establishing free schools. As 
late as the year 1857, with a population of a million and a half, only 
41,608 children were attending school, while Massachussets with a small- 
er population had five times as many and New Hampshire with one-fifth 
of her population had twice as many. 

The first constitution of "West Virginia provided for the establish- 
ment of free schools, and with less than a million inhabitants in 1906, 
she had 255,160 children attending school. 

In 1908 Harrison County had 286 schools and 11.215 children of 
school age. 

The first settlers west of the Mountains early turned their attention 
towards the education of their children, and gave encouragement to the 
establishment of "Old Field Schools." 

Luther Haymond, who was born in 1809, describes one of these 
schools as follows : 

"The school houses were generally old abandoned log cabins, the 
furniture consisted of slabs with holes bored in each end and pins driven 
in them for legs. For those learning to write a space was hewed out 
about six inches wide between two logs and sticks were set up perpen- 
dicularly in this space, and on them was pasted paper mostly foolscap 
that had been used as copy books. This paper being greased, afforded 
enough light for the boys and girls of that primitive age. 

Holes were bored in the logs" under this open space, wooden pins 
driven in and a board a little sloping laid on them, this constituted the 
writing desk. 

The master made all the pens out of goose quills. He would write 
a line at the head of a page of paper in his best style, and the scholars 
would rule the paper with a piece of lead, and copy his sample. 

I remember one copy was "Six times six is thirty-six." The books 
used were Primers, Webster's Spelling book and the Testament. I recol- 
lect an older brother at one school used "Gulliver's Travels" as a read- 


ing book. It was the custom for the teacher or master, as he was called, 
to go around in a neighborhood and procure subscriptions for as many 
scholars as the head of the family could furnish and pay for. The tu- 
ition was, I think, about two or two and a half dollars per scholar, which 
was sometimes paid in linsey, linen or grain. 

The branches taught were reading, writing and arithmetic. I never 
heard of grammar. 

I remember at one school that I attended that a middle aged woman 
was a scholar with four or five of her children, some nearly grown. Her 
object was to learn to read so that she could read the Bible, and it was 
said that she learned faster than her children. 

The neighborhood of Clarksburg was peopled by an excellent class 
of pioneers of English descent and at a very early period took high rank 
as an educational center, and it? influence was widely felt. 

The Randolph Academy was chartered by an Act of the General As- 
sembly passed December 31, 1787, and provides that the first meeting of 
the Trustees, shall be held on the Second Monday in May, 1788, at Mor- 
gantown and "Fix upon some healthy and convenient place within one 
of the Counties of Ohio, Monongalia, Harrison and Randolph for the 
purpose of erecting therein the necessary buildings for the said 
Academy. ' ' 

At this time the law required that one-sixth of the County Survey- 
or's fees should be applied for the support of William and Mary College 
at Williamsburg, but this act authorized the surveyors for the four 
counties named to turn in the one-sixth of their fees to the support of 
the Randolph Academy. 

It is supposed that the meeting of the Board of Trustees was held at 
Morgantown, as authorized by the act chartering the Institution, and 
that Clarksburg was selected as the place to construct the buildings, but 
as some of the first leaves of the old minute book in which was recorded 
the proceedings of the Board, are missing, the facts cannot now be 

The first meeting of the trustees contained in the minute book is as 
follows : 

Clarksburg, Harrison County, the 18th. Aug. 1788. 

Pursuant to an adjournment of the board of trustees for the Ran- 
dolph Academy the following trustees met, viz : 

George Jackson, John Powers, John Wilson. 

John Haymond is by the said trustees appointed Clerk pro tempore. 

The number of trustees not being sufficient to make a board, the 
trustees adjourned till tomorrow at twelve o'clock. 

John Haymond, Clk. Pro-Tem. 

After two more failures to secure a meeting on September 16, 1788, 
a quorum of the Board of trustees finally was brought together, at which 
were present Robert Maxwell, George Jackson, Benjamin Wilson, Nich- 
olas Carpenter, John Wilson, John Powers, Jacob Westfall, John Jack- 
son, John Prunty, Hezekiah Davisson, Joseph Hastings and William 
Barkely. John Haymond was chosen clerk and Robert Maxwell, Chair- 

William Haymond, John McCally and Daniel Davisson were ap- 


pointed a committee to superintend the building of the Eandolph 

The delays were long and vexatious and it was not until 1793 that 
aniything definite was accomplished as will be shown by the following 
entry : 

Harrison County, Clarksburg, Saturday, February 23, 1793. 

Pursuant to adjournment of the Board of Trustees of the 2nd. of 
January last, the following trustees met, viz : 

George Jackson, John Powers, Joseph Hastings, H. Davisson, John 
Prunty, John McCally, Daniel Davisson, Maxwell Armstrong, George 
Arnold, Wm. Robinson and Benjamin Coplin. 

Eesolved that the Randolph Academy be built of wood and frame 
work, and be thirty-six feet in length and twenty in breadth, agreeable to 
the original plan, except the cupalo, and be let this afternoon to the low- 
est bidder, under the immediate direction of the Board, and to be com- 
pletely finished on or before the first day of November next in a work- 
manlike manner. 

Resolved also that the purchaser give bond with approved security. 

Resolved also that the undertaker be paid his money by three install- 
ments, to- wit: one third when the frame is raised, the second third at 
finishing said house and the other third in six months after the said 
house is finished. 

The building of the said Academy being exposed to sale, Mr. David 
Hewes being the lowest bidder, undertook the same at one hundred and 
seventy-nine pounds, and entered into bond with Hezeldah Davisson his 
surety (in the sum of three hundred and fifty-eight pounds) and to 
complete the same on or before the first day of November next. 

Resolved that the Treasurer either on rect. of Mr. William Ray- 
mond or Mr. Benjamin Wilson, that the Randolph Academy is raised 
agreeably to the plan and bill of scantling to him produced, pay Mr. 
David Hewes the sum of 59.13. 

And then the Board adjourned till the Saturday last before the 
third Monday in March next. 

John Haymond, C. R. A. 

June 4, 1795, last payment directed to be made to David Hewes, 
Constructor, at a meeting of the Board held this day. 

Clarksburg, Monday July 20, 1795. 

Pursuant to its adjournment of the 4th. of June, the board of 
trustees of Randolph Academy met, viz: George Jackson, Joseph Hast- 
ings, John Powers, John Prunty, James Arnold, George Arnold, William 
Barkley and Benjamin Coplin, Gent. Trustees. 

On motion of Wm. Jackson, seconded by Wm. Prunty, Mr. Joseph 
Hastings was unanimously chosen chairman to the board. In conformity 
to an order of the board of trustees of the 24th. of June, last, the Clerk 
laid before the board a letter from the Rev. George Towers, signifying 
his willingness to accept of an appointment as a teacher in the Randolph 
Academy on certain conditions. 

mL.,:::x:iftX '.:vr..i 


Resolved that the Rev. George Towers be employed as a teacher 
in the Randolph Academy at the rate of two hundred and fifty dollars 
per annum to be paid in quarter yearly payments (provided he shall 
consider the same to be a competency) and that the Clerk take bond 
from the said Towers for the faithful performance in the said office, 
agreeably, to an order of the Board at their last session, and that he be 
under the direction of the board during the said year which shall com- 
mence on the first day of August next. 

Resolved, that for each Latin scholar who shall be taught by the 
said teacher, there shall be paid sixteen dollars; for each English scholar 
five dollars; for each scholar in grammar and arithmetic six dollars, and 
for each scholar in the mathematics, if the said Towers will teach that 
science, eight dollars per annum, which shall be paid in quarter yearly 
payments to the Treasurer of the Randolph Academy, and for every 
scholar who shall be taught for a shorter time than one year shall be 
paid a sum in proportion to the above. 

And then the Board adjourned till Saturday next, at three o'clock 
P. M. 

John Haymond, C. R. A. 

At a meeting of the Trustees of the Randolph Academy on the 21st. 
day of December, 1799. 

Benjamin Wilson, John McCally, Benjamin Coplin, Daniel Davis- 
son, William Martin, George Arnold, John Black and Hedgeman Trip- 
lett, present. 

Ordered that the address by the trustees of the Randolph Academy 
on the 21st. day of December, 1799, be made a part of the record of the 
trustees' proceedings at the public examination of the scholars of the 
Randolph Academy on the 21st. of December 1799 in the presence of the 
trustees and a respectable audience the following oration or address was 
delivered by Col. Benjamin Wilson: 

Sir: — ^Permit us to tender to you our unfeigned thanks for the par- 
ticular attention you have given to the tuition of the pupils committed 
to your charge, as well as the strict watch over their morals, and where- 
as the late enlargement of your charge will increase your vigilance to 
watch over their morals, we give you the assurance of this board, that 
nothing shall be wanting on our parts to render you assistance to make 
the institution respectable. Therefore, permit us to ennumerate some 
of the dangerous ills which is to command your attention, as well with- 
out the Seminary as within, viz : the wilful breach of the Sabbath day, 
lying, cursing, swearing, quarreling, frequenting taverns or still houses 
by night or by day, and in particular the infamous ill of gaming, togeth- 
er with other ills not enumerated. You will also please inspire such of 
your youths as have arrived to the age of discretion to avoid all low com- 
pany, and at all times and places to sequester themselves from such. 
Should any of the public rules of the Seminary be wantonly violated, by 
those who are of the years of discretion, for the first offense, you are sol- 
emnly to admonish them; for the second offense, you are to call on three 
of the trustees, who are to join you in admonition, and for the third 


offense you are to call on the chairman who will summons a board who 
will acquit, suspend or expel the offender if found guilty," 

Ordered that a copy of the above order be set up in the Academy. 

The trustees earnestly recommend it to those who have children, to 
send them to Divine Worship every Sabbath day when there is preach- 
ing in said town." 

So it appears that the Academy finally opened its doors for pupils 
in the Fall of 1795 under the supervision of the Reverend George Tow- 
ers, a Presbyterian Minister, a native of England and a graduate of the 
Oxford University, who is described in the advertisement of the Trus- 
tees as a "Gentleman of undoubted character and abilities, who has en- 
gaged to teach the Latin and Greek languages, the English gramatically, 
Arithmetic and Geography." 

Tradition states that the institution flourished for some years and 
that after the charter expired, the building was used for educational 
purposes until about the year 1842. Mr. Towers died in 1816. 

The North Western Virginia Academy. 

The Northwestern Virginia Academy was built in 1843 a short dis- 
tance West of the Randolph building and after the establishment of the 
public school system was used for that purpose until the construction of 
the present High School Building in 1894 on the same site. 

The lot on which these three mentioned buildings were built was 
conveyed to the Trustees of the Randolph Academy by Thomas Barkeley 
and Hezekiah Davisson on May 2, 1793, and is recorded in Deed Book 
No. 2, page 434. 

The beginning corner of the lot is described as being at a "dead 
tree, standing N. 10° E. 38 poles and 15 links from the North-westerly 
comer of the Court House, and the dimensions are given as being 20 
poles in length and 10 poles in breadth and as containing "One and a 
quarter acres." 

The Court House referred to above then stood on the North East 
comer of Second and Main Streets opposite where the present Presby- 
terian Church building stands. 

The North Western Virginia Academy was incorporated by an Act 
of the Virginia Legislature in the year 1842, with the following trustees 
named in the Act: 

Edwin S. Duncan, John J. Allen, Samuel L. Hays, William A. Har- 
rison, Waldo P. Goff, Charles Lewis, George Pritchard, John W. Coff- 
man, Augustine J. Smith, Richard W. Moore, Walter Ebert, Nathan 
Goff, Gideon D. Camden, John Stealey, John Talbott, Solomon Parsons, 
Joshua Smith, Adam Carper and John J. Swayze. 

By an Act of the Legislature passed January 24, 1843, the Board of 
Trustees were authorized to add ten additional members to their number. 

The building (which) was of brick, two stories high, 71 feet by 44 
feet, surmounted by a cupola. 

The first floor was divided into a large hall, on the right of which 
was a large room called the chapel, on the left were two school rooms. 


The second floor was divided into five rooms. The building stood on the 
"West End of the old Randolph Academy ground and partially on a lot 
donated by John J. Allen. 

The expenses of construction was raised by a general subscription 
of money and donations of lumber and other building materials. 

The contractor was Joseph Warwick and the woodwork was done 
by John Cain. 

When in 1843 the building was sufficiently completed, it was turned 
over by the trustees to the Methodist Episcopal Church Conference to 
conduct the school. 

The Eeverend Gordon Battelle was the first principal and the first 
session opened for pupils October 1, 1843. 

Mr. Battelle, a man of recognized ability continued in charge for 
about twelve years, when he was succeeded by Reverend Alexander Mar- 
tin. The last to hold the position was R. A. Arthur, before the civil war. 

The enterprise was quite successful in giving advantages of a high- 
er education than had ever before been offered to the youth of Clarks- 
burg and surrounding counties. 

During the war the building was occupied by the government as a 
barracks, guard house and hospital. 

Private schools were for a time taught in it, and in 1866 the trus- 
tees turned it over to the public school system, and it was occupied for 
that purpose as long as the building stood. 

The Board of Education of the Clarksburg District added two rooms 
to the West End of the old building. In 1894 the old building was torn 
away, except the new part and the present building was constructed, 
which is to be known officially as the "Tower's School" in honor of the 
first teacher of the Randolph Academy. 

The Clarksburg Independent School District has constructed sever- 
al other substantial buildings and the County at this time, (1909) is 
dotted with white school houses and they are doing good work in a noble 

The establishment of this institution of learning has been of vast 
importance to the people of Western Virginia, and the originators, 
builded better than they knew. From its portals men have gone out into 
the world and become famous in many walks of life. Its pupils have been 
members of Congress, constitutional conventions, the legislature. Judges 
of Courts, Officers of the Army, County officials and filled many honor- 
able positions in business life. 

It has done a noble work and the ground on which it stood has for a 
hundred and fourteen years resounded with the pattering feet and the 
playful voices of the children of Clarksburg, and thousands of men and 
women scattered to all parts of the continent have looked back to this 
hallowed time honored spot with feelings of grateful recollection. 


Following are programs of exercises held by the pupils, which ex- 
plain themselves: 


Original and Select 


December 15, 1858. 


Part 1. — Selected. 



Oration, T. S. Hursey "Pitt's Speech on Stamp Act." 

Oration, Edward Davis "Change, not Reform" 

Oration, P. M. Horner "Separation of the States" 

Oration, R. T. Lowndes "Why I Don't Marry" 


Oration, C. T. Lowndes "Up Salt River" 

Dialogue, E. Butcher, Morden; N. Goff, Lenox 

Part II — Original. 

Oration, D. Wilson "American Enterprise" 

Oration, N. Goff "Our Country" 

Oration, M. Jackson "Fillibustering" 

Clarksburg, Harrison County, Va. 

Powell, Printer. 
Order of Exercises, Thursday Evening September 24th, 1846. 

Part I — Selected. 

I. The Thunder Storm W. W. Roach 

2. New England's Dead Henry Raymond 

3. Love of Country V. B. Shinn 

4. No Excellence Without Labor T. Armstrong 

5. Ireland W. Haymond 


6. Passing the Rubicon Hugh H. Lee 

7. Cost of Glory M. Harrison 

8. False Estimation of War A. Owens 

9. Spirit of Freedom B. Smith 

10. Duelling J. A. Sehon 

II. The Bible W. W. Lewis 


12. Defence of the Colonies J. B. Woodward 

13. Murder Will Out W. G. Harrison 

14. The Indian C. Goff 

15. Qualification for Office - D. Dicks 

16. Evils of War John J. Davis 

17. The Age of Reason E. B. Ebert 


18. Patriotism A. J. Smith, Jr. 

19. Our Western Domain Geo. Johnson 

20. Cicero Against Cataline N. Lewis 

21. The Veterans of Bunker Hill C. McCally 

22. The Eagle P. A. Davisson 

23. True and False Progress C. T. Harrison 



Part n — Original. 

24. Lafayette J. s. Cox 

25. Mind, the Glory of Man J. W. McCoy 

26. The Deity Seen in Nature R, W. Barnes 


27. Napoleon G. L. Pigott 

28. Our Country W. C. Carper 

Music — Benediction. 

One of the land marks which will be remembered by the pupils for 
the last sixty-five years, is the old stone mile post, which stood on the 
comer of Pike Street, opposite the Academy, on one side is "R. 108" 
and on the other "P. 85," meaning the distance in miles to Romney and 
Parkersburg by the Northwestern Turnpike. The upper part of the old 
stone h£is been taken from its location and placed in a prominent place 
in the foundation of the Methodist Episcopal Church, (Goff Chapel) now 
being built, 1909. 

Broaddus Female College. 

The Broaddus Female College of "Winchester conducted by the Rev. 
Edward J. Willis, a Baptist Institution, was removed to Clarksburg in 
1876, and for a time occupied the old Bartlett Hotel building, the site of 
which now belongs to the Court House Park, which stood on Main and 
Third Streets, having been purchased by the County from Lloyd 

In 1878 a large brick building was constructed in Haymond's grove, 
and the school moved into it. 

The building has been enlarged and the school has done excellent 
work for many years. 

In 1908 the property was sold and the institution was removed 
to Philippi in this year, 1909. 

The Salem Academy. 

The Salem Academy was incorporated under the laws of West Vir- 
ginia on December 28, 1888, with the usual privilege of corporations, to 
be located in the town of Salem. The charter sets forth that the Institu- 
tion is to be subject to the regulations of the Seventh Day Baptist Edu- 
cational Society, for the purpose of teachng all of the various branches 
of learning, comprising a thorough Academic and Collegiate course. 

The Incorporators were : 

G. W. F. Randolph James N. David 

A. L. Childers J. L. Huffman 

Lloyd F. Randolph Uric Randolph 

F. M. Swiger C. M. Randolph 

L. B. Davis Ernest Randolph 

Charles N. Maxon Hiram Wilson 
Jesse F. Randolph 

The Academy began its first term in the public school building April 
1, 1889, with J. L. Huffman as acting principal. 


During the following year the school was held in a building belong- 
ing to Hon, Jesse F. Kandolph. 

In December 1889 the Academy was completed and occupied for 
school purposes. 

In 1890 Professor S. L, Maxsn was elected President and he was 
succeeded by Rev. T. L. Gardner. 

The Institution has gained a wide reputation for excellent work and 
it gives promise of greater influence in the future. 

St. Joseph's Academy. 

About the year 1867, a small parish school was established by the 
Catholic Church Society under the direction of Miss Mary White. 

In 1871 the home residence of James M. Jackson, on the East Side 
of Elk Creek was purchased, remodelled and a colony of the Sisters of 
St. Joseph's was sent from Wheeling and a first class Academy for 
young ladies was opened. 

In 1876 Centennial Hall was constructed and in it the preparatory 
and parish schools are taught. 

The institution is in a flourishing condition. 



The first newspaper published in what is now West Virginia, was 
the "Monongalia Gazette," published in Morgantown, in 1803. 

Since that time the journalistic highway has been strewn with in- 
numerable wrecks of newspaper enterprises, but the rural editor was 
possessed of a sublime faith in his ability to succeed where so many had 
failed, and pressed onward in his noble pioneer efforts to enlighten the 

These old time papers were very small affairs printed on hand press- 
es, and contained little or no local news, as everyone was supposed to 
know that, but was filled up with foreign news and political affairs, with 
a few advertisements mostly of a legal nature. 

How many newspapers have been started in Harrison County is 
past finding out, but their number has been legion. 

The records of the chancery court occasionally gives the name of the 
papers in which legal notices were directed to be published, but most gen- 
erally, the decree stated that notice should be given in some "public 
newspaper printed in the town of Clarksburg" and sometimes the words 
"if any be printed there" were added to the order. 

From this source it is gathered that the following named papers 
were published in Clarksburg at the time stated: 

1815 The Bystander 1835 The Countryman 

1816 The Western Virginian 1840 The Clarksburg Democrat 

1817 The Republican Compiler 1840 The Clarksburg Whig 
1819 The Independent Virginian 1844 The Scion of Democracy 

1822 The Clarksburg Gazette 1845 The Harrison Republican 
182 2 The Rattlesnake 1855 The Age of Progress 

1823 The Clarksburg Intelligencer 1856 The Clarksburg Register 

1824 The Independent Virginian 1861 The Western Virginia Guard 
1829 The Clarksburg Enquirer 1862 The Telegram 

1832 The Western Enquirer 

A piece of a copy of the Bystander has been seen by the writer 
dated June 8, 1811. A. and F. Britton being the publishers. Terms 
$2.00 a year, being Vol. 1, No. 45. Another issue bears the date of Sep- 
tember 4, 1813, being Vol. 2 No. 112. 

This is the first paper printed in Clarksburg of which there is any 

Mr. Joseph H. Powell, who entered the office of the Democratic 
Kepublican published by Enos D. Morgan at Morgantown in January, 


1834, to learn the printing business, states that a Mr. Sparrowhawk print- 
ed a paper in Clarksburg in the early thirties. 

That Dr. Benjamin Dolbeare in 1840 published a paper at Clarksburg 
called the Clarksburg Democrat, having succeeded Philip F. Critchfield. 
In 1844 Dolbeare sold out to Bassel & Harper, who changed the name 
of the paper to the "Scion of Democracy," which was continued until 
1848. Mr. Powell, who returned to Clarksburg in 1840, did the mechan- 
ical work on both of these papers, his name appearing on them as 

In 1840 the whig party started a paper called the "Clarksburg 
Whig" which was published by William McGranaghan. Later Robert 
Sommerville published the "Harrison Eepubliean" which Mr. Powell 
thinks he sold out to Kenton Harper, and he to Samuel Youst. 

Mr. Powell says he understood that Forbes Britton published the 

Of all the papers published in Clarksburg before the war, which have 
come into the hands of the writer "The Harrison Republican" published 
in 1845-6-7 & 8 by Robert A. Sommerville in mechanical execution, neat- 
ness of appearance, literary selections, editorials and arrangement of 
the advertisements exceed them all, and would be considered a good week- 
ly paper at the present time, except that not so much attention is given 
to local affairs. 

It was a four paged paper with six columns to the page. Sometime 
previous to 1840 there was a paper published in Clarksburg called the 
" Castigator, " neither the publisher nor the exact date being known. Its 
name would indicate that it was a scorcher and for the times fully up to 
the Yellow Journalism of to-day. 

Along in the fifties the Clarksburg papers seem to get on a more 
stable footing than before. In 1856 Phillip F. Critchfield published the 
"Age of Progress." W. P. Cooper started the "Register," which flour- 
ished imtil the Beginning of the war, when the editor abandoned the pen 
for the sword under the stars and bars, and Charles E. Ringler, who was 
the editor of the "Western Virginia Guard," did the same thing save he 
marched under the stars and stripes. 

Robert S. Northcott started the "Telegraph" in the early part of 
the war, but abandoned it to enter the army, but resumed its publication 
after the war, the name being changed to the "Telegram." 

"The Ohio Twenty-second" was the title of a paper issued in Clarks- 
burg by soldiers of that regiment July 12, 1861. 

Since the war quite a number of short lived papers have come and 
gone, and now (1909) there are published in Clarksburg "The Tele- 
gram" and "News" each with a weekly and daily edition, and the 
"Herald" a weekly and daily. 

There are also published in Salem two papers, "The Express" and 
"The Herald" and in Shinnston "The News", all weeklies. 

In a copy of the "Independent Virginian" published at Clarksburg 
by Lee and McGranahan on November 18, 1824, occurs the following 
business advertisements : 

"N. W. Mack informs the public that he still continues to keep that 
large and commodius tavern formerly occupied by David Hewes. 


This old tavern stand stood on "Lowndes corner" at Third and 
Main Streets. 

He offers the following prices for produce, wheat $1.00, Rye 50 
cents, Oats 25 cents and corn 50 cents per bushel. Butter 123/^, Bacon 
hams 12^, cheese 12>4, pork per 100 pounds $4.00. 

John Sommerville advertises that he still occupies his "elegant and 
commodius tavern stand and "coffee house." 

Has twenty separate rooms with fire places. Terms $1.50 per week. 

The business advertisements were: 

Silver Smith, clock and watch maker — Charles M. Marchet, produce 
taken for repairs. 

Attorney — Blake B. Woodson. 

Mlerchants — A. Weminger, and Thomas Blair. 

The subscription price is $2.00 per year, for which Wheat, Rye, 
Com, Oats, flour, bacon; dressed deer skins and rags will be taken in 

It is stated in the paper that Jedediah W. Goff of Bridgeport has 
raised two radishes weighing I45/2 and 17^ pounds respectively. 

By advertisements in the newspapers it ijs ascertained that the 
following named persons were in business at Clarksburg at the dates 
stated : 

1824 — John Davis, saddles and harness; Richard W. Moore, mer- 
chant; E. B. Jackson, physician; John W. Williams, Post Master; Max- 
well Sommerville, Merchant; Thomas Blair, Merchant; Charles M. 
Barchett, clock and watchmaker; N. W. Mack, Tavern. 

1826 — Despard & Company, merchants. 

1827— Goff & Wilson, merchants. 

1828 — A. Werninger, merchant; Thomas G. Harris, merchant. 

1831 — Peter Lynch, chair and wheelmaker. 

William Williams, Post Master. 

"Clarksburg Enquirer" of 1829 and 1830 published by Joseph 

Samuel Emerick announces that he has commenced the business of 
Coverlet weaving. 

Dr. James McCalley offers his professional services. 

Merchants— Webster & Stillwell, Despard & Company, John S. 

Blacksmith — John W. Coffman. 

Ladies Hats — Helen Wilson one door west of Col. John Sommer- 
ville 's tavern. 

1830— E. S. Duncan announces that by June 1, he will have wool 
carding machines in operation at his mill on the West Fork River. 

1835 — John Carpenter, P. M. of Bridgeport. 

1835— Luke Dodd, Barber and Hair Dresser. States in his adver- 
tisement in the "Countryman," 

"As a hair dresser he has brought to his aid the principles of phren- 
ology, and is enabled by a judicious management of his shears not only to 
assist the development of genius and amiability, but also to suppress the 
bumps of idiocy and destructiveness. " 


N. B. Although a majority of his patrons are white men, yet he 
takes no part in politics hut shaves on "boaf sides." 

Watchmaking & Silversmithing — James R. Johnson. 

Merchant — M. D. Gittings. 

Physician— G. W. Neff. 

The "Harrison Whig" published by William McGranachan in 
Clarksburg in 1842. 

Among the advertisements are the Clarksburg Female Seminary 
by J. H. McMechen, Principal. 

Criss & Chadwick, Merchants. 

E. M. Davisson, attorney-at-law. 

James Johnson, Silver Smith. 

Henry Waldeck and William Harris, cabinet making business. 

No local news. Patent medicine and Eastern Merchant's advertise- 
ments and long political articles on the tariff and in criticism of Tyler's 

Clarksburg Enquirer, by Joseph Israel, August 15, 1831. By this 
paper it is seen that Wm. Williams is Post Master, Jno. Wilson, Jr. 
County Clerk and Geo. I. Davisson, Clerk Circuit Court. 

1845, 1846 and 1847. 

Cabinet Makers — John Hursey, W. J. Carpenter. 

Saddle and Harness Makers — Edward J. Link, B. Wilkins. 

Jeweler — N. W. Smith. 

Tailor — N. Dunnington. 

Physicians — A. C. Smith, John Edmonson. 

Druggist and Grocer — A. F. Barnes. 

Attorneys — ^Wm. A. Harrison, Geo. H. Lee, Aug. J. Smith, Lawson 
Botts, U. M. Turner, Burton Despard, Caleb Boggess, John S. Duncan, 
Jno. S. Hoffman. 

Fruit Trees — Samuel Southern. 

Merchants — Lloyd Lowndes, A. Weminger, S. Hartman, Aaron 
Criss, W. M. Carder, Richard Fowkes, Clarke & Company, A. S. Criss, 
R. F. Criss, John Ar men tree & Company. 

S. Hartman was the first Jewish Merchant in Clarksburg, and one 
of his advertisements was headed, ''Restoration of the Jews." 

In response to this Aaron Criss headed his advertisement, "Important 
news from Mexico, the entire overthrow of Jerusalem." 

The Mexican War was then going on and these two were rival mer- 

Hartman afterwards removed to Baltimore, where he was very suc- 
cessful in business. 

"The Harrison Republican" Friday November 17, 1848. 

Merchants — Curtis and Prim, Criss & Harrison, Richard Fowkes, 
Charles Lewis. 

Boots and Shoe making — Dulaney Smith. 

Drug Store — Dr. John Edmonson. 

Blacksmith — John Peck. 

Private School — Miss Lucy Edmonson. 

Bridgeport. E. N. Coplin, merchant. 


The "Clarksburg Democrat," Friday December 1, 1848. Edited by 
Benjamin Dolbeare. 

Merchants— A. C. Smith, Wm. F. Green, E. Pritchard, Wm. M. Car- 

Hotels — E. W. Patton, West Milford, Harrison House, A. Weminger. 

Saddler &c.— J. & R. Davis. 

Attorneys — Wm. L. and B. W. Jackson. 

J. Hilderbrand and M. J. Robinett, Proprietors of stage line from 
Parkersburg and Marietta to Greenspring Valley Depot 14 miles East of 
Cumberland. Fare from Parkersburg to Baltimore $15.00. 

Hursey & Hartwell, Furniture. 

Tailor, Edward Owens. 

Proposals are invited to construct that part of the Beverly and 
Fairmont road between Beverly and Philippi to be received up to Decem- 
ber 22, 1848 by Luther Haymond, Supt. 

Also proposals to be received to construct the Buckhannon and 
Clarksburg Turnpike. 

John H. Shuttleworth, Clerk of Board. 

The Age of Progress by Philip F. Crichfield, May 18, 1855. Advo- 
cating the principles of the American party or "Know nothings" as 
it was dubbed by its opponents. 

Attorney's Cards — Caleb Boggess, C. & C. S. Lewis, J. S. Hoffman, 
U. M. Turner, B. Despard, Geo. W. Lurty, Benjamin Wilson. 

Blacksmith — Elisha Smallwood. 

Boot and Shoe Maker — Wm. R. Alexander. 

Merchants — Jos. Cork & Company. 


Flour $9.00 to $9.50 

Wheat $1.65 to $1.75 

Corn 87 to $1.00 

Oats 50 

Eggs 8 1-3 

Butter 15 to 18 


Hotel Keepers — J. P. Bartlett, John A. Richards, Samuel Walker. 

Jeweler— S. S. Wells. 

Merchant — T. S. Spates. 

Attorneys — Hugh Lee, John C. Vance, Benj. Wilson, W. S. Lurty, 
Edgar M. Davisson, John J. Davis^ Henry Haymond, A. P. Davisson. 

Druggists — Dr. J. M. Bowcock & Co., Dr. J. L. Carr. 

Furniture — Milan Dils. 

Photographer — S. F. Smith. 

Dentists— The. F. Lang, J. L. McGee. 

Post Master — Cyrus Vance. 

In the issue of the "Western Virginia Guard" of April 5, 1861, James 
P. Davis, a prominent merchant, heads his advertisement as follows: 

"The Union, now and forever. 


Being desirous to settle up my business before the Union is dissolved, 
all those who are indebted to me either by note or otherwise are requested 
to call and settle. 

As secession is the order of the day, I hope that none of my custo- 
mers will secede from the candy store where we still keep on hand a fine 
assortment of confectionaries &c." 

J. E. Woodward, Blacksmith heads his advertisement as follows: 
"Dissolution, Disunion" Iron and steel, Fire and fall into rank." 
Both of these advertisers were staunch Union men. 

From the "Ohio Twenty-Second," July 12, 1861, Clarksburg. 

"This is a beautiful town of about 1500 inhabitants situated on the 
West Fork of the Monongahela River and is the county seat of Harrison 
County 84 miles East of Parkersburg on the B. & 0. R. R. 

The town is surrounded by minature mountains, which contain 
an abundance of coal. It is, we believe one of the oldest towns in 
Western Virginia, notwithstanding there are many tasteful residences. 

The streets are named and laid off regularly, unlike the most of our 
Buckeye towns. The citizens are affable in their manners and generous 
and hospitable. Business independent of the War Department is quite 
dull, ordinarily a moderate share is carried on in the various depart- 

Five churches, one male academy, the Court House and jail consti- 
tute the public buildings. 

The churches have almost suspended, the divines have left for more 
genial climes. The Court is in statu quo. The Judge is now sojourning 
in the South. 

The sheriff has had a quo warranto served upon him by the Union 
men, to show cause why he should not hold the office of Sheriff under the 
rebel government. He must take the oath of office as required by the 
Federal Government or take the consequences. 

There have been some fifteen or twenty secessionists taken prisoners, 
which almost rids the place of rebels. It is to be hoped that they will 
see the error of their ways and repent before it is too late. 

The troops of the gallant 22nd. will recur with pleasure to the time 
spent in Clarksburg in view of the favors shown them by the citizens 
generally, and especially those in the western part of the town in prox- 
imity to the camp. Let them be assured that they have our sincere 
thanks and that we will ever try to be worthy of their kindness. "May 
their shadows never grow less." 

The followng anecdote was published in the "Rattlesnake," a Clarks- 
burg paper in existence as far back as 1822. 

"The hill of Pinnickinnick was in early days noted for the number 
of rattlesnakes inhabiting it, and one day when the old mother Rattle- 


snake returned to her den, the young snakes eagerly told her that a 
great party of young ladies and gentlemen from Clarksburg had been 
spending the day on the hill holding a picnic, laughing, talking, playing 
the fiddle, dancing and having a great time generally. 

The old mother snake listened to her children's account of the day's 
doings and in a solemn manner said, "My children when the Clarksburg 
people begin to come up on the hill and invade our home, it is time 
for the snakes to leave and go further back in the woods." and the 
Editor stated that from that day to this no rattlesnake had ever been 
seen on Pinknickinnick. 



In August 1619 a Dutch ship sailed up the James River and offered 
for sale to the planters twenty African Negroes as slaves. 

There was no indenture or any limitation of service. The negroes 
were captives and were sold by their captors to repay themselves for thoir 
trouble and expense . There seemed to have been no conscientious scruples 
as to depriving a human being of his liberty, and no difference of opinion 
as to their right to do so. 

The negroes were perhaps regarded the same as bound ser^'-ants, 
•with the important exception, that the servitude was to last during their 

The planters readily purchased them to cultivate tobacco, and from 
this small nucleus widened year by year, the great African shadow, out 
of which was to come in the future the dire calamity of war, bringing 
in its train suffering, woe and desolation. 

Slaves were not as numerous in the western counties of the state 
as the eastern ones, the conditions being different and the system being 
very expensive. 

Harrison County never contained at any one time more than 582, 
that being the number given by the census of 1860. They were mostly 
employed in domestic service, driving teams and ordinary labor. 

Uncle Frank Sehon, belonging to Daniel Davisson, is said to have 
been the first slave child bom in Harrison County. He died along in 
the seventies. 

They would sometimes escape into Ohio and Pennsylvania where 
they would be free. 

Congress by the passage in 1850 of what is kno-wTi as the '"'Fugitive 
slave law" authorized the Government to return fugitive slaves to their 
former owners. This law created great excitement throughout the free 
states and was quite a factor in bringing on the civil war. 

Charles, a slave in the Jackson family, one Saturday night, took 
one of his master's horses and rode to St. Marys and before noon on 
Sunday was in Ohio. His residence was discovered and he was brought 
back under the Fugitive Slave Law, and sold South just before the 

Gangs of slaves would occasionally pass through the County hand- 
cuffed to a rope with a man on horseback holding one end of it on their 
way to the South by Parkersburg and the Ohio River to be sold to sugar 
and cotton planters. 

These merchants in human beings who made a business of buying 


up negroes and taking them South were called "Soal Drivers." Their 
calling was considered a cruel and inhuman one, and they did not stand 
well in the estimation of the people. 

Many years before the Civil war the question of abolishing slavery 
was agitated and persons who were in favor of this were called 
"Abolitionists". This movement was bitterly opposed by the slave hold- 
ers and created a strong sectional feeling between the free and the slave- 
holding states. 

Occasionally upon the settlement of estates slaves, men, women and 
children, would be sold at auction in front of the Court House to the 
highest bidder. It was a sad sight as families were separated never to 
meet again. 

The slave code of Virginia was severe and tyrannical. It was unlawful 
to teach a slave to read or write. 

It was unlawful for any one to deny the right of property in slaves 
either by writing or speaking, or to assist a slave to escape from bond- 

A Justice of the Peace had the authority to take a newspaper from 
the United States Post Office and burn it, if in his opinion it contained 
anti-slavery sentiments. Thus was denied the right of free speech and 
freedom of the press. 

America's great editor, Horace Greely, Editor of the New York 
Tribune was indicted by the Circuit Court of Harrison County for cir- 
culating his paper containing anti-slavery sentiments. 

The County Court had the right to sentence a slave to death. But 
finally after nearly two centuries of slavery in 1862, during the great 
war, President Abraham Lncoln, by his emancipation proclamation 
struck the shackles from the arms of four million of slaves and bade thera 
go free. In 1866 upon the adoption of the 13th. Amendment to the Con- 
stitution of the United States slavery was abolished and all men declared 
free and equal before the law, thus fulfilling the prediction made by the 
celebrated editor Horace Greely upon one occasion when he 
wrote that the time would come "When no slave shall 
clank his chains beneath the shades of Monticello or by the graves of 
Mount Vernon." 

The following is a portion of an advertisement published in the 
Clarksburg Intelligencer September 23, 1826. 

"Fifty Dollars Rev^rard. 

Kunaway from the subscriber on the night of July 24, my man named 
Fill. He is about twenty-eight years of age, supposed about five feet 
eleven inches high, well made, walks straight but has a down look when 
spoken to and quite a smooth face. Very little to say generally. I pur- 
chased him of a Mr. Baxter about ten years ago, who was authorized to 
sell him by his master Mr. Fitzhugh near Fredericksburg, but I don't 
believe he will make in that direction. 

The above reward will be given if taken out of the State, twenty- 
five dollars if a shorter distance and over twenty miles, and ten if about 


home, but in either case he is to be lodged in jail and information given 
so that I get him. 

Geo. Cunningham, Moorefield, Va." 

There were many original characters among the slaves in Clarksburg. 
The older ones were privileged in the families in which they 
lived and were generally called "Uncle and Aunt" as a mark of respect. 

"Uncle Rube," a slave of the Stealey family had many amusing and 
mysterious tales to tell of his adventures. One was that one night when 
returning home from a corn shucking, he was confronted by the Devil 
in the Court House yard, who handed him a brass jug and ordered him 
to take a drink. Just as Uncle Rube lifted it to his lips, the devil, jug 
and all vanished in a sheet of fire, leaving Old Rube senseless on the 
ground. He did not recover consciousness until daylight and said he 
then could detect a strong odor of brimstone in the air, and that his head 
ached for two days after. "Uncle Rube" always regretted that he lost 
that drink of liquor. 

It was strongly suspected that the old man had freely imbibed at the 
corn shucking before he thought he met the Devil. 

Uncle Ben Dempsy, who belonged to the Williams family was famous 
and popular among the youngsters and always had something amusing 
to tell. 

Once "Uncle Ben" took it into his head to make a dash for liberty 
and one night he headed for the Ohio River. After hiding in the woods 
for two or three nights, he made his way to the vicinity of Salem, and 
meeting some one in the road who called him by name he exclaimed, 
"Lord Bless my soul, who knows me way out here in Canada?" He was 
perfectly willing to return home and never made another effort for free- 

"Aunt Milly Chapin" who lived to an advanced age, had the early 
history of the Clarksburg people at her tongue's end, and was always 
interesting to talk to. She was a famous cook and had the respect of 
all who knew her. 

She was at one time the slave of the famous and eccentric lawyer 
James Pindall, and had many amusing anecdotes to tell of his doings. 

"Uncle Watt Colston" who was brought to Clarksburg by Judge 
Lee and who died about 1900, claimed to be over a hundred years of age. 

He had been employed at the White House when John Tyler was 
president. His master at one time hired him as cook on a ship bound on 
a voyage from Alexandria to China. 

He was thoroughly imbued with the old time Virginia manners and 
no living man could excell him in deferential politeness and courtesy. 
"Uncle Watt" when he came to town would have his hat in his hand 
nearly all the time greeting his acquaintances, and Lord Chesterfield him- 
self could not bow more gracefully. 

He was the last of the old regime in Clarksburg. 

"Uncle Humphrey" lived on the banks of the river near the Fair 

"Aunt Easter," his wife had the reputation of being a conjurer, and 
was held in great awe by the colored people and young whites. 


"Aunt Molly" who was a slave in the Moore family, would often 
boast that she had given General Washington a drink of water at the 
gate of her master's residence in New Jersey. She was a little girl at the 
time, but whether the incident occurred during the war of the Revolution 
or afterwards in one of Washington's tours of the New England States 
is not definitely known. 

"Aunt Rose" was a famous exhorter and would deliver addresses 
from the Court House steps, church steps or wherever she happened 
to be when the spirit called her. 

She was gifted with a Avonderful flow of language and her eloquence 
always attracted attention. She has long since gone to her reward. 

"Esau" an intelligent mulatto was the slave of Daniel Wilson who 
had inherited him from his father Colonel Benjamin Wilson. He had 
been taught to read and write and was employed by his master as a gen- 
eral clerk in his numerous business affairs. 

About the year 1838 Esau was sold South and finally fell into the 
hands of General Samuel Houston of Texas, who employed him as his 
body servant. 

It is said that General Houston some years afterwards came to 
Clarksburg and purchased Esau's wife. 

Becoming anxious for his liberty Esau ran away to Mexico and upon 
his arrival there became a free man and enlisted in the Army. 

During our war with Mexico in 1846, one of the Calonels of Mexican 
Cavalry Regiment, who was an English speaking Mulatto was supposed 
to have been Esau by the Wilson family. 


The War of 1812. 

The War of 1812 with England seems not to have created much en- 
thusiasm among the people of Harrison County, situated as they were so 
far from the field of operations that little notice was taken of it. 

As far as can be ascertained two companies marched from the County 
to join the army. One commanded by Captain Joseph Johnson afterwards 
Governor, which marched to Norfolk, and the other commanded by Cap- 
tain John McWhorter, which marched to the Lakes. David Wolf was a 
Lieutenant in this Company. 

It has been found impossible to secure copies of the rolls of these 
Companies, as the War Department refuses to give copies, or any account 
of their services. 

When pensions were granted to the soldiers of this war, a few of 
them were still living in the County, but no one seems to have considered 
it worth while to obtain any account of their services and now that they 
are all gone what might have been an interesting part of the history of 
the County is gone beyond recall. 

Thomas P. Moore, of Clarksburg, was appointed a Captain in the 
Regular Army and served through the war, took part in the invasion of 
Canada and participated in the battle of Chyrstler's Fields and was pro- 
moted to the rank of major. 

Zadock Mclntire, of this County served in this war in the army 
in Canada, was taken prisoner and spent more than a year on a prison 
ship in the harbor of Halifax. 

Of those known to have served in this war besides the names of those 
given who afterwards resided in the County were Joseph Bailey, Cyrus 
Haymond, Notley Shuttleworth, John Core, John Gibson, Wilson Bart- 
lett, James Reed, Richard Fowkes, Rueben Bond, Samuel Cottrill, John 
Gibson, Patrick Sullivan, Edwin S. Duncan, Frederick Harrison. Richard 
Bond, Robert Cunningham, Edward Cunningham, William Hugill, James 
Barton, James Conley, George Davis, Benjamin Stout, William Bell, Wm. 
Blake, James Barton. 

The second war with England was not popular, as a large number 
of people thought it was unnecessary, and could have been avoided by the 
exercise of tact and diplomacy on the part of the Government. 

The politicians of the Country hampered the administration in the 
prosecution of the war, and created distrust and discontent among the 

Military operations were badly conducted and finally resulted in the 
capture of Washington by a small British force and the flight of the Pres- 
ident, which has always been a source of humiliation and chagrin to the 


American people. The Navy made a brilliant record but the only trans- 
actions of the army during the war that can be referred to with pride 
are the invasion of Canada and the battle of New Orleans, which was 
fought January 8, 1815, after peace had been declared, but before the 
news reached America. 

This war resulted in Great Britian's surrendering the practice she 
had exercised of seaching American vessels on the high seas, and im- 
pressing American seamen, claiming them as British subjects, and settled 
other questions as to navigating the seas. 

It is shown by the official records of the War Department that Cap- 
tain Joseph Johnson's Company of riflemen served from August 31, 1814 
to November 25, 1814 with the 6th Regiment of Virginia Militia, and from 
November 25, 1814 to February 22, 1815 his company was attached to the 
4th. Regiment Virginia Militia and served at Norfolk. 

Captain John McWhorter's Company served with the 1st. Regiment 
Virginia Militia, Colonel Connell's from September 16, 1812 to April 15, 
1813, and served under Genl. Harrison on the Lakes. 

Peter Davis, His Journal, 1812. 

September 20. 

We started from Captain Nathan Davis' and that day marched and 
encamped at the widow Marsh's. 

September 21. 

We encamped at the foot of the Dry Ridge. 

September 22. 

We encamped at Sharp's. 

September 23. 

We encamped on the bank of the Ohio about one mile below 

September 24. 

We arrived at Parkersburg at the mouth of the Little Kanawha 
where we laid two days. 

We embarked and arrived at Belleville and on the 28th. we arrived 
at the mouth of Mill Creek. 

September 29. 

We passed Letart's Falls and encamped two miles above Point Pleas- 

September 30. 

We arrived at Point Pleasont where we laid until the 20th of October, 
there we drew our arms, knapsacks, tents, clothes and two months pay. 

October 20. 

We left Point Pleasant and crossed over the Ohio River into the State 
of Ohio and encamped in a field on the bank of the river. 


October 21. 

We arrived and encamped at Gallipolis which is about four miles 
below Point Pleasant and encamped in the town. 

October 22. 

"We laid by and nothing particular occurred that day. 

October 23. 

We still laid there and we had a soldier drummed out of camp for 
selling government supplies. 

About twelve o'clock we struck our tents and marched away. We 
passed through poor and uneven land and crossed Big Raccoon Creek. 

Went two miles and encamped in a field on the at the sign of the 

white horse, 

October 25. 

We struck our tents and marched aAvay at ten o'clock through very 
poor and uneven land with very few inhabitants. We reached the Sciota 
Salt Works, which are about twenty miles and nearly destitute of water. 

October 26. 

We struck and went on doAvn Salt Creek fifteen miles and encamped 
in New Richmond, which is about three-quarters of a mile from the Big 
Sciota, and it a very rough poor country until we got to our camping 

October 27. 

We start and it being a very rainy day, which rendered it very dis- 
agreea!)le and after marching nine or ten miles we had to wade the Sciota 
River, and from thence four miles to Chillicothe, where we encamped on 
the edge of the town on the bank of the Big Sciota. 

October 31. 

We struck our tents and waded the river, it being a cold blustering 
morning and marched fifteen miles and encamped on the Pickaway 

November 1. 

We started through the plains and at the distance of four miles we 
passed a small town called Jefferson, and at the distance of three miles 
we passed another small town called Circleville. Not far from the Walnut 
plains we passed some praries and encamped on a large creek, which is 
twenty one miles from where we encamped in the plains. 

November 2. 

We started and marched up the Sciota and encamped in a town 
called F . 

November 4. 

Marched twelve miles. 


November 5. 

Marched thirteen miles and encamped near a email towm called Delaware 
situated on Whetstone River, a fork of the Big Sciota. Here Ave laid from 
the 5th. November until the 21st. of December, in which time there was 
nothing in particular occurred. At this place we met with General Harri- 
son and several Indian Chiefs of the Shawnee Nation. 

December 21. 

Started and arrived at Norton at 3 o'clock and here we continued 
until the 2nd. day of January, 1813, for the purpose of guarding the 
stores, which was at a Fort called Fort Monroe. 

January 2, 1813. 

We started for upper Sandusky. The day before we started it began 
to rain and it continued to rain all day and a part of the night, and then 
it began to snow, and at 11 o'clock the snow was half leg deep. We went 

four miles and encamped at . We continued there the next 

day. The fourth day the snow ceased falling and we started, the snow 
being about knee deep, and we reached the block house in the Sandusky 
plains, which is eleven miles, and it being extremely cold. The next 
day we started very early and marched fifteen miles and encamped in the 

plain Avith the Pennsylvania troops and here we laid until the of 


About four miles from this stands a town of the Indians called Green- 
town. These Indians are of the Wyandotte nation. The time we laid 
here there came part of another Nation of the Wyandottes that lived at 

Greentown, it was them that fought against General at the 

rapids of the Maumee, and after four days General Harrison concluded 
a peace with them by their promising to go in the front of the battle if 
called on. 

January 23. 

In the evening it began to rain. The snow began to melt and it being 
a level piece of ground, the water ran into our tents. We were baking and 
cooking and preparing to march to the Rapids. It Avas about three hours 
when our fires were all out and about three o'clock the water was knee 
deep in our tents, and we were obliged to retreat from our tents and build 
a fire on higher ground, where we continued until day, it being a very 
rough night. When daylight came Ave had to wade to our tents to hunt 
our baggage, which we found floating about the tents. 

About 11 o'clock we started and it being very level we had to wade 
sometimes knee deep. We continued our march for eight miles and en- 
camped on a piece of Avoodland but very low and muddy. That night it 
began to snoAv. In the morning we marched two miles and were stopped 
by a small river, it being very high. Here we continued two days, and 
in that time we built two canoes but at the expiration of the two days it 
was so extremely cold that the river froze completely so that it bore the 
troops comfortably. We all crossed safely and that day we marched eigh- 
teen miles and encamped in a piece of woodland very level and rich. 


January 28. 

We took up the line of march at nine o'clock and marched through 
very low and swampy land. The next morning we marched fifteen miles 
and came to where General Harrison was lying with about two thousand 
men from Ohio and Kentucky. 

January 29. 

The whole command marched seven miles. 

February 1. 

IMarched eight miles and reached the Rapids of the Maumee. Marched 
four miles on the ice down the river and encamped on the South East 
side of the River. 

Before we left camp General Harrison sent three men to Maiden with 
a flag of truce to get leave to bury our dead at General Winchester 's defeat 
at the River Rasin. When we stopped some of our men went across the 
river and found the white flag with one of the men shot, tomahawked and 
scalped and the other two were taken prisoners, one of them being wound- 

March 10. 

This day Lieutenant and another man went down the 

river a fowling. About two miles down the other man not being well left 
the Lieutenant and returned to camp. He had not left him far until he 
said he heard the Lieutenant shoot and after a little he heard another gun 

The next day the Lieutenant was found about one mile lower down 
shot, tomahawked and scalped and put under the ice. 

March 30. 

This day received my discharge and Captain John McWhorter his com- 
pany and Captain L and Captain Prince and Simmons and their compan- 
ies left Camp Meigs for the purpose of returning home. When we left 
the fort we had to wade, and we waded two miles and encamped on a 
branch of the river. 

March 31. 

March six miles and crossed C River, Went eight miles fur- 
ther and encamped on a branch of the Sandusky River. 

April 1. 

Marched six miles and reached the C Block House. Here we 

continued until the next day and our Ensign and some of our men went 
to the Lower Sandusky for provisions. 

April 2. 

This day we marched over about four miles of dry land passing two 
miles below Sandusky, a small town lying on Sandusky River, which the 


Indians had left that day. We travelled ten miles and encamped on the 
Sandusky River. 

April 3. 

Had a hard and rough march of about 25 miles and reached San- 
dusky Fort. 

April 4. 

]\Iarched 15 miles and camped at the Sciota Block House. 

April 5. 

This day we reached Fort Monroe in the township of Marlborough in 
the State of Ohio. 

Here the journal ends and same was not continued on account of sick- 

Peter Davis was born in Srewsbury, New Jersey, September 16, 
1783, and came with his parents to Western Virginia when about six 
years old. His father William Davis was known as "Greenbrier Billy" 
to distinguish him from the several other William Davis' in the neigh- 

Peter Davis after his return from the war lived about four miles be- 
low West Union on the creek, later he moved to the West Fork River in 
Lewds County to a place called Westfield. About the year 1820 he moved 
to Greenbrier, Doddridge County. 

He was for many years a minister of the Seventh Day Baptist 
Church and died March 4, 1873. 


The Mexican War. 

The war with Mexico was opened by the operations of the troops under 
General Zachariah Taylor on the Rio Grande in Texas in May 1846, and 
was terminated by the capture of the City of Mexico by the American 
Army under General Winfield Scott in September, 1847. 

The announcement that war had been declared created great enthusiasm 
and the war spirit ran high in the County. Public meetings were held 
and the Militia Regiments were ordered to meet in order to give their 
members an opportunity to volunteer for the war. 

The Harrison Republican in its issue of Jnne 26, 1846, states that the 
11th. Regiment of IMilitia was paraded at Clarksburg under Colonel 
Augustine J. Smith and that forty or fifty "fell in for IMexico." 

The 137th Regiment, Colonel Byron J. Bassel, met at Kniseley's Mills 
and formed a company of ninety- four, and elected the following officers: 
Captain, Byron J. Bassil; First Lieut., Wm. M. Blair; Second Lieutenant, 
George Davis. 

The 119th. Regiment Colonel Wm. Johnson, met at Bridgeport and a 
company of one hundred and one was formed under the following officers : 
Captain, Hiram M. Winters; First Lieutenant, George T. Ross, and Sec- 
ond Lieutenant, Lemuel D. Shinn. 

In addition to these at Clarksburg the Harrison Guards, Captain 
Cyrus Vance and the Rifle Company Captain Cruger W. Smith tendered 
their services to the Governor. 

Virginia's quota being so quickly filled none of these organizations 
were accepted, and the few who did go from the County enlisted in the 
Regular Army under Captain ElisKa W. McComas and Lieutenant Joseph 
Samuels who were on recruiting service in Clarksburg and belonged to the 
11th U. S. Infantry. 

Among those who enlisted were George Duff, Hiram Applebay, Jud- 
son Holden and George Exline. 

Edgar Haymond and his brother Alfred from Braxton County also 
enlisted, the latter dying while in the service and Edgar shortly after his 

At the time of the Mexican war there were two natives of Harrison 


County serving as ofificers in the Regular Army. They were Lieutenant 
Forbes Britton 7th U. S. Infantry and Lieutenant Thomas J. Jackson 1st. 
U. S. Artillery. They were both graduates of the Military Academy of 
West Point and served with their commands in Mexico. 

The Harrison Republican of July 10, 1846, contains a long letter from 
Lieutenant Britton Avritten May 15, 1846 from "camp opposite Mata- 
moras" to a friend in Clarksburg. 

He states that on May 1, General Taylor with the main body of the 
Army marched from that point to Point Isabel on the Gulf of Mexico, 
thirty miles distant, for supplies and ammunition, leaving the 7th. Infan- 
try and two companies of the 3rd. Artillery with orders to hold the earth 
works hurridly thrown up, afterwards called Fort Brown opposite Mata- 
morus at all hazards until his return. 

The Mexicans on the 3rd. opened fire on the American position with 
artillery from their side of the river, and crossed over a large body of 
troops and invested and surrounded the little force of Americans. The 
fire v/as returned and the Americans gallantly held on and returned the 
fire for seven days until relieved by the return of General Taylor's com- 
mand, who on his march to their relief fought the two battles of Palo Alto 
and Resaca de la Palma, completely defeating the Mexicans and capturing 
many guns and war material. 

Lieutenant Britton says that during the seven days seige the Mexicans 
threw 3464 shells and cannon shot into their sand bank fort. 

In one spot of seven feet square he counted nine shells that had struck 
in that small space. 

Upon one occasion during the bombardment Lieutenant Britton states 
that just as he stepped out of his tent a nine pound cannon shot struck 
the head of his cot and ranged do\\Ti its whole length cutting off the back 
tent pole as it passed out. He says "I am glad I wasn't in bed." 

Major Jacob Brown, the commanding officer and one sergeant were 
all v/ho were killed in the fort during the seige. 

The town of Brownsville took its name from this officer. Britton was 
promoted to Captain during the war, resigned from the Army in 1850, 
was a member of the Texas senate and died in February 1861. 

In the Harrison Republican issued December 10, 1847, is the follow- 
"From the City of Mexico, 

"We saw a letter received here at the Post Office yesterday from 
Lieutenant Thomas J. Jackson of the U. S. Artillery, dated City of Mex- 
ico, October 28th. written to a friend, which however, does not give as late 
news from the capitol as we have in the papers. 

The letter is something of a curiosity being written upon a blank 
military commission, a folio post sheet of paper with the Mexican Court 
of Arms engraved on it. 

The writer states that John Thompson, formerly a resident of this 
place lost a leg in one of the battles near the city, which resulted in his 
death subsequently. 

Lieutenant Jackson is now pleasantly quartered with a Spanish 
family in the city, and has been favorably noticed in the reports of Gen- 


erals Pillow and "Worth for his conduct in the engagements near the 

Lieutenant Jackson is a resident of Lewis County, and graduated at 
the West Point Academy last year." 

Note : — The officer who wrote the above mentioned letter was the 
celebrated "Stonewall" Jackson of civil war fame. 

The result of the war with Mexico was the acquisition by the United 
States of that vast territory West of Colorado and New Mexico, extending 
to the Pacific Ocean, which has ben erected into several States checkered 
with Rail Roads and containing a large and prosperous population. 

If it had remained as a possession of Mexico it would probably be still 
a vast uninhabited region, occupied by cow boys, sheep herders and roving 
bands of Indians. In this case at least war has been a great civilizer. 


Civil War. 

It is not intended in a work of this character that a general account 
of the great war should be given, hut only an outline sketch of events 
occurring in the vicinity of and affecting Harrison County. 

After the election of Mr. Lincoln in Nevember 1860, the Southern 
States began to hold conventions and pass ordinances pretending to dis- 
solve their relations to the United States Government, claiming that the 
system of slavery would be interfered with and began to raise troops and 
prepare for war. 

The administration of President Buchanan which expired March 4, 
1861, was temporizing and had no decided policy even members of the 
cabinet sympathized with the rebellion and did nothing to check the rising 
tide that was rapidlj^ leading to war. 

But the firing on the flag waving over Fort Sumpter in Charleston 
Harbor by the Southern troops on April 12, 1861, followed by President 
Lincoln's proclamation calling for 75,000 troops to protect the govern- 
ment aroused the nation, which rose in its might, shook off the lethargj' 
of doubt and uncertainty and with a determination that no sacrifice was 
too great to preserve the Nation intact and began to prepare to meet this 
challenge to the field. 

No one not living during those dark days of gloomy foreboding when 
"Grim visaged war" showed its "wrinkled front" and stalked abroad 
throughout the land spreading terror to all hearts, and for four bitter 
troubled years brought mourning to every hamlet in the land and put 
350,000 young men in their graves can realize the depressing gloom that 
hung like a death's pall over the Nation's life. 

The events leading up to the actual hostilities in Western Virginia 
are as follows: 

About 1858 there had been organized under the laws of the State at 
Clarksburg a military company, uniformed and armed with the Harper's 
Ferry flint locked musket, known as the Harrison Rifles. 

Cyrus Vance was Captain, Uriel M. Turner and George Hoffman were 
Lieutenants and Theodore F. Lang was First Sergeant. 

The Company paraded frequently and were fairly well drilled and 
presented quite a military appearance. 

When the troubles commenced in 1861 the members naturally took 
sides and gradually fell away from each other. 

Those who were for the fjnion formed the ' ' Union Guards ' ' and those 
who were for secession, were in favor of offering their services to the Gov- 
ernor of Virginia. 

The Harrison Rifles was composed of a remarkable body of young 
men taken as they were from the residents of a country village, and 


they wielded an influence in the mighty events of the Civil "War and in 
civil life following that was not equalled by any body of young men in 
the State. 

Nearly every member took part in the war, a large portion of them 
as officers although they were arrayed in opposing armies, and the com- 
pany was represented in all of the great battles of the war. 

At the time of the adoption of the ordinance of secession, it was 
directed that this action should be submitted to the voters of the State 
for ratification or rejection on the fourth Thursday in May, 1861. 

But the authorities without waiting for the action of the people, on 
the 24th. day of ]\Iay, entered into an agreement through Alexander H. 
Stephens, commissioner, transferring the whole military force of Vir- 
ginia to the Southern Confederacy to be under its command upon the 
same footing as if the State were a member of said confederacy. This 
was a high handed proceeding and a direct violation of all the princi- 
ples of popular Government. 

When Col. Porterfield v/ith his command reached Grafton the seces- 
sion element of the Harrison rifles, with quite a number of others from 
the County secretly fixed a day to rendezvous at Clarksburg and march 
to join him. 

On the afternoon of May 23, 1861, the residents of the town were 
startled by the appearance of several squads of men coming in on 
different roads, a portion of them being armed with squirrel rifles and shot 

The Court House bell was rung, long and loud, and the Union Guards 
with a large number of other citizens assembled in the Court Room, and 
amid great excitement it was proposed that the new arrivals and all others 
who gave them aid and comfort, should be forthmth captured. But the 
arrival of some of the older citizens upon the scene undoubtedly prevented 
a collision between the two bodies. It was proposed by a cool-headed 
speaker that a committee should wait upon the secession body and ascer- 
tain their intentions in marching into town under arms. This was very re- 
luctantly agreed to, and the committee retired, and after some time re- 
ported that the new arrivals had no hostile intentions, but were there for 
the night and intended on the following day to march peaceably to Graf- 
ton to join Colonel Porterfield. 

After a good deal of discussion it was finally agreed, that the Seces- 
sionists should surrender their arms which would be placed in the jail, 
locked up, and the key given into the possession of Waldo P. Goff, a pro- 
minent Union, and that they should be delivered to their owners on 
the following morning, and that they then should leave town.- 

This was done and a collision happily avoided. On the next day their 
arms were restored to them and the Company marched dovm Pike Street 
on their way to Grafton. 

A large crowd gathered on the pavement at the Old Walker House at 
the corner of Second and Pike Streets to see them march away. It was a 
pathetic scene. Everyone seemed impressed with the solemnity of the oc- 
casion. There were no loud hurrahs nor waving of flags as generally takes 
place when men leave to go to war. Some quiet good byes were said be- 


tween those leaving and those remaining, and as they crossed Elk Bridge 
and rounded the bend in the street near the Catholic Church they were 
lost to sight. Very few of them ever saw their native town again, about 
twenty of them were killed in battle and ten died from disease and only 
six surrendered at Appamattox. 

Immediately upon arrival of the Federal troops in the State, Union 
men began to organize and recruit troops for the war. IMajor General 
George B. McClellan U. S. Army, on May 13, 1861, assumed command of 
the Department of the Ohio embracing Western Virginia with Headquart- 
ers at Cincinnati, and began to organize troops. 

Colonel Benjamin F. Kelly under direction of the War Department, 
had commenced early in May to organize the 1st. Regiment Virginia Vol- 
unteers on Wheeling Island. 

On May 26th. Col. Kelly was ordered to move on Grafton, and on 
the 27th. the troops started by rail on the first expedition in West Vir- 
ginia. Owing to the bridges being destroyed the command did not reach 
Grafton until the 30th. and found that Porterfield 's command had re- 
treated to Philippi. 

Col. James B. Steedman had with the 14th. Ohio moved on the 27th. 
by way of Parkersburg, on Grafton, but was delayed also by burned 

It was part of this command composed of two or three companies of 
the 14th. Ohio Infantry that reached Clarksburg on the evening of the 
30th. of May being the first United States troops to enter the towTi. 

Quite a number of troops had reached Grafton by June 1st. the whole 
beine- under the command of General Thomas A. Morris. 

The authorities at Richmond becam.e early aware of the dissatisfaction 
in North Western Virginia, and early took steps to propritiate the people 
in that section. Military Commissions were sent to prominent men West 
of the moimtains, and points were designated where troops should or- 
ganize and rendezvous. 

Robert E. Lee, who had recently resigned his commission of Colonel 
of the 2nd. U. S. Cavalry, was appointed Major General and ordered to 
take com.mand of the Virginia troops. On April 23rd. the Governor John 
Letcher issued a proclamation calling out the Militia, which was unheeded 
by those west of the mountains. 

The Affair at Righter's. 

Peter B. Righter, a well to do farmer and grazier, lived in a handsome 
residence on Coon's Run about four miles from Shinnston just over the 
Marion County line. He was a pronounced secessionist and his house was 
a headquarters for those of like faith in the neighborhood. 

He was reported to the Military authorities and a detachment of Com- 
pany I of the 20th. Ohio under Captain Cable from Mannington, was or- 
dered to the Righter Farm on June 21, 1861. They were fired upon from 
the house one of his men was killed and three or four wounded, and John 
Nay, the guide, also wounded. 

Captain Cable's command fell back to Shinnston and receiving re-in- 


foreements on the 22nd. returned to Righter's and found the premises de- 
serted. The house, bams and outbuildings were burned and all the horses 
taken and moved to Mannington. 

Banks Corbin, a resident of the neighborhood while held a prisoner 
by the troops, attempted to escape, was fired upon and killed. 

This incident caused great excitement in the neighborhood and 
brought the realities of war home to our people. 

On the 30th of April General Lee ordered Major F. M. Boykin to pro- 
ceed to Western Virginia to muster in volunteers for the protection of 
that portion of the State and to take post at or near Grafton. 

On May 10th. Major Boykin reported to General Lee from Grafton 
that the feeling in nearly all the counties was very bitter, and every effort 
was made to discourage enlistment in the service of the State, and recom- 
mends that re-inforcements be sent from the East, and states that John S. 
Carlile openly proclaims that the laws of the State should not be recog- 

May 4th. Colonel George A. Porterfield was ordered to proceed to 
Grafton to receive into the service of the State a sufficient number of 
troops to guard the Railroads leading to Parkersburg and Wheeling. He 
arrived there on the 14th. and on May 16th. reported that there was much 
bitterness among the people and a great diversity of opinion, and they 
apparently were upon the verge of civil war, and gives a discouraging ac- 
count of the situation from his standpoint. 

He was joined there by several unarmed companies among them one 
from Harrison County. 

On the 28th. of May he retreated from Grafton having learned that 
Federal troops were advancing on him on both the railroads leading from 
Wheeling and Parkersburg and took position at Philippi. 

On the night of the 2nd. of June two columns of troops left Grafton 
both moving on Philippi, one on the West by way of Webster Station and 
the other on the East by Thornton Station. 

The column on the West side of the river arrived in front of Philippi 
a few minutes before the other column reached its position, opened fire on 
the town, resulting in the flight of Colonel Porterfield 's command in a dis- 
orderly route before they could be intercepted by Col. Kelly's column. 
This action was called the Philippi Races. 

Colonel Porterfield retreated to Huttonsville in the upper end of Ty- 
gart's Valley in Randolph County. 

General Robert S. Garnett who had recently resigned his commission m 
the 9th. U. S. Infantry as Major, was sent out to relieve Porterfield with 
large re-inforcements. 

Two roads run west from Beverly, one the Staunton and Parkersburg 
pike by the way of a gap in Rich Mountain to Buckhannon, and the other 
further down the valley over the same range of mountains to Philippi, but 
called by the different name of Laurel Hill, the distance between these 
crossings being fifteen miles. 

Colonel John Pegram. who had recently resigned his commission as 
Lieutenant in the Secx)nd U. S. Dragoons, was placed in command on the 
Buckhannon road, and General Garnett assumed command on Laurel Hill, 


on the road leading to Philippi. These troops were all from Virginia ex- 
cept one Georgia Regiment which was with Gamett. 

Both positions were established on the west slopes of the mountain 
and strong entrenchments built. Pegram having a detachment stationed 
in the gap at Hart's house in his rear. 

The United States troops under the command of General George B. 
McClellan with Clarksburg as his base, moved up by way of Buckhannon in 
front of the position held by Colonel Pegram on Rich Mountain, General 
Thomas A. Morris moving by the way of Philippi commanded the column 
to operate in front of Garnett's position. 

On the 11th. day of July General W. S. Rosecrans was detached from 
General McClellan 's command and by a flank movement up the side of the 
mountain to the right attacked and dispersed the force stationed in the 
Gap at Hart's house, and interposed his force to the rear of and on the 
line of Pegram 's retreat, who was compelled to surrender his command 
of about 600 men on the 13th. of July to McClellan. 

General Garnett fiinding that General McClellen was at Beverly, cutt- 
ing off his line of retreat, undertook to withdraw East through Tucker and 
Hardy Counties. He was pursued by General Morris and in a skirmish at 
Carrick's ford on Cheat River was killed July 13th. 

His command was dispersed and straggled into Monterey in a dis- 
organized, demoralized and half starved condition. 

Later in the summer the Federal Troops under General Joseph J. 
Reynolds occupied and fortified a position on Cheat Mountain east of 
Huttonsvile on the Staunton and Parkersburg pike and at Elk Water, 
South of Huttonsville at the head of Tygart's Valley on the road leading 
to Pocahontas County. 

Tn September an attack was made on these positions by General Rob- 
ert E. Lpc. movinsr from Hnntersville, which failed of success. In this 
movement Colonel John A. Washinsrton of General Lee's staff, was killed. 
He was the former owner of Mount Vernon. 

Thus ended the attempt of the Confederates to obtain control of 
North Western Virginia and their hopes of receiving large numbers of re- 
cruits joining their standard, and of extending their lines to the Ohio Riv- 
er were blasted, and except an occasional raid the Federals held the terri- 
tory until the end of the war. 

While the subsequent great operations and battles of the war, with- 
drew attention from what seemed to be a small affair in Western Virginia, 
yet they were at the time of the utmost importance and far reaching in 
their results. 

The Union men were encouraged and protected and in the rear of the 
Federal lines they flocked by thousands to central localities and were or- 
ganized into Regiments for the war and did gallant service for the Union. 

Governor Letcher ascertaining from the reports of the Military Offic- 
ers that the people of the state West of the mountains were largely in 
favor of the Union and against secession, and that but very few of them 
would enlist in his regiments to serve against their country, on the 14th. 
of June by his proclamation issued a fervent appeal to the residents of 
that section, to come to Virginia's banner and drive the invader from her 
soil and closed in these words: "The heart that will not beat in unison 


with Virginia now is a traitor's heart; the arm that will not strike for 
home in her cause, is palsied by a coward fear." 

The Governor extended a cordial invitation for all to come to the 
camp at Huttonsville where they would be met as brothers. 

But all was in vain, the proclamation and all other such efforts fell 
upon deaf ears, and no efforts of the Virginia authorities could seduce the 
sturdy young men of the Western Counties to desert the cause of the Na- 
tional Government. 

The following is an extract from a letter from General Gamett to the 
Adjutant General at Richmond dated: 

"Camp at Laurel Hill, Va., June 25, 1861. 

"The Union men are greatly in the ascendancy here and are much 
more zealous and active in their cause than the secessionists. The enemy 
are kept fully advised of our movements even to the strength of our scouts, 
and pickets by the country people, while we are compelled to grope in the 
dark as much as if we were invading a foreign and hostile country." 

Again in a letter dated July 1, 1861, he states: "My hope of increas- 
ing my force in this region has, so far been sadly disappointed. 

Only eight men have joined me here and fifteen at Colonel Heck's 
camp, not sufficient to make up my losses by discharges, etc. These people 
are thoroughly imbued with an ignorant and bigotted Union sentiment." 

When it was known that a Regiment was being recruited on Wheeling 
Island Alexander C. ]\Toore gave notice to the Guards that all of them who 
desired to enlist in the Union cause should meet secretly on a certain Sun- 
day afternoon at the water tank, which stood a short distance West of the 
present passenger station of the B. & 0. Railroad. Secrecy was enjoined 
upon every one. as it was feared that the Virginia authorities would at- 
tempt to arrest all who contemplated aiding the government and charge 
them with treason against the State. 

At least one hundred young men met according to appointment and 
agreed to go to Wheeling and tender their services to the United States in 
the Regiment organizing there. 

Alexander C. Moore, who was the prime m.over in the enterprise was 
chosen Captain. Notley A. Shuttleworth and Oscar H. Tate, Lieutenants, 
and it was agreed that all would be ready to move when notified. 

One man in the party, a traveling tinker, who was suspected of being 
a spy, was seized upon, and thro-wn headlong into the Creek and told to 
drown or clear himself. He speedily did the latter. 

Shortly after this meeting all Avere notified to meet at the Walker House 
on a certain nisrht. They were on hand at the appoinetd hour, marched 
to Wilsonburg betwen 12 n. m. and daylight and took cars to Parkersburg 
and thence to Wheeling by boat. Rumors were afloat that state troops 
were then at Grafton, and that the Company would not be T^ermitted to 
take cars at Clarksburg, was the reason for marching to Wilsonburg as 
they were unarmed. 

Upon their arrival, they found that the regiment was recruited to the 
limit and they were not received into the service. They returned home by 
the same route, and all were afterwards mustered into Company B and G 


of the 3rd. Virginia Infantry, Colonel, David T. Hewes at Camp Ilewes 
where Glen Elk is now located. 

The fact that two companies of young men nearly all known to each 
other and many of them intimate friends marched almost at the same time, 
and from the same town, to take their stand in opposing armies all heliev- 
ing they were right is a sad commentary upon the condition of the times. 

The leading spirits in organizing the Union Guards were Alexander 
C. Moore and Notley A. Shuttles worth, and with a courage and devotion 
that no threats or dangers could daunt urged upon the youth of the Coun- 
ty the necessity of entering the service of the United States. 

Both of these young men became Captains of Companies in the 3rd. 
Virginia Infantry, Captain Shuttleworth resigning after an ardent ser- 
vice of more than a year. 

Major Moore after serving sometime in the Infantry, recruited a light 
Battery and served until the end of the war. 

Not only was Clarksburg the whirlpool of civil commotion, but it was 
also the war center of North Western Virginia. It had strong, able, en- 
thusiastic supporters of the Union and aggressive, active supporters of the 
Southern cause though the latter were largely in the minority. 

When it is remembered that the advocates of the Union, and in favor 
of dividing the State, were liable to be tried for treason against Virginia, 
arrested and dragged to Richmond, it can be imagined what courage was 
required to face the difficult situation. 

Clarksburg, all through the war, was an important military station 
and supply depot. 

The County furnished about eight hundred soldiers for the United 
States Army and about three hundred and fifty for the Southern cause. 

The following full companies were recruited in the County: 

Company G. 12th. West Virginia Infantry, Captain James Moffat. 

Company E 12th. West Virginia Infantry, Captain Cornelius Mercer. 

Company B 3rd. West Virginia Infantry, Captain Alex. C. Moore. 

Company G 3rd. West Virginia Infantry, Captain Notley A. Shuttles- 

Company E 3rd. West Virginia Cavalry, Captain Lot Bowen. 

Besides these regularly organized companies a great number enlisted 
in different organizations at different times throughout the war. 

Native or adopted Citizens of Harrison County who held commissions 
in the United States Army during the war : 


David T. Ilewes. Lieutenant Colonel Robert S. Northcott. 


Nathan Goff, Brevet Brig. General. Theodore F. Lang, Brevet. 



Alexander C. Moore, Brevet Major. Lot Bowen, Brevet Major. Henry 
Haymond, Brevet Lieutenant Colonel, John H. Shuttleworth. Notley A. 
Shuttleworth, W. "W. Weminger, Lewis A. Myers, Asa Hugill, Cornelius 
Mercer, James W. Moffit, Timothy F. Roane, James F. Law, Lee Hay- 
mond, Brevet Major, Samuel R. Steel, George I. Stealey, Gwin Minter, 
Daniel Sheets, Jolin W. Kidwell, Henry C. Goff. 


William L. Hursey, William E. Brison, Henry H. Link, Benj. F. 
Wicks, Henry Meyer, James B. Lovett, Leonard Clark, Elam F. Pigott, 
Van B. Hall, George W. Fortney, Henry R. McCord, Asltorpheus Wern- 
inger, Jr., David T. Hewes, Jr., Frank Lowrey, James R. Durham, Oscar 
H. Tate, T. Moore Goff, Assistant Surgeon Charles T. Lowndes. 

Native and adopted citizens of Harrison County, who held commis- 
sions in the Confederate Army. 

Lieut. General Thomas J. Jackson (Stonewall) Brigadier General 
William L. Jackson, Colonel George Jackson, Colonel John S. Hoffman, 
Lieut. Col. Chapin Bartlett. 


William P. Cooper, P. B. Adams. G. D. Camden, Jr., Andrew T. Ow- 
ens, Thomas D. Armsey, Rezin C. Davis and John L. Sehon. 


John G. Gettings, Charles McCally, Uriel M. Turner, Augustine J. 
Smith, Benj. M. Smith. Robert J. Smith, Silas Owens, Wm. F. Gordon, 
Hugh H. Lee, Warren S. Lurty, Alvin N. Bastable, Samuel M. Sommers, 
James M. Blair, Asbury Lewis. 


Norval Lewis, Frederick W. Bartlett and Edward Lynch, 0. T. Bond, 
William J. West and James M. McCann, Joshua Rodabaugh. 

Captain Augustine J. Smith's states of the Company that marched 
from Clarksburg to Grafton to enter the Confederate Army, That : 

"In antcipation of hostilities a company of Volunteers was organized 
in Clarksburg in January, 1861, with the intention of offering their servic- 
es to the Governor, and included in its membership eight attorneys at law, 
two editors, one civil engineer, several merchant clerks, mechanics and 
farmers and numbering about sixty men. 

Uriel M. Turner was elected Captain and William P. Cooper and 
Norval Lewis Lieutenants. 

On May 24th. they marched from Clarksburg under orders to proceed 
to Grafton and join the forces collecting there under Colonel Porterfield. 


On the second day they arrived at Fetterman and camped in the old cov- 
ered bridge over the valley river at that place, and that night Bailey 
Brown, a member of a Union Company in that vicinity, was shot and 
killed by a member of the company who was on picket guard, being the 
first man killed in West Virginia in the war, and to whose memory a monu- 
ment is erected in the National Cemetery at Grafton. 

Upon the Company's arrival at Monterey it was designated as Com- 
pany "C" and assigned to the 31st. Virginia Regiment of Infantry. 

The Company participated in the following engagements: Surprise 
at Philippi, Laurel Hill, Greenbrier River, Allegheny Mountains, McDow- 
ell, Front Royal, Winchester, Cross Keys, Port Republican, Seven days' 
fight at Richmond, Cedar Mountains, Second Bull Run, Antietam, Fred- 
ericksburg, Chancellorsville, Monocacy, Winchester again, Fisher's Hill, 
Wilderness. Spottsylvania Court House. Cold Harbor, Weldon Road, 
Hatcher's Run, Petersburg and Appomattox. 

The company was recruited while at Philippi to about one hundred 
men and had very few accessions afterwards, and had only six members 
at the surrender at Appomattox. 

The following were killed in battle: Ethelbert Smith, James Smith, 
Alvin Nutter, A. J. Cropp, John W. Whitman, Samuel Dawson, Wm. 
West, John W. Wallingham, H. H. Holden, Joseph Snyder, Jonas Great- 
house, Luther Dawson. Others were killed whose names are not given, 
bringing the list of killed up to about twenty. 

Several died from disease, among them being Norval Lewis, Silas 
Greathouse and Aaron Young. 

Nearly every member of the Company was wounded, some as often as 
five times. Louis Carmack, John W. Pridmore and William Taylor were 
disabled from wounds. 

Captain Charles Leib Assistant Quarter Master, who published his ex- 
perience in a little work called ''Nine Months in the Quarter-Master's De- 
partment, or The Chances for Making a Million" from which extracts are 
given below: 

He arrived in Clarksburg in June 1861 and entered upon his duties, 
which were many, various and perplexing. 

He speaks of the following troops encamped there : The Seventh and 
Eighteenth Ohio, Howes Battery "G" 4th. U. S. Artillery, The Sturges 
Rifles of Chicago, Barker's Chicago Dragoons, Burdsall's Cavalry and a 
portion of the Third West Virginia Infantry then being organized. 

Clarksburg was shortly made a depot for supplies for General McClel- 
len's Army operating on Rich Mountain and afterwards when encamped 
at Cheat Mountain, and later in the summer and fall for General Rose- 
cram's Army in the Gauley River Region. 

The Captain constructed large store houses to store Quarter Master 
and Commissary Supplies, one of which he describes as being 80 feet 
front by 144 deep. 

A corral for animals established in the square now included between 
Pike and Main and Oak Streets and Maple Avenue, and he speaks of hav- 
ing at one time on hand two thousand horses. 


He had a small army of employees under him and his troubles and 
trials were many. 

As he was short of teams and as but few o-wTiers would hire them it be- 
came necessary for him to impress them from the surrounding country, to 
haul supplies to the troops in the field South of town. This raised an out- 
cry and he gives the following as a sample of the many interviews he had 
with the wrathy team owners : 

"Captain Leib your men have impressed my team. It can't go." 
"Are you a Union Man?" "Yes one of the best in the County. I have 
done all the hauling I can for the government but this pressing Union 
men's teams is going to have a bad effect upon the cause." 

"All I have to say is if Jeff Davis and his army get in here they 
would take your horses and wagons, strip your farm of everything, may- 
hap set fire to your residence and not pay you one cent, while I will pay 
you for their use. Our troops have come here from across the Ohio to pro- 
tect you. You Imow we have two armies in the field, one at Cheat Moun- 
tain and one at Gauley bridge. I am required to supply them ; they want 
bread and must have it. I am sorry to disoblige you, but your team must 

"But Captain." 

"I have no time to discuss this matter. It is settled." 

"It is mighty hard if a man can't do as he pleases with his own 
property. ' ' 

The Captain says of the three hundred men whose teams he was com- 
pelled to impress, there was not one who did not curse him during the time 
the im.pressment continued. 

This, with his refusal, to pay many claims against the Government 
made the Captain intensely unpopular. He was the subject of an indig- 
nation meeting, and was severely criticised, and denounced by the Cincin- 
natti newspaper correspondents. 

He gives the following as the character of the kind of bills presented 
him for payment : 

NOVEMBER 1ST. 1861. 

September 19th. United States. 

To house burnt by Rebels $400.00 

To 5 apple trees burnt by fire $5.00 each 30.00 

To 2 plum trees burnt by fire $3.00 each 6.00 

To 2 peach trees burnt by fire $3.00 each , 6.00 

To tools 73.75 

To 1 grind stone 2.00 

To bedsteads, chairs, table and other furniture 37.14 

To brass kettle and tinware 10.00 

To 1 clock 16.00 

To 1 set harness, bridle and collar 5.10 

To loss of crop on account of the Rebels 39.16 


SiB: — The within account is the amount of damages I sustained by 


the infernal secession outbreak, and would be glad if you can intercede in 
refunding back my losses. The Rebels called on me to fight for the South 
as I was a Southern man. I told them nay. They made me leave my home, 
then I enlisted. They then burnt my house and I am now in the service of 
the United States. L. S." 

Another from a citizen of Braxton County: 

Captain Leib, United States, Dr. 

To 17 turkeys took by soldiers $ 20.00 

Ditto 31 chickens 5.00 

Ditto 1 calf killed 5.00 

Ditto 2 pigs 16.00 

$ 46.00 

This account was refused and the Captain scored another enemy. 

Captain Leib disbursed immense sums of money and had charge of 
and shipped enormous amounts of supplies to the armies in the field, and 
was a man of vast resources, great energy, and did enough work to break 
down a half dozen men. But alas, his enemies were too many for him. He 
failed of confirmation by the Senate and was discharged from the service 
in February 1862. 

Jones' Raid. 

What is commonly known as Jones' raid is celebrated in the war an- 
nals of West Virginia, and is the only instance during the civil war in 
which an armed body of Confederates appeared in the limits of Harrison 

The commander of the Brigade was General William E. Jones, a na- 
tive of Virginia who graduated from the AVest Point Military Academy in 
1848 and served as a Lieutenant in the Mounted Rifles until his resignation 
in 1857. At the commencement of the civil war he entered the Confed- 
erate Army and was killed at Mount Crawford in the Valley of Virginia 
in 1864. 

The troops engaged in the expedition were all Cavalry and composed 
of the following Regiments, 6th. Virginia Col. Thomas S. Flourney, 7th. 
Virginia Col. Richard Dulany, 11th. Virginia Col. Lunsford L. Lomax, 
12th. Virginia Col. A. W. Harman and Brown's Maryland Battalion. 

The Brigade moved from its winter camp near Harrisonburg in April 
1863, across the mountains by way of Moorefield, and struck the B. & 0. 
Railroad at Oakland and thence to Rowlesburg doing what damage they 
could to the bridges and track, which was not very effective as the Artill- 
ery had been left behind and they had no facilities for blowing up bridges. 

From Rowlesburg the command moved Northwardly by way of King- 
wood to Morgantown gathering all the horses and cattle they could find 
and confiscating all hats, boots and clothing out of the stores along their 

From Morgantown they moved to Fairmont, and after a skirmish 
there with some troops and militia, destroyed the Railroad Bridge over the 


Monongahela and continued on to Shinnston, and after a skirmish at 
Maulsby bridge, crossed the West Fork River and moved up Simpson's 
Creek by way of Bridgeport to Philippi. At this time it is stated that 
General Jones had captured about 3000 head of cattle and 1200 horses. 
Colonel Harman was detailed with his regiment to escort this herd of live 
stock over the mountains by way of Beverly to Staunton. 

The remainder of the command proceeded by way of Buckhannon 
Weston, and West Union to Burning Springs, then the center of oil pro- 
duction, where great quantities of oil in barrels was destroyed, together 
with derricks and other property by fire. 

The command then turned Eastward by way of Glenville to Sutton 
and at this point owing to the scarcity of supplies, the Brigade was divid- 
ed into separate detachments and directed to go by different routes to the 
Shenandoah Valley, and to unite again in Harrisonburg. 

Many amusing incidents are told of the terror inspired when Jones' 
rough riders suddenly dashed into the various towns of West Virginia. 
All of the men hid or fled from their approach, but as a rule the women 
and children remained to prevent if possible the destruction of their homes 
or loss of property. 

The merchants were plundered of their stock, principally of boots, 
shoes, clothing, blankets and groceries. The farmers suffered in the loss 
of forage, horses, cattle and other live stock. 

General Jones, in his reports of the expedition, states that he left La- 
eey Spring. Rockingham County, Virginia, on April 21, 1863, and marched 
by way of Moorefield near Rowlesburg, Evansville, Kingwood, Morgan- 
town to Fairmont where on April 29 he captured 260 prisoners and des- 
troyed the Railroad bridge over the Monongahela River at that place. 

On the morning of April 30, his command moved towards Clarks- 
burg by way of Shinnston. He states "From some captured furloughed 
men finding Clarksburg occupied by the enemy we crossed the Monon- 
gahela, went up Simpson's Creek and captured the force at Bridgeport 
five miles East of Clarksburg. This work was done by the Maryland 
Cavalry under the gallant Major Brown. Forty-seven prisoners were 
captured with their arms and a few horses. A bridge to the left of the 
toAvn was destroyed and a captured train run into the stream. Tall 
tressling to the right of the town was burned." 

Captain Frank A. Bond commanding First Maryland Battalion says 
in his report "That when within four miles of Bridgeport Company B. 
was sent on picket on the Clarksburg road. They were soon after attacked 
by what seemed to be a body of mounted infantry numbering about 200. 
They retreated before them to the ford, and there made a stand, which 
checked the enemy until our object was accomplished. Owing to the 
small number of long range guns in Company B they had to reply to the 
infantry with their pistols, which while keeping them in check prevented 
our inflicting much or any loss upon them." 

Colonel Lunsford L. Lomax 11th. Va. Cavalry reports that in an 
attack upon the rear of the column on April 30, by the enemies cavalry on 
the Clarksburg road. Private Peter Armstrong Company "G" was killed. 
His regiment reached Bridgeport at 3 :30 P. M. 


It is said that a Union Soldier named Sims who was home on furlough 
shot and killed one of Jone's scouts on Tunnel Hill between Clarksburg 
and Bridgeport. 

The following is a sketch of the situation at the time of the Jones' 
raid by that gallant soldier Walter M. Morris, Company E 3rd W. Va. 
Cavalry, who participated in twenty-eight engagements. 

"Clarksburg remained within the Federal lines throughout the civil 
war, and was an important point for the concentration of troops of various 
commands where they were further equipped, drilled and otherwise pre- 
pared for a more active and vigorous military operations. 

One of the first considerable force to disembark here was General 
Tyler with his Brigade in May 1861. Moving from this point by night 
he surprised a small force of the enemy at Weston at the break of day, 
and thence on to menace General Wise's command then at or in the 
region of Sommerville and Gauley Bridge. 

This move was soon followed by the arrival of Generals McClellan 
and Rosecrans in June, which force moved on against General Pegram 
at Rich Mountain and Carrick's ford. The concentration of these forces 
in the mountains of South Western Virginia necessitated the adoption 
of Clarksburg as a base of supplies. 

For this purpose large commissary and quartermaster ware houses 
were built near the B. & 0. R. R. depot for the storage of these supplies, 
and it was not an unusual sight to see fifty or more wagons, loaded with 
provisions and munitions of war, leave these ware houses in a single train 
to be hauled to the several detachments of the army then occupying dif- 
ferent positions in the mountains of West Virginia. 

A large corral was also built here where a large number of horses 
and mules were collected for the use of the different branches of the .army. 
This necessitated the purchase of a considerable amount of hay and grain 
for the subsistence of these animals. No important battle Avas fought 
on Harrison County's soil, but in April 1863 while General Roberts was 
in command of the forces at Clarksburg, Weston, Buckhannon, Beverly 
and Sutton, General Jones of the Confederate Army began his invasion 
of Central West Virginia coming via Oakland, Morgan town and Fair- 
mont, while Genl. Imboden was approaching from the south by the way of 
Beverly and Buckhannon. This simultaneous move on the part of the confed- 
erates so alarmed General Roberts that he promptly withdrew his forces 
from the outposts and after destroying all his military supplies at Buck- 
hannon. and Weston he united his forces at Clarksburg on the 28th. He 
now had fully 5000 men under his command at this place. Meantime 
Jones' was approaching from the North and was in Shinnston on the 
29tli, while Imboden following in the wake of Union troops was approach- 
ing via Weston, Jane Lew, Lost Creek and Peel Tree. General Roberts 
was greatly lacking for cavalry for scouting purposes. One company 
under Capt. Lot Bowen being his only available cavalry at the time. 

On April 30 Capt. Bowen with 62 men rank and file was sent to re- 
connoiter the situation down the river towards Shinnston, while the Infan- 
try and Artillery were mounting their guns and otherwise preparing for 
an attack by Imboden from the South. When the Cavalry had proceeded 


eight miles down the river they met a portion of Jones' Command, three 
hundred strong, in column at the crossing of Lambert's Run. A charge 
was made by the gallant "blue jackets" and strange to say, although every 
gun of both commands was emptied at very close range it is not known 
that anyone was hurt on either side by that tei'rible volley. This was ac- 
counted for by their horses galloping at such a rapid gait that made their 
aim unsteady and uncertain, but as the handful of Federal Cavalry rushed 
into the enemy's ranks with drawn sabre, the confederates suddenly 
wheeled their horses "about face" then began a Ecck and neck chase for 
life, in which several prisoners were captured, some of whom bore bad 
sabre scars as a memento of their reluctance to surrendering their arms 
after being captured. The "Blue jackets" were having it all their own 
way until the Maulsby bridge was reached some fifteen or twenty of them 
dashing on through the bridge, were met by a fresh volley of bullets 
from the enemy at such close range, that private J. W. Custer was killed 
and Sergeant W. H. Jones and J. C. Swentzel were wounded. N. G. Tag- 
gart's horse was also shot under him. After this volley the Rebels again 
galloped off on their retreat while Bowen's command returned leisurely to 
Clarksburg taking with them 13 prisoners and 19 head of horses the re- 
sult of their daring charge. The confederate loss was two killed and several 
wounded, number not known. 

This charge at Lambert's Run so confused Gen. Jones that an attack 
on Clarksburg was abandoned and instead he turned his column eastward 
going up Simpson's Creek and crossed the B. & 0. R. R. near Bridge- 
port moving on Southward to form a Junction with Imboden's forces 
then lying at Peel Tree, Rockford, Jane Lew and Weston. 

On May 1st. Colonel Thompson with the 3rd. W. Va. Infantry, 28th. 
Ohio, one section of E wing's Battery and Bowen's troop of cavalry 
was sent to Lost Creek where a small force of Imboden 's men had collected, 
but on approaching the place as Captain Ewing's guns were being unlira- 
bered in Squire Bassel's field on a knoll overlooking the cross roads where 
the village of Lost Creek now is, the Rebels hastily fled, some towards 
Jane Lew, but the largest column going towards Rockford, both columns 
being closely chased by the contingent of cavalry ever ready for a chase 
of this kind, while the belching of the two guns in Squire Bassel's field 
sending their screeching shells after the fleeing rebels tended to further 
augment their terror and speed. 

Colonel Thompson's force remained in the vicinity of Lost Creek for 
several days, but excepting some scouting and picket duty by the cavalry 
nothing of note occurred, and on the fourth his command moved back to 
Clarksburg while the Confederates were permitted to return to their own 
grounds unmolested, and no aggressive move was made against them, un- 
til General Roberts was relieved by General Averell on May 22, 1863. 

This was the last time that any of the Confederate forces ever got 
within the territory of Harrison County during the civil war. 

While Colonel Thompson's force was lying at Lost Creek an incident 
occurred while not "thrilling" was at least "unusual." 

Sergeant J. C. Kildow was sent with six men to picket the road lead- 
ing to Milford one mile from the Camp at Lost Creek. This threw the 


sergeant's reserve post within 100 yards of his mother's door and at the 
old log school house within whose walls the rudiments at least of an edu- 
cation had been taught to several of the boys then under him. One of them, 
"W. M. Morris, while sitting in his saddle on sentinel duty could see his 
father's house a half mile distant to the South while another one of the 
boys, E. W. Sullivan, lived to the North of the Post, no further away. 

How vivid and sacred were the memories that rushed back into the 
minds of the boys that night while meditating upon the scenes of their 
"School Boy" days and silently but watchfully guarding the home of 
their youth and the loved ones there who knew not that their boys were 

General Jones' command took a large number of horses and cattle 
out of the country and looted all the stores on their route. 

The people of Harrison County as a rule suffered but little loss of 
property from the Acts of War. Some few depredations were committed 
by unauthorized persons, but they raised their crops as usual and could 
sell them at good prices. 

Some of the inhabitants were arrested as Southern sympathizers and 
imprisoned at Camp Chase near Columbus, Ohio, which may have been 
and doubtless was in some cases a stretch of authority. But no property 
was wantonly destroyed by the Union troops and it is not now recalled 
that a single house in the County was burnt by direction of the military 

The first Union troops to arrive in Clarksburg was a portion of the 
14th Ohio Regiment on the night of May 30, 1861, and from that time 
during the succeeding four years many thousands of troops either were 
encamped at or passed through the town. 

Troops were stationed at Beverly, Buckhannon, "Weston and Sutton 
during the war, and Clarksburg was an important Military Station where 
were accumulated large quantities of supplies for the use of the soldiers 
and where were hospitals established. 

Troops were arriving and departing almost daily and in the shifting 
scenes of the drama of war sometimes many thousands were encamped 
around Clarksburg at one time. The principal camps were on the Jack- 
son place near the old depot, the new depot, the Weston road and where 
Adamston now is. 

For the protection of the town earth works were thrown up on Criss' 
Hill and Pinnickinnick had a fort on its summit mounted with a number 
of guns. The remains of these works can still be seen. 

It was a trying and exciting period for the inhabitants, numerous 
alarms were given of the approach of the enemy and more than once the 
prominent Union men fled to Wheeling and Parkersburg. 

The money of the Merchants National Bank was removed out of 
town by its officials on two or three occasions. Once Nathan Goff, the 
President, took the funds as far as Pittsburg, and at another time Luther 
Hayrnond, the cashier, taking them in an ambulance with an armed escort 
to Grafton to avoid falling into the hands of the enemy who were reported 
advancing on the town. 

During the four long weary years of war's alarms, the Courts of 


Harrison County were open and never failed to hold their regular sessions, 
the merchants and others plied their usual avocations, money was plenty 
and were it not for the presence of soldiers there was nothing to indicate 
that war prevailed in the land. 

At the close of the war the government made sale of all its war ma- 
terial, wagons, horses, harness and commissary supplies and the last troops 
withdrew in 1865. 

There was great rejoicing at the close of hostilities. The long nerve- 
racking and excitement, attending the living amid the dread scenes of 
war was at last ended, and the quiet of peace was more than welcome, and 
all were gratefull that : 

The war drum throbbed no longer 
And that the battle flags were furled. 

From the roar of Sumpter's guns on that April day in 1861, to the 
surrender of the sword of the Knightly Lee, to the silent soldier Grant, 
on that other April day in 1865, upon the field of Appamattox the sons 
of old Harrison were present, on all of the great battle fields of that long 
and bloody struggle and sustained the honor of their native county and 
the courage of their race. 

Drastic Legislation. 

The Wheeling Convention on June 19, 1861 passed an ordinance that 
all officials elected by the people should be required to take an oath to 
support the re-organized government and in case of refusal the office was 
to be declared vacant by the Governor and a special election held to fill 
the vacancy. 

Several of the Harrison County officers refused to take this oath and 
were ousted from office, among them being the Clerk of the Circuit Court 
and the Sheriff. 

The Richmond Convention on June 27, 1861 passed an ordinance 
"That any citizen of Virginia holding office under the Government of the 
United States after the first of August, shall be forever banished from 
this State, and is declared an alien enemy and shall be so considered in 
all the Courts of Virginia." 

It was further enacted that in addition to the above penalties any 
citizen who may hereafter undertake to represent the State in the Con- 
gress of the United States shall be deemed guilty of treason and his prop- 
erty be confiscated for the use of the State. 


The Spanish War 

On account of the friction caused by the treatment of the inhabi- 
tants of Cuba by the Kingdom of Spain, who claimed jurisdiction over 
the Island, and on account of the blowdng up of the United States War 
Ship Maine in the harbor of Havana in April, 1898, war was declared 
against Spain by an act of Congress approved April 25, 1898. 

West Virginia furnished two Regiments of Infantry for this war, 
both being equipped at Charleston, Colonel Baldwin D. Spilman com- 
manded the First Eegiment and Colonel D. T. E. Casteel the second. 

Two companies were recruited at Clarksburg for this war, one of 
them had for some time been organized as Company K of the first regi- 
ment National Guards and was assigned to the First Regiment of Volun- 
teers as Company "D" with the following officers: Captain Harry R. 
Smith, First Lieutenant Cyrus Earl Vance and Second Lieutenant Cuth- 
bert A. Osborne. 

This company was mustered into the United States service May 13, 
1898 and mustered out with the Regiment February 4, 1899. 

It had been the long period of thirty-seven years since the streets of 
Clarksburg had witnessed soldiers marching to war, and on the evening 
of April 27, 1898 nearly the entire town turned out to do honor to their 

The Company was presented with a flag by Mayor Matthew G. 
Holmes and a band of music and Custer Post No. 8 Grand Array of the 
Republic and a large number of citizens escorted them to the depot. 

One other Company was recruited for the war and left Clarksburg 
on June 27, Avas mustered into the 2 Regiment July 4, 1898 and mustered out 
with the Regiment April 10, 1899. The officers were Captain Melvin S. 
Sperry, First Lieutenant Robert H. Ramsey and Second Lieutenant John 
H. Clifford. 

These two regiments were held in reserve in the Southern States 
during the war and were not called upon for active service in the field. 

At the time of the Spanish war there was one officer from the County 
serving in the 5th. U. S. Infantry Regular Army, First Lieutenant Mel- 
ville S. Jarvis who is still in the service as Captain. 

Charles A. IMorgan was at this time a cadet at the Naval Academy 
at Annapolis and was serving on the war ship Indiana and took part in 
the battle of Santiago when the Spanish fleet was annihilated. 

Charles J. Goff of Clarksburg was appointed a Captain in the Quart- 
er-Master's Department and served in Cuba and also in the transport 


New State. 

The election of Abraham Lincoln as President in November, 1860, 
followed by the secession of South Carolina and the other Gulf States, 
the calling of a special session of the Legislature January 7, 1861, the 
passing by it of an act calling a convention to meet at Richmond, the 
election of delegates to be held February 4, and the convention to meet 
February 13, 1861, the campaign preceding the election of Delegates to 
the Virginia Convention, the firing on Fort Sumpter April 12th. 1861, 
the passage of the ordinance of secession by Virginia April 17th, the elec- 
tion on the fourth Thursday in May, which resulted in its ratification by 
the people, all in rapid succession may well be imagined to have created 
intense excitement and apprehension in the counties west of the moun- 

This chain of startling and alarming events passing as a historic 
panorama swiftly before the eyes of the bewildered public, could hardly 
be understood or realized. Wild rumors of every description were in cir- 
culation and no man knew what an hour would bring forth. "Coming 
events cast their shadows before," men's minds were disturbed by the 
premonition of coming evil, and it began to be plainly seen that we were 
in the midst of momentous events and a public crisis that would surely 
lead to a resort to arms. 

The great majority of the people in North "Western Virginia v^^ere 
loyal to their country and strongly in favor of remaining in the Union, 
and an active minority, many of the politicians and office holding class 
were in favor of seceding from the Union and joining the Southern Con- 

Political parties were dissolved, families v/ere divided, life long 
friends and neighbors took opposite sides of the public questions and 
grew suspicious of each other. Intense excitement prevailed everywhere 
and discussions were the principal occupations. Some of the m^erehants 
posted placards prohibiting the discussion of politics in their places of 
business. It seemed that society was to be dissolved into its original ele- 
ments, that the people were remanded to a state of nature and every man 
was to look out for himslf . 

The condition of the people in this portion of the State was most un- 
usual and alarming. With the older counties of the Mother State East of 
the mountains solidly for withdrawing from the Union, and those west of 
it nearly solidly opposed to it, they were passing through a crisis which 
demanded the utmost courage and prudence to solve this new political 


problem confronting them, that had so suddenly arisen affecting the very- 
life of the National Government. 

History does not record an incident so thoroughly exhibiting the ca- 
pability of the American people to control and govern themselves in the 
midst of dangers and civil commotion, and when they were cut off from 
all government and control of the legal authorities at the State Capitol 
at Eichmond, abandoned by the Circuit Court Judges, and were thrown 
on their own resources, and compelled to take matters in hand in the in- 
terest of law and order for their own protection, with a firm resolve that 
under no circumstances would they abandon the flag of their fathers. 

In the midst of all this confusion the County Courts were held as 
usual and officials continued to discharge their duties. 

In order to show the conditions of affairs and to record the actions 
of the people of Harrison County in this grave crisis there will be given 
the action of public meetings, in order that these stirring times that so 
much appealed to the loyalty and manhood of all concerned can be in 
some measure preserved for future generations. 

The slave states regarded the election of Mr. Lincoln as a blow at 
the system of slavery, and instantly threats of secession from the Union, 
were made and public meetings began to be held to express their senti- 
ments upon the political situation. 

After the Presidential election the first public expression of opinion 
of Harrison County was set forth in a mass meeting held at Clarksburg 
on the 24th. of November, 1860, which declared that the people would 
first exhaust all constitutional remedies for redress before they would re- 
sort to any violent measures ; that the ballot box was the only medium 
known to the constitution for a redress of grievances and to it alone 
would they appeal, and that it was the duty of all citizens to uphold and 
support the lawful constituted authorities. 

The next meeting of the Union people was held at Clarksburg Janu- 
ary 19, 1861, to nominate two delegates from Harrison County to the 
Convention, which by an act of the legislature were to be elected to meet 
in Eichmond as above stated. The meeting was presided over by Charles 
Lewis with Dr. David Davisson as Secretary. 

After passing resolutions announcing devotion to the Union, and that 
they would adhere to it for 'Sveal or woe" they adopted the following 
platform upon which their candidates should stand. 

"Eesolved, That we will support no man as a delegate to the Con- 
vention to be held in Eichmond on the 13th. day of February next, who 
is not unequivocally opposed to secession and will not so pledge himself. 

Eesolved, That we will support no man who will not pledge himself 
to oppose and vote against the appointment of persons to represent this 
State, in any convention, having for its object the establishment of a 
provisional or other government, or of persons to any body convened for 
the purpose of forming a Southern Confederacy or government. 

Eesolved, That we will support no man who will not pledge himself 
to vote against any ordinance, resolution or motion that has for its ob- 
ject the withdrawal of the State from the Federal Union. 

Eesolved, That we will support no man who will not pledge himself 


to vote against any resolution to be laid down as an ultimatum, and the 
refusal of which by the other States to be considered just cause for se- 
ceding: from the Union. 

Eesolved, That we will not support any man who believes that the 
convention to assemble at Richmond on the 13th. of February, 1861, or 
any other State authority can absolve the citizens of this State from their 
allegiance to the General Government ; and that we will support no man 
who does not believe that the Federal Government has the right of self 

Resolved, That we will support no man who will not oppose all de- 
liberation and discussion by the members of said Convention in secret 
session. ' ' 

Hon. William A. Harrison read the proceedings of an enthusiastic 
Union meeting held on Friday evening at Shinnston in which members 
of all political parties participated, declaring their devotion to the Union 
and IliPir onnopition to seoessinn. 

Upon the platform adopted Hons. John S. Carlile and Charles S. 
Lewis were nominated as Candidates for members of the Convention. 

The States Rights party nominated Robert Johnston and Benjamin 
Wilson as Delegates to the convention by a meeting held January 1861. 

IMr. Johnston issued a lengthy circulnr to the voters takinq the ex- 
treme Southern view of the condition of affairs, denounced in severe 
terms the "Black Republican party" and the people of the Northern 
States generally and stated that IMason and Dixon's Line ran North and 
West of his feelings and opinions. 

The campaign was short, but the candidates issued circulars clf'fining 
their views and addressed the people at different places in thp County 
and the election resulted in the choice of John S. Carlile and Benjamin 
Wilson as delegates to the Richmond Convention. 

The convention met, a majority of its members beiner in favor of the 
Union, but the firing on Fort Sumpter, the call of President Lincoln for 
75,000 troops precipitated matters and on April 17 in secret session an 
ordinance of secession was passed. 

The members of the convention from North Western Virginia re- 
turned to their homes. 

On the eveniner after Mr. Carlile 's return home quite a number of 
citizens called at his residence. He stood in the doorway of his house, 
seemed depressed and disturbed and spoke a few words in solemn tones 
to his neighbors and friends. He warned them that by the prejudice and 
passions of designing men a conspiracy was formed to destroy the Na- 
tional Government, and that his lips were sealed as to the action of the 
convention, but that they would be opened in a short time, cautioned his 
hearers to remain calm and that in a few days a meeting would be called 
to decide the policy to be pursued in the present crisis, and earnestly re- 
quested them to remain true to the Stars and Stripes. 

The time for action had now arrived and on the 22nd. day of April 
1861 there assembled on short notice a mass meeting in Clarksburg of 
twelve hundred of the citizens of Harrison County presided over by John 
Hursey with John Wesley Harris as Secretary. 


This meeting acted with courage and a determination unsurpassed 
in history, struck the keynote of the situation and took steps which add- 
ed thousands to the Union Ranks and resulted in the formation of the 
State of West Virginia. 

The meeting was addressed by John S. Carlile and his eloquent and 
patriotic utterances poured forth Avith all the earnestness and oratory of 
his gifted nature, and abilities, swayed the hearts and feelings of that 
vast audience as the wind moves the forest trees. 

Intense excitement prevailed in this assembly and all seemed im- 
pressed with the dangers of the situation that now faced them and with 
the importance of their acting with courage and discretion. 

The meeting reaffirmed its allegiance to the Federal Government and 
denounced the Virginia authorities for inaugurating a war without the 
consent of the people, and on motion of the brilliant leader, Mr. Carlile, 
adopted the following: 

Resolved, That it be and is herel)y recommended to each and all of 
the counties composing North Western Virginia to appoint Delegates, not 
less than five in number of their wisest, best and most discreet men to 
meet in convention at Wheeling on the 13th. day of May next, to consult 
and determine upon such action as the people of North Western Virginia 
should take in this fearful emergency. 

Resolved, That Honorable John S. Carlile, Waldo P. Goff, John J. 
Davis, Thomas L. Moore, Solomon S. Fleming, Lot Bowen, William Dun- 
kin, William E. Lyon, Felix S. Sturm, Benjamin F. Shuttlesworth and 
James LjTich, be and are hereby appointed delegates to represent this 
county in said convention. 

To The Southern Rights Men of Harrison County : 

War is upon us ! A most fearful, terrible and devastating war has 
been inaugurated by the present administration ; it has been forced upon 
the people of the South and the proclamation of Lincoln calling for 
75,000 men to carry out the infamous behests of the North to murder the 
citizens of our sister Southern States, is published in our midst, and Vir- 
ginia is called upon to furnish her quota of men and means for the 
slaughter of those who know their rights and dare maintain them, 
Georgia, Alabama, IVIississippi, South Carolina, Texas, Florida and Lou- 
isiana and after them Virginia and the other Southern States are to be 
trampled imder the iron heel of Black Republican despotism. The battle 
cry and shout of an insolent and vindictive Northern fanatic, who claims 
by the votes of your enemies to be your master, is now heard; he is now 
arming a civil war and inciting blood and rapine at the hands of the 
slave; is now calling upon you to aid him in coercion, to carry fire and 
sword into the homes of those to whom you are endeared by every tie of 
consanguinity of interest and affection. 

Freemen of Harrison ! Will you stand by and permit this war to 


be waged without any interference or remonstrance? You are bound to 
assume a position, the fanatical North calls upon you, the outraged, in- 
jured and gallant people of the South call upon you; the honor, the in- 
dependent States Rights men of Virginia call upon you, and you this 
day have to decide which voice you will obey. The Union is dissolved, it 
cannot be cemented again and made a Union by the spilling of blood. 
The independence of the Southern seceded States should be at once ac- 
knowledged; civil war and destruction should not wrap this land in 
flames, and internecine strife should not be forced upon us. 

Freemen of Harrison! This dark and bloody drama which Abra- 
ham Lincoln is desiring to open up before the country, the people of Vir- 
ginia by 

Prompt Action may avert; we invite you to meet with us in solemn 
assembly; let every man come to Clarksburg on 

Friday, the 26th. day of April to take counsel together and take 
such action as the circumstances then surrounding us may require. 

We do not propose to you to go to war, but we want the great heart 
of the people to beat audibly, as we know it does silently, responsive to 
our Southern sisters in this perilous hour of their sad calamity. We are 
opposed to coercion: — we deplore the necessity of revolution. We there- 
fore invite you to meet with us and say that no hostile force whose aim 
shall be the depredation of the South shall polute the soil of Virginia 
with impunity. 

Come one ! Come all ! We may, under the providence of the God 
of armies, make such a start that others may be induced to follow, or at 
least wipe out the stain and stigma of being looked upon as coereionists 
and the minions of the bloody crew who are preparing to destroy our 
homes, and, worse than all, the liberties of the Commonwealth." 

Pursuant to the above circular on April 26, 1861, a meeting was held 
at the Court House of those in favor of the State seceding from the 
Union, Ex-Governor Joseph Johnson was chairman and W. P. Cooper, 
Norval Lewis and W. F. Gordon secretaries. 

The meeting in a long preamble complained of the hostility of the 
Northern States towards the South and denounced in severe language 
the election of Abraham Lincoln as a sectional candidate and as one who 
had no other claim to public notice, than his opposition to all the South- 
ern States and his invention of the doctrine of an irrepressible conflict 
between the people of the North and those of the South. 

The meeting adopted a long series of Resolutions setting forth 
their views partly as follows: 

"Resolved, That we thoroughly approve the principles and actions 
of the General Assembly, the Convention and the Governor as herein- 
before set forth, we reprobate and detest the baneful principles and 
atrocious action of the despot at Washington who now exercises the power 
of a Military Emperor, and we solemnly pledge ourselves in this hour 
of trial and peril by our countenance, our suffrages and our persons 
devoted to the service to sustain our cherished State of Virginia in her 


determination to resist the concentrated despotism that threatens the free 
government and enlightened institutions of the Southern States : 

That we regard it our duty and we earnestly recommend that all 
citizens loyal to the commonwealth, should at once in the manner pre- 
scribed by the laws of the land, organize themselves into volunteer com- 
panies, procure arms and prepare themselves and stand ready to fight 
the battles of Virginia against her hostile foes. 

Resolved, That while we utterly condemn the proposition to divide 
the State, and in our utmost souls we loathe and abhor the diabolical 
manner in which it is proposed to effect it, and the degrading connection 
sought to be formed with a hostile State, and we would solemnly warn 
and fervently implore our fellow citizens to inform themselves, and 
think and reflect, for themselves, on this and other subjects of vital 
public importance and not allow themselves to be seduced by wicked 
and reckless men to their own infamy, the degredation of their families 
and the destruction of their country." 

The following is a copy of a circular issued by the Union men of 
Clarksburg calling a meeting for May 3, 1861: 
*'Men and Countrymen." 

The convention at Richmond has betrayed the trust reposed by us 
in it. It has usurped our rights and transferred our citizenship to the 
Southern Confederacy without our knowledge or consent, depriving us of 
the right to vote thereon. It has appointed members to the Montgomery 
Congress, for the purpose of subjugating us entirely to a Military des- 
potism; men holding the cannon and bayonet are to be our masters. If 
we wish to preserve our liberty let us assemble in Clarksburg on Friday 
the 3rd. of May to deliberate upon our dearest interest. ' ' 

Pursuant to the above call a large meeting was held at the Court 
House on May 3, 1861, which was addressed by Francis H. Pierpoint 
and by resolution. 

Denounced the Acts of the Richmond convention in adopting the 
constitution of the Southern Confederacy as unauthorized, tyrannical and 
done without the consent of the people of Virginia. 

Declared that they were for the integrity of the Federal Union in 
all its parts and would stand by the Stars and Stripes as the flag of 
their country. 

That Western Virginia had patiently submitted to the oppressions 
of Eastern Virginia for half a century, that if secession is the only 
remedy offered by her for all our wrongs, the day is near at hand when 
Western Virginia will rise in her strength and patriotism, repudiate 
her oppressors and remain under the flag the emblem of our nationality 
and greatness." 

The call of the Clarksburg convention to the people of North West- 
em Virginia to meet in Wheeling on the 13th. day of May met with a 


prompt and enthusiastic response, and the most discreet men of the 
several counties were selected to attend the meeting. 

The body met on the day fixed and after considerable discussion 
passed resolutions earnestly urging the voters to be prompt at the polls 
on May 23, and vote against the ratification of the ordinance of secession, 
and also to vote for a member of congress, which had been prohibited by 
the Richmond Convention, and also for State Senators and representatives. 

It was also recommended that in the event of the ordinance of 
secession being ratified by the votes of the people, that the counties 
represented in said meeting do on the 4th. day of June, appoint delegates 
to a convention to be held at such place as a committee should designate 
on June 11, 1861, to devise such measures and take such action as the 
safety and welfare of the people they represent, may demand. 

The election of the 23rd. of May 1861, resulted in the ratification of 
the ordinance of secession. Harrison County gave 694 votes for ratifica- 
tion and 1691 for rejection and elected John J. Davis and John C. Vance 
to the House of Delegates and cast a unanimous vote for John S. Carlile 
for Congress. The counties now composing West Virginia cast 44,000 
votes, of which 40,000 were against the ordinance. 

On the 4th. day of June the following delegates were selected to 
the Convention to meet at Wheeling on June 11th. by Harrison County, 
John J. Davis and John C. Vance members elect to the legislature, John 
S. Carlile, Solomon S. Fleming, Lot Bowen and Benjamin F. Shuttle- 

The convention met on the 11th. and on the 19th. of June passed 
an ordinance reorganizing the State government of Virginia in the inter- 
est of the Union, and on the 20th. elected Francis H. Pierpoint Governor, 
Daniel Polsley Lieutenant Governor and other State officers and ad- 
journed to meet on the 6th of August. 

The members of the Legislature of the Western Counties of Virginia 
who had been elected to meet in Richmond, assembled in Wheeling July 
1st. and proceeded regularly to transact business. On the 29th. they 
elected Waitman T. Willey and John S. Carlile United States Senators 
who were admitted to their seats, thus recognizing the re-organized gov- 

The convention reassembled on August the 6th. and on the 20th. 
passed an ordinance dividing the State, and directed that it be submitted 
to the people at an election to be held on the fourth Thursday in Octo- 

The election held in October 1861 to take the sense of the people 
on the question of creating a new state resulted favorably by a vote 
of 18,408 for and 781 against, delegates to a constitutional convention 
being elected at the same time. 

The constitution having been approved by the people, the President 


in accordance with the act of Congress issued his proclamation admitting 
the State of West Virginia into the Union of State on the 20th. day of 
June, 1863. 

As directed by the constitutional convention an election had been 
held in May 1863 for Governor, State officers and members of the Legis- 
lature so the new state took its place in the nation with all the machin- 
ery of government fully organized. 

Thus were the long cherished hopes of the people at last realized 
and although accomplished in the midst of the confusion incident to civil 
war, yet they had proceeded under well established precedents and 
based upon the will of the people. 

The years that have elapsed since that exciting period of her history 
has shown the wisdom of the course pursued, and from a comparative 
wilderness the mountain State has blossomed into a hive of industrial 
and agricultural prosperity and the future gives every promise, that, 
owing to her geographical position and natural resources, she will take 
a prominent position among her sister states in commercial and manufac- 
turing importance. 

"Child of the storm 

Bom midst the throes of war." 


Incorporated Towns. 

Settlement of Parkersburg. 

The commissioners for adjusting the claims to unpatented lands 
on the western waters for the County of Monongalia in the year 1781 
issued a certificate to Robert Thornton for 400 acres of land on the 
North Side of the Little "Kanaway River" to include his settlement made 
in 1773 with a preemption of 1000 acres adjoining. This entry included 
the land on which Parkersburg now stands. 

Thornton sold his land to Alexander Parker for whom the City 
of Parkersburg was named. 

Captain James Neal in the year 1785 came down the Ohio River in 
a flat boat from Pittsburg and located his homestead on the South side 
of the Little Kanawha River about one and a half miles from its 

Here he built a block house which was the rendezvous of the settlers 
along the Ohio River during the Indian troubles and "Neals Station 
as it was called was a celebrated locality on the frontier, and nobly did 
its part in aiding the pioneers to sustain themselves in a savage wilder- 
ness against the raids of the Indians from North of the Ohio. 

Captain James Neal was one of the early justices of Harrison County, 
was prominent in public affairs and had the entire confidence of the fron- 
tier. His descendants are still living in Parkersburg. 

Parkersburg, W. Va., November 25, 1893. 
Henry Raymond, Esq., 

Sir: — After sending my letter of yesterday I discovered an omission 
to answer your inquiry as to the origin of our City. You are aware I 
presume that the land of North Western Virginia was obtained by pur- 
chase of Treasury Warrant costing two cents per acre. 

"Before that system was adopted many persons got title by toma- 
hawk marks around the land they desired, which was the case with the 
land upon which our town was built. 

A man by the name of Thornton made an entry of that kind and sold 
his claim to a man by the name of Parker a resident of Chambersburg, 
Penna. for an old horse and one gallon of whiskey. 

He, Parker, gave it to a daughter. She married a man in Pittsburg, 


Pa. by the name of Robinson, who had it surveyed into lots and some 
time after sold to a company of our citizens for the sum of $8,000.00 
from which at small prices they realized quite a fortune. I purchased 
from the original owner 5 acres in the center of the town, then in a 
forest for which I paid $400.00, from which I realized $50,000 with a 
portion yet remaining. I state this to show you the great advance in the 
price of ground since I made the purchase. 

Truly yours, 

D. R. Neal." 


During the Indian troubles troops were frequently located at the 
present site of Salem to watch the trails leading from the Ohio River 
to the settlements on the West Fork River. 

A war trail led up Middle Island Creek and up Long Run, and this 
was considered an important station to observe the movements of the 
Indians in their raids on the frontier. 

Reminiscences of Salem in Pioneer Days by Isaac Fitz Randolph. 

The first settlement of Avhat is now Salem, Harrison County, West 
Virginia, was made before there was peace with the Indians. 

A colony of about forty families came from Salem, New Jersey. 
These families consisted of Lippincotts, Maxsons, Babcocks, Plumers, 
Randolphs and Davises. William seemed to be a very common name 
among them, but it was always Billy, such for instance as Bottom Billy, 
Greenbrier Billey and Jarsey Billy of the old settlers. In the next gen- 
eration there were Flint Billy, Buckeye Billy, Rockrun Billy and Little 
Billy. All of these I have seen and was personally acquainted with the 
most of them. 

The first thing these early settlers did was to build a block house 
for protection against the Indians. This was built on the high plat 
of ground between the turnpike and railroad, as they now are. East of 
the crossing toward Greenbrier. A town was laid out and called New 
Salem after the place from which they came. Each family built a cabin 
in the town around the block house, and took up a farm in the surround- 
ing valleys, some of which were several miles away. The next thing they 
did was to clear a piece of land for a crop. They went in Companies to 
do their work. Some stood with guns in hand watching for Indians while 
others cleared the ground, planted and tended the crops. 

They built a two story log church, with a gallery and a high box 
pulpit. A chimney was built in the middle with a fire place on each 
side, and the men and women sat apart, one sex in each end of the house. 
Later the chimney was torn down and a stove put in. The church stood 
where the S. D. Baptist church now is. They at first had logs for seats, 
and when they went to church the men took their guns and some stood 
to guard the worshippers from the Indians. 


"When the crops were raised they had no mills to grind their grain, 
but they made hand mills which answered for a time. My father's hand 
mill was sold at the sale after his death in 1843. After several years 
Bottom Billy Davis built a horse mill down on what is now known as 
the Homor farm. This mill was a great labor saving convenience. 

After peace was arranged with the Indians, my father, no longer 
needed as a spy, arranged to settle down to peaceful home life, and 
built a two story hewed log house on the east bank of Jacob's Run just 
south of the Alley that now leads to the Baptist church. When his house 
was built he married Mary, the daughter of Greenbrier Billy Davis, and 
took her to his new home. He lived there all the rest of his life and 
raised nine children, six sons and three daughters, of which I was the 
youngest and alone still live to tell the story. As the family grew large, 
another house was built back of the first. In this several of the children 
including myself, lived the first years of their married life. A little later 
I built the large log house in which Ralph Young lived until it burned 
three or four years ago. 

Wild game, such as deer, bear, turkey etc., was very plenty in those 
early days. Bears were so numerous and so fond of pork, that hogs 
could not be raised. The bears would go into the pens and kill them. 
But the people retaliated and took bear meat in the place of pork. 

My father and two other neighbors, being good hunters and having 
good dogs, made it a practice for a number of years to kill each fall sixty 
bears, twenty to a family. AVhen the game became scarce around Salem 
the hunters would camp out some distance from home. The hides of their 
game were dried, made into large rolls and carried on horse back over 
East of the mountains and there traded for salt, potmetal, tinware, etc. 

The people were healthy then living as they did on corn bread and 
bear meat, with rye coffee and sassafras and dittany tea. 

The old ladies were mainly their doctors using native herbs and other 
natural remedies. The orthodox remedy for the measles was what they 
called "sheepnanny tea," which they said soon brought out the measles, 
and in a few days the patient was allright. The sick were not killed with 
ice and strong poisonous drugs as so many are nowadays by the M. D.'s 
of the school. 

Times have changed. My father never wore a shoe until he was 
twelve years old. He would slide on the ice barefooted, but now a baby 
two months old is out of fashion if seen with bare feet. 

The young had but little education. My father felt this so keenly 
that after his first children were large enough to go to school and there 
was an opportunity to send them, he attended with them. He learned 
rapidly, became a good reader, wrote a plain neat hand and was good at 

We made our own sugar. We had an arch with four kettles in which 
the sap — we called it sugar water — was boiled. I remember one year we 
tapped a part of the sugar trees Sixthday the 7th. of March, and gath- 
ered the sugar water that day. The next day, being Sabbath, we gathered 
no water until after sundown. I boiled the water until two o'clock in 


the morning. This I did for two weeks every night except on Sabbath 
eve. In two weeks we made 525 pounds of sugar, some molasses and a 
barrel of beer. Some may not know how the beer was made. We would 
boil three barrels of sugar water into one. In one kettle we put sassafras, 
burdock root and spice brush ; into another a gallon of scorched meat. All 
was then put in a barrel and a gallon of yeast put into it. In twenty- 
four hours we would have beer that was delicious and healthy, not like 
the tanglefoot beer that they have now, which sets men so crazy that they 
get into the lock up, or go home and beat their wives and children. 

People dress very different now from what they did when I was a 
little fellow. Then the men wore leather pants, a blue hunting shirt with 
a belt around the waist and a large cape on the shoulders, all nicely 
trimmed with fringe. 

The little boys and girls wore nothing in the week days in summer 
but a tow and linen shirt that came down a little below the knees. On 
Sabbath the boys had a home made linen shirt, tow and linen pants, a 
calico jacket, a pair of moccasins and a coon skin cap. Then we were 
dressed for church. Things are different now. Then it took only eight 
yards of calico to make a lady's dress, and it was easily made in one day 
at home without a sewing machine. Now it takes twelve to fourteen 
yards of goods, a dressmaker about a week and several dollars to pay for 

The forests are cleared away; the game and the Indians have disap- 
peared. The old time friends have gone too. Few indeed remain to tell 
the story of ancient hardships, and these also will soon be silenced. 

Before I go I am glad to remind the present generation surrounded 
with all the comforts and advantages of modern life, of the obligations 
it is under to the sterling men and women of long ago." 

An Act chartering the town of New Salem, passed December 19, 1794 
is as follows: 

Be it enacted by the General Assembly: That the lots and streets 
as already laid off on the lands of Samuel Fitz Randolph in the County 
of Harrison, shall be and hereby are established a town by the name of 
New Salem, and John Patterson, John Davis, Samuel Lippincott, James 
Davis, Zebulon Maxson, Benjamin Thorp, Thomas Clayton, William Davis, 
Jacob Davis, George Jackson and John Haymond, Gentlemen, constitute 
and are appointed trustees thereof. 

Afterwards the town was regularly incorporated under the laws of 
the State, and on February 25, 1905, the Legislature passed an act 
entitled : 

"An Act to amend and re-enact and reduce into one act the several 
acts, provisions, orders and decrees incorporating the tOMTi of Salem, in 
the County of Harrison and State of West Virginia, defining the powers 
thereof, and describing the limits of said town, and incorporating the 
city of Salem in said Harrison County." 

The corporate limits of the town is described as covering about 800 
acres and is divided into three wards. This charter is still in force 



Joseph Davisson, it is claimed, first settled upon the land on which 
Bridgeport now stands. 

The exact date of his building his cabin is not known, as the entry 
omits the date. The certificate from the Commissioners of unpatented 
lands, which was issued to him at Clarksburg in 1781, states that as 
the assignee of Benjamin Coplin, he is entitled to 400 acres in ]\[onon- 
galia County, on Simpson's Creek, adjoining lands of James Anderson, 
with a preemption of 1000 acres of land adjoining thereto. 

As James Anderson, Andrew Davisson, John Wilkinson and John 
Powers all took up lands immediately surrounding Bridgeport during 
the years 1771 to 1774, it is presumed that Joseph Davisson joined the 
settlement about that time. 

Mr. Benjamin Stout the oldest resident n':^ar Bridge))ort says that 
Joseph Davisson was one of the first settlers near Bridgeport, and owned 
what was known as the Coplin farm, and the town was located on his 

Among the early residents of the town he recalls Governor -Joseph 
Johnson, Jedediah Goff, Charles Houser, Polly Anderson, William Black, 
Dr. David Davisson, Isaac Tyson and John Carpenter, Post Master. 

The Circuit Court in an order entered March 21, 1887, sets forth that 
Jasper N. Wilkinson, Thomas H. Kenney and J. B. Martin, who reside 
in Bridgeport, have caused an accurate map and survey to be made of 
the territory in Harrison County to be incorporated as the town of 
Bridgeport, and it appearing that at an election held at the office of D. D. 
Wilkinson on the 28th. of February, 1887, a majority of tbe qualified 
voters within said territory voted in favor of such incorporation, and 
that all the provisions of Chapter 47 of the Code of West Virginia have 
been complied with, the said town is duly incorporated under sa-d chap- 

Thomas H. Kinney, David D. Wilkinson and C. W. Johnson were 
appointed commissioners to hold the first election for officers of said 

The act originally establishing the town of Bridgeport was passed 
January 15, 1816, provided: 

That fifteen acres of land the property of Joseph Johnson at Simp- 
son's Creek bridge in Harrison County as soon as the same be laid off 
into lots with convenient streets, be established a towm by the name 
of Bridgeport and that Benjamin Coplin, Mathias Winters, Peter Link, 
John Davisson, David Coplin, Jedediah Waldo and Joseph Johnson be 
and they are hereby appointed trustees thereof. 


The land upon which Shinnston now stands was first occupied by 
members of the Shinn family, who were Quakers from New Jersey. 

The pioneer -was Levy Shinn, who acording to the land records 


located 400 acres on the "West Fork River adjoining lands of John Wood 
to include his settlement made in the year 1773 with a preemption right 
to 1000 acres adjoining. 

Levy it appears did not remove his family to his homestead for a 
year or two after making his location. 

Shortly after doing so he was joined by several members of his 
family including two brothers, Clement and Jonathan. There is a family 
tradition that Levy's lands lay West and South of Shinn's Run. 

Jonathan's extended from the mouth of this run, down the river 
to the South and East, covering the present site of Shinnston, and that 
Clement's holdings lay South of Jonathan's on a stream called Middle 

Jonathan willed the land covering the present site of Shinnston to 
his son Levy, who built the first house in 1802, which is still, 1909, 

The first child bom in the new settlement was Asa Shinn. The Act 
of the Legislature establishing the town of Shinnston passed January 
22, 1818, enacted. 

That the lots and streets as already laid off on the lands of Asa and 
Levi Shinn on the West Fork of the Monongahela river in the County of 
Harrison, be established a towTti by the name of Shinnston, and that John 
Righter, Davis Wamsley, Samuel Shinn, J ohn D. Lucas, Benjamin 
Wood, Joseph Wilson and Jeremiah Roby, Gentlemen, be and they are 
hereby appointed trustees thereof. 

By an act passed May 26, 1852, Shinnston was incorporated, and the 
voters were authorized to elect seven trustees with the usual powers of 
such officers. 

The Act was not to take effect until ratified by a majority of the 
voters of the town, and was to include the town "as the same has here- 
tofore been laid off into lots, streets and alleys." 

During the war this charter was allowed to lapse and a new one 
was procured in 1877. 

The Circuit Court on June 4, 1877, issued an order incorporating 
the town of Shinnston under chapter 47 of the code and appointed Albert 
Shinn, James Jackson and M. J. Ogden, commissioners to hold the first 
election for officers of said town. 

The inhabitants of Shinnston and vicinity have always been noted 
for their sturdy independence of character and pronounced views of pub- 
lic questions. This is sho'wai by their anti-slavery views at a time when 
to be an "abolitionist" was considered a reproach by a great majority 
of the people of Virginia. 

In the Presidential election in 1860, Abraham Lincoln, who repre- 
sented the opposition to slavery, received twenty-two votes in the County, 
twenty of which were cast at Shinnston and two at Clarksburg. 

In the stirring events following the election of Mr. Lincoln, a large 
meeting was held in Shinnston and by patriotic resolutions took strong 
ground in favor of the Union and against secession. 

In the movement to divide the State they bore a prominent part and 


contributed much by their influence to its success in the County. The 
immediate neighborhood furnished about fifty soldiers to the Union 

Town of Miles End. 

In 1809 John G, Jackson constructed a grist mill on Elk Creek 
at the mouth of Murphy's Run near the present village of Industrial, 
and added other factories until quite a town had sprung up. 

"An Act of the Legislature passed February 12, 1814, set forth 
"That fifty acres of land at his factory on Elk Creek about one mile 
from Clarksburg, the property of John G. Jackson of the County of Har- 
rison, so soon as the same shall be laid off into lots with convenient 
streets, be established a town by the name of "Miles End" and that 
Stephen Dix, Isaac Coplin, John Sleeth, Thomas Synnet, William Gillas, 
Samuel E. Davisson and Oliver Phelps, Gentlemen, be and they be 
hereby appointed trustees thereof, &c." 

It is not known how long the town had a legal status but for many 
years it was called the "Factory" after the various enterprises had been 
abandoned. The last surviving building of the town was torn dowTi in 
July, 1907, to make way for a more pretentious dwelling, after standing 
for nearly a century. 

The Legislature on the same date as the above act enacted. That it 
shall be lawful for John G. Jackson and he is hereby authorized and em- 
powered to erect and work cotton, woolen, carding and spinning machines, 
fulling and Oil Mills at his dam on Elk Creek in the County of Harri- 
son, which was heretofore established by the County Court for a water 
grist mill. 

Besides the factories stated, Judge Jackson also established a furnace 
to smelt iron from ore and also a foundry at Miles End. The great 
scarcity of ore however caused this latter enterprise to fail. Many pits 
can still be found in the vicinity of Clarksburg made while digging for 
ore. He also built a dam two miles above on the creek, long knoA^Ti as 
the Hugil ford, and constructed a forge run by water power to work the 
iron smelted at his furnace. 

It will thus be seen that Miles End was the scene of many enter- 
prises and great business activities, but not a vestige now remains of 
these except that the bed of the mill race can still be traced. 

June 21, 1814. 

John G. Jackson filed a petition in the County Court, setting forth 
that at the October Term, 1809, the Court had granted him the per- 
mission to erect a dam in Elk Creek at the mouth of Murphy's Run, 
five feet high, to work a water grist mill. 

The dam has been built five feet high, a race has been dug a considerable 
distance, has constructed a large three story house 58 x 32 feet square, and 
has therein in operation two water wheels, whereby are driven a grist 
mill, oil mill. Fulling Mill, Carding machine and turning machine. That 


he is now preparing and procuring other carding machines, spinning 
machinery to go by water, and divers other valuable machinery calcu- 
lated to be of public utility, and that he is for that purpose constructing 
two other large water wheels and intends to increase their number pro- 
vided he can obtain the necessary privileges. 

That the Legislature by two acts passed at their last session to en- 
courage the objects of your petitioner authorized him to drive the ma- 
chinery by water above mentioned, exclusive of the grist mill, although 
the establishment was for that sole object originally, and to lay out a 
town at his factory. 

But your petitioner finds that the head of five feet in his dam is 
insufficient to supply water and give the force requisite to drive his 
various machinery. 

Asks for permission to raise his dam eighteen inches higher. 

The Mill pond passes through the land owned by David Davisson, 
John Hite, James Nutter and Stephen Dicks. 

Judge Jackson at one time contemplated bringing the waters of the 
Buckhannon River down Elk Creek in order to increase the water power. 

West Milford. 

The land upon which "West Millford now stands was conveyed in 
1807 to Jesse Lowther by George Bush, the tract containing 130 acres. 

In 1817 Jesse Lowther conveyed two acres along the river to Samuel 
Clemens and Jacob Romine, on which was erected a mill long known 
as Clemens Mill, and near it the little village gradually clustered. 

An Act establishing the town of Millford was passed January 15, 
1821, and provided, 

That ten acres of land on the "West Fork river the property of Jesse 
Lowther in the County of Harrison as the same is already laid off into 
lots and convenient streets, shall be established a town by the name of 
Millford, and that Robert Lowther, Jacob Coplin and Robert Maxwell, 
Gentlemen, be and they are hereby appointed trustees thereof. 

The name of the town was afterwards changed to "West Millford 
owing to there being another town of the name of Millford in "Vir- 

On January 22, 1885, the Circuit Court of Harrison County entered 
an order incorporating the town under the laws of the State by the name 
of "West Millford, partially as follows: 

"A certificate under oath of Rufus Holden, James A. Clark and 
Richard "W. Stonestreet was this day filed showing that a majority 
of all the qualified voters residing in the described boundaries, containing 
160 acres, have been given in due form of law in favor of the incorpor- 
ation of the town of "West Milford in the County of Harrison, bound 
as herein set forth." 

The order proceeded to authorize the town within the limits set forth 
to be duly incorporated and to exercise all the corporate powers 
conferred by the existing laws of the State. And Oliver Johnson, C. "W. 


Helmick and Charles E. Stonestreet were appointed commissioners of 
election at the first election to be held in said town of West Millford, af- 
ter the certificate of incorporation shall be issued by the Clerk of the said 

The town is now, 1909, still acting under this incorporation. 


It appears from an order of the Circuit Court of Harrison County- 
entered on the 18th. day of September 1901 on the chancery side thereof 
that a certificate under oath of G. D. Griffin, E. D. McCarty and J. W. 
Wadsworth was filed that day showing that a majority of